Animals and Society

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-09-23
  • Publisher: Columbia Univ Pr

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Human--animal studies explores human--animal relations and the place of animals within human social and cultural worlds. Considering that much of human society is structured through its interaction with non-human animals, and since human society relies heavily on the exploitation of animals to serve human needs, human--animal studies has become a rapidly expanding field of research, featuring a number of distinct positions, perspectives, and theories that require nuanced explanation and contextualization. The first textbook to provide a full overview of human--animal studies for students, general readers, and scholars, this volume focuses on the conceptual construction of animals in American culture and the way in which it reinforces and perpetuates hierarchical human relationships rooted in racism, sexism, and class privilege. Margo DeMello considers interactions between humans and animals within the family, the law, the religious and political system, and other major social institutions, and she unpacks the different identities humans fashion for themselves and for others through animals. DeMello also covers speciesism and evolutionary continuities; the role and preservation of animals in the wild; the debate over zoos and the use of animals in sports; domestication; agricultural practices such as factory farming; vivisection; animal cruelty; animal activism; the representation of animals in literature and film; and animal ethics. Sidebars in each chapter highlight contemporary controversies and issues, with recommendations for additional reading, educational films, and related websites. DeMello concludes with an analysis of major philosophical positions on human social policy and the future of human--animal relations.

Author Biography

Margo Demello teaches anthropology and sociology at Central New Mexico Community College. Her books include Speaking for Animals: Animal Autobiographical Writing, Teaching the Animal: Human-Animal Studies Across the Disciplines; Stories Rabbits Tell: A Natural and Cultural History of a Misunderstood Creature; and Why Animals Matter: The Case for Animal Protection.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Constructing Animals: Animal Categoriesp. 1
Human-Animal Studiesp. 3
What Is Human-Animal Studies?p. 4
History of HASp. 7
Human-Animal Studies as a Way of Seeingp. 9
Where Are Animals?p. 11
Defining the Animalp. 15
Understanding Animals and Their Usesp. 17
Methodological Problemsp. 18
Theoretical Starting Pointsp. 20
Real-World Implications of Human-Animal Studiesp. 26
Coming to Animal Studies, by Susan McHughp. 29
Animal-Human Bordersp. 32
Animals and Humans: The Great Divide?p. 32
Non-Western Understandingsp. 33
Speciesism and the Rise of the Human-Animal Borderp. 36
Evolution and the Continuity Between the Speciesp. 41
The Social Construction of Animalsp. 44
Biological Systems of Classificationp. 46
Other Systems of Classificationp. 47
How Does One Become a Certain Type of Animal?p. 49
The Sociozoologic Scalep. 50
A New System of Classificationp. 54
The Joy of Chickens, by Annie Pottsp. 56
Using Animals: Human-Animal Economiesp. 61
Animals "in the Wild" and in Human Societiesp. 63
Animals and Humans in the Paleolithic Erap. 64
Subsistence Hunting and the Human-Animal Relationshipp. 66
From Subsistence to Sportp. 68
Colonial Expansion and Animalsp. 69
Controversies Surrounding Subsistence Huntingp. 71
Modern Relationships with Wildlife: Hunting and Conservationp. 72
Human-Wildlife Conflictsp. 75
The Colonial Animal, by Walter Putnamp. 81
The Domestication of Animalsp. 84
History of Domesticationp. 84
Results of Domesticationp. 88
Altering the Animal Bodyp. 90
Is Domestication Good or Bad?p. 94
Coming to Animals, by Molly Mullinp. 96
Display, Performance, and Sportp. 99
Why Do We Watch Animals?p. 99
Zoosp. 101
Marine Mammal Parksp. 107
The Public Reaction to Zoos and Marine Mammal Parksp. 109
Circusesp. 112
Animal Racingp. 115
Animal Fightingp. 118
Alternative Ways of Watching Animalsp. 119
Working from Within: An Ethnographer in Human-Animal Worlds, by Garry Marvinp. 123
The Making and Consumption of Meatp. 126
Meat Taboosp. 127
How Animals Become Meatp. 129
Meat Consumption in the Pastp. 131
Modern Meat Productionp. 132
Why We Eat Meat: The Political Economy of Agribusinessp. 136
Slaughterhouse Workersp. 139
Cultural Implications of Modern Meat Production and Consumptionp. 140
Ethics and Meat Eatingp. 142
The Pet Animalp. 146
What Makes a Pet a Pet?p. 147
The Rise of Pet Keepingp. 150
The Development of the Modern Pet Industryp. 152
Why We Keep Petsp. 154
The Human-Pet Relationshipp. 155
Love and Griefp. 157
Development of Humane Attitudes Through Petsp. 159
Contradictory Attitudes Toward Petsp. 161
Pets and Dominationp. 162
Helping People, Helping Pets: Working with VET SOS, by Cheryl Josephp. 167
Animals and Sciencep. 170
The History of Vivisectionp. 171
The Scope of Animal Research and Testingp. 174
Environmental Enrichmentp. 178
Animals as Stand-Ins for Humansp. 179
The Social Construction of the Lab Animalp. 180
The History of the Anti-Vivisection Movementp. 183
Alternatives to Animal Research and Testingp. 186
The Battle Over Animal Research Todayp. 189
Animal-Assisted Activitiesp. 194
Animals as Human Assistantsp. 194
Working Animals Todayp. 198
Assistance Animalsp. 201
Animal-Assisted Therapyp. 204
The Human-Animal Bond: Benefits to Humansp. 207
What About Benefits to Animals?p. 209
The Healing Gifts of Animals: Animal-Assisted Therapy, by Cynthia Kay Chandlerp. 211
Attitudes Toward Animalsp. 215
Working with Animalsp. 217
Ethnographic Fieldworkp. 218
People Who Work with Animalsp. 219
Animal Rescue Volunteersp. 221
Shelter Workers and Veterinariansp. 223
Ranchersp. 227
Laboratory Workersp. 228
Slaughterhouse Workersp. 230
Working with People Who Work with Animals, by Clinton Sandersp. 233
Violence to Animalsp. 236
Institutionalized Violence to Animalsp. 237
Culture-Specific Violencep. 240
Deviant Violencep. 242
The Link Between Violence to Animals and Violence to Humansp. 245
Domestic Violence and Animal Abusep. 248
Treatment and Preventionp. 250
Legislationp. 251
AniCare: Treating Animal Abuse, by Kenneth Shapirop. 254
Human Oppression and Animal Sufferingp. 256
Interlinked Systems of Exploitationp. 256
The Roots of Oppressionp. 257
Othering and Essentializingp. 258
Sexism and Speciesismp. 261
Racism, Slavery, the Holocaust, and Animal Exploitationp. 265
What Is the Problem with Comparisons?p. 268
Racism and Animal Advocacyp. 269
Capitalism and the Expansion of Oppressionp. 272
Connecting the Dots: Legitimating Oppressions, by David Nibertp. 277
Imagining Animals: Animals as Symbolp. 281
Animals in Human Thoughtp. 283
The Use of Animals in Human Languagep. 284
Animals as Symbolsp. 287
Animals in Artworkp. 290
Mirrors for Human Identitiesp. 296
Animals and the Creative Arts, by Carol Gigliottip. 298
Animals in Religion and Folklorep. 301
Animals in Religious Thoughtp. 301
Animal Talesp. 306
Animal-Human Transformationsp. 308
Religious Symbolismp. 311
Animal Cultsp. 313
Sacrificial Lambsp. 316
Communities of Faith and the Ethical Treatment of Animalsp. 319
What Do Animals and Religion Have to Do with Each Other? by Laura Hobgood-Osterp. 322
Animals in Literature and Filmp. 325
Animals in Literaturep. 326
Animals in Children's Literaturep. 329
Talking Animalsp. 332
Animals in Film and TVp. 333
The Internet Is Made of Catsp. 338
Literary Animal Encounters, by Philip Armstrongp. 342
Knowing and Relating to Animals: Animal Behavior and Animal Ethicsp. 347
Animal Behavior Studies and Ethologyp. 349
History of Animal Behavior Studiesp. 349
Animal Behavior Studies and Reductionismp. 353
The Rise of Modern Ethologyp. 355
Anthropomorphismp. 357
Animal Intelligencep. 359
Animal Emotionsp. 362
Animal Languagep. 365
The Animal Selfp. 370
Doing and Saying in Play Between Dogs and People, by Robert W. Mitchellp. 374
The Moral Status of Animalsp. 377
History of Philosophical Debates on Animalsp. 378
Ethical Humanism and the Rights of Animalsp. 383
Peter Singer and Utilitarianismp. 386
Tom Regan and Animal Rightsp. 387
Other Approachesp. 388
The Morality of Awareness, by Kathie Jennip. 393
The Animal Protection Movementp. 396
Conserving Naturep. 396
The Movement's Precursorsp. 398
The Animal Rights Movement: The First Wavep. 402
The Animal Rights Movement: The Second Wavep. 406
The Modern Animal Rights Movementp. 407
Demographics: Who Becomes an Animal Rights Activist?p. 411
Place of the Movement in Contemporary Societyp. 416
The Future of the Human-Animal Relationshipp. 419
Bibliographyp. 423
Indexp. 459
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