Art since 1940 : Strategies of Being

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1994-11-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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In Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being, Jonathan Fineberg presents the art of the last six decades of our century as a series of responses, made by exceptional men and women, to the conditions of life in baffling and chaotic times. This Second Edition includes a whole new chapter on the 1990s and augmented sections earlier in the book. The year 1940 marks a defining moment in 20th-century art, when many artists of the European avant-garde moved en masse to New York. The city was instantly transformed into the art capital of the world, triggering radical changes of direction as artists, both immigrant and American-born, struggled with the reshuffled facts of their existence. For these artists, says Fineberg, making art was -- as it continues to be for artists today -- a strategy of coming to terms with their moment in history. This book helps us understand these "strategies of being" of the greatest postwar artists, and by extension other artists both well-known and little celebrated. Professor Fineberg focuses on artists' lives and how they intersected with broader cultural issues. Individual artists looked at indepth include Calder, Hofmann, Gorky, Motherwell, de Kooning, Pollock, Newman, Rothko, David Smith, Dubuffet, Giacometti, Bacon, Rauschenberg, Oldenburg, Johns, Beuys, Klein, Warhol, Rosenquist, Westermann, Arneson, Hesse, Nauman, Christo, Polke, Richter, Guston, Bearden, Aycock, Kiefer, Clemente, Borofsky, Basquiat, and Wojnarowicz.

Author Biography

Jonathan Fineberg has taught at Yale, Harvard, and Columbia Universities and is now Professor of Art History at the University of Illinois.

Table of Contents

Foreword to the Second Editionp. 10
Acknowledgmentsp. 11
Prefacep. 13
Introductionp. 14
Approaching Art as a Mode of Thoughtp. 14
The Concept of the Avant-Gardep. 16
The Critical Point of View of this Bookp. 18
New York in the Fortiesp. 20
New York Becomes the Centerp. 20
Surrealismp. 20
American Pragmatism and Social Relevancep. 24
The Depression and the Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.)p. 26
The Availability of European Modernismp. 28
The Europeans in New Yorkp. 30
The Sense of a New Movement in New Yorkp. 31
Commonalities and Differences Among the Artists of the New York Schoolp. 32
Automatism and Action in the Art of the New York Schoolp. 34
Action and Existentialismp. 35
Clyfford Stillp. 38
Adolph Gottliebp. 38
Franz Klinep. 39
Friends in and around the New York Schoolp. 39
A Dialog with Europep. 42
Alexander Calderp. 42
Calder's Early Life and Themesp. 42
Calder in Parisp. 45
Cosmic Imagery and the Mobilesp. 46
Hans Hofmannp. 52
Stylistic Lessons from Europep. 52
Hofmann's Art Theoryp. 54
Hofmann's Paintingp. 55
Arshile Gorkyp. 59
Gorky's Life (Real and Imagined)p. 59
The Development of Gorky's Stylep. 61
Gorky's Late Worksp. 65
Robert Motherwellp. 67
Intellectual Affinities with the European Modernsp. 68
Recurring Themes in Motherwell's Workp. 69
Teaching, Writing, and Editing in Motherwell's Early Careerp. 69
Motherwell's Paintingp. 70
Willem de Kooningp. 74
De Kooning's Training and Early Careerp. 76
The Dissolution of Anatomy into Abstractionp. 77
The Anatomical Forms Dissolve into Brushstrokesp. 80
De Kooning's Abstractions of the Fiftiesp. 84
The "Women" of the Sixties and the Late Worksp. 84
Existentialism Comes to the Forep. 86
Jackson Pollockp. 86
Pollock's Early Life and Influencesp. 86
Pollock's Breakthrough of the Early Fortiesp. 89
Pollock's Transition to a Pure Gestural Stylep. 90
The Dripped and Poured Canvasesp. 92
Pollock in the Fiftiesp. 97
Barnett Newmanp. 98
The Revelation of Newman's Onement 1p. 100
The Paintings of the Late Fortiesp. 102
Vir Heroicus Sublimis and Other Works of the Fiftiesp. 103
The "Stations of the Cross"p. 106
Mark Rothkop. 106
Rothko's Formative Yearsp. 107
Turning to Classical Mythp. 108
Surrealism, Psychoanalysis, and "the Spirit of Myth"p. 109
"Heroifying" the Ineffablep. 111
The Murals and Other Late Workp. 113
David Smith and the Sculpture of the New York Schoolp. 115
Smith's Initiation into the Art Worldp. 116
The Aesthetic of Machines and the Unconciousp. 118
The Pictograms and Hudson River Landscapep. 121
An Existential Encounter with the Materials at Handp. 121
Career Success and Personal Sacrificesp. 122
The Figural Presence and the Work of the Last Decadep. 123
The New European Masters of the Late Fortiesp. 128
Jean Dubuffet and Postwar Parisp. 128
Dubuffet's Painting of the Fortiesp. 131
Dubuffet's Philosophical Premisesp. 132
A Focus on Matter in the Fiftiesp. 135
A Grand Style of Entropyp. 137
The Existentialist Figuration of alberto Giacomettip. 138
Francis Baconp. 142
Some International Tendencies of the Fiftiesp. 148
Purified Abstractionp. 148
An Encounter with the Physicality of the Materials in Europep. 148
A Material Reading of Action Painting in New Yorkp. 153
Greenberg's Definition of Modernismp. 154
The Greenberg Schoolp. 154
Formalist Paintingp. 156
"New Images of Man" in Europe and Americap. 160
The Cobrap. 160
The Figurative Revival of the Fiftiesp. 162
Figurative Painting in the Bay Areap. 169
Existential Imagist Art in Chicagop. 170
The Beat Generation: The Fifties in Americap. 172
"A Coney Island of the Mind"p. 172
John Cagep. 174
Merce Cunninghamp. 175
The Cage "Event" of 1952p. 176
Gutaip. 176
Robert Rauschenbergp. 177
The Self as a Mirror of Lifep. 177
Rauschenberg's Early Careerp. 178
The Combine Paintingsp. 181
The Drawings for Dante's Infernop. 183
The End of the Combinesp. 183
The Silkscreen Paintingsp. 184
Performance and the Prints of the Later Sixtiesp. 187
Appropriating the Real: Junk Sculpture and Happeningsp. 188
Junkp. 188
The Genesis of the Happeningsp. 188
The Judson Dance Theaterp. 193
Fluxusp. 193
Walk-in Paintingsp. 193
Claes Oldenburgp. 197
The "Cold Existentialism" of the "Ray Gun" and The Streetp. 197
The Store Daysp. 198
Soft Sculpturep. 199
Proposals for Monumentsp. 202
Realizing Monuments and Architectural Scalep. 203
Jasper Johnsp. 206
"Nature" Is How We Describe Itp. 206
Painting as a Discourse on Languagep. 206
An Aesthetic of "Found" Expressionp. 208
Emotion and Distancep. 209
Incorporating Objects: What One Sees and What One Knowsp. 209
The Paintings of 1959p. 210
The New Emotional Tone of the Early Sixtiesp. 213
Explorations of Linguistic Philosophyp. 213
Diver of 1962p. 215
Periscope (Hart Crane)p. 216
The Perceptual Complexity of Lookingp. 217
The Hatch Mark Paintingsp. 217
Dropping the Reservep. 220
The European Vanguard of the Later Fiftiesp. 222
Nouveau Realismep. 222
Yves Klein's Romanticismp. 222
Le Videp. 224
The "Living Brush"p. 224
Seeking Immaterialityp. 226
Klein's Demisep. 228
The Nouveaux Realistesp. 230
Joseph Beuysp. 231
Revealing the Animism in Naturep. 232
The Artist as Shamanp. 233
Art as the Creative Life of the Mindp. 234
British Pop: From the Independent Group to David Hockneyp. 237
Key Figures of the Independent Groupp. 237
The Exhibitionsp. 237
Paolozzi and Hamilton as Artistsp. 239
Reintegrating Popular Imagery into High Artp. 240
David Hockneyp. 241
The Landscape of Signs: American Pop Art 1960 to 1965p. 244
The Electronic Consciousness and New York Popp. 244
A Turning Point in Theoryp. 244
Events that Shaped the Popular Consciousnessp. 246
Collaging Reality on Pop Art's Neutral Screen of Imagesp. 246
Andy Warholp. 250
Warhol's Backgroundp. 251
Selecting Non-Selectivityp. 251
Eliminating the Artist's Touchp. 253
A Terrifying Emptinessp. 253
The Factory Scenep. 256
Business Art and the "Shadows" that Linger Behind Itp. 257
Roy Lichtensteinp. 259
James Rosenquistp. 261
H.C. Westermann, Peter Saul, and the Hairy Whop. 267
H.C. Westermannp. 267
Peter Saulp. 270
The Hairy Whop. 272
West Coast Popp. 277
Funk Artp. 277
Peter Voulkosp. 280
The Politicized Cultural Climate of the Sixtiesp. 281
William Wileyp. 281
Ed Kienholzp. 283
L.A. Popp. 283
Robert Arnesonp. 286
Arneson's Break with Conventional Ceramicsp. 286
The Toiletsp. 287
A Technical Breakthroughp. 287
Objects of the Mid Sixtiesp. 289
The Self-Portraitsp. 289
Discovering a Political Voicep. 291
Introspection via Pollockp. 291
In the Nature of Materials: The Later Sixtiesp. 294
Back to First Principles--Minimal Artp. 294
Frank Stellap. 297
Donald Juddp. 299
Tony Smithp. 300
Carl Andrep. 301
Dan Flavinp. 303
Robert Morrisp. 304
Sol LeWittp. 306
The Los Angeles Light and Space Movementp. 307
Object/Concept/Illusion in Paintingp. 309
A Focus on Surface Handling in Paintingp. 310
Eva Hesse and Investigations of Materials and Processp. 311
Eva Hessep. 312
The Direct Sensuality of Fiberglass and Latexp. 313
Bruce Nauman and Richard Serrap. 316
Bruce Naumanp. 316
Richard Tuttle and Richard Serrap. 318
Artists Working in the Landscapep. 323
Michael Heizerp. 323
Walter De Mariap. 326
Robert Smithsonp. 327
An Accidental Rubricp. 331
Arte Povera, and a Persevering Rapport with Nature in Europep. 332
Politics and Postmodernism: The Transition to the Seventiesp. 338
Re-Radicalizing the Avant-Gardep. 338
The Critical Atmosphere of the Late Sixtiesp. 338
Language and Measurep. 340
Art from Naturep. 342
Vito Acconci: Defining a Conceptual Oeuvrep. 346
Body Artp. 347
Ana Mendietap. 349
Lygia Clark and Helio Oiticicap. 349
Performance Artp. 351
Nam June Paik's Electronic Naturep. 352
Direct Political Commentp. 354
Marcel Broodthaersp. 354
Situationismp. 356
The Potential for Broader Political Actionp. 356
Christo and Jeanne-Claudep. 356
Art in the Theater of Real Eventsp. 356
The Shift to an Architectural Scalep. 360
The Logistics of the Projectsp. 363
The Surrounded Islandsp. 363
Christo and Jeanne-Claude in the Ninetiesp. 364
Postmodernismp. 365
Sigmar Polkep. 365
Gerhard Richterp. 371
John Baldessarip. 374
Surviving the Corporate Culture of the Seventiesp. 376
A New Pluralismp. 376
Art and Feminismp. 381
Photography in the Mainstreamp. 384
A Dazzling Photorealismp. 384
Entering the Real Spacep. 387
Public Sitesp. 389
Appropriated Sites: Charles Simondsp. 392
Gordon Matta-Clark's Site Critiquesp. 392
The Complexity That Is Culturep. 393
Romare Beardenp. 394
Bearden's Collages of the Sixtiesp. 395
Alice Aycockp. 398
Metaphor Replaces Physicality in Aycock's Work of the Eightiesp. 401
Philip Guston's Late Stylep. 405
Guston's Early Careerp. 405
Guston's Action Paintings of the Fiftiesp. 408
The Reemergence of the Figurep. 408
Painting at the End of the Seventiesp. 414
New Expressionist Painting in Europep. 414
Jorg Immendorff's Political Analysis of Paintingp. 416
Grappling with Identityp. 417
Georg Baselitz and A.R. Penckp. 418
Anselm Kieferp. 420
Italian Neo-Expressionismp. 424
Francesco Clementep. 425
The Internationalization of Neo-Expressionismp. 426
The Peculiar Case of the Russiansp. 428
Ilya Kabakovp. 430
New Imagist Painting and Sculpturep. 433
Elizabeth Murrayp. 439
The Origins of Murray's Stylep. 440
Pursuing the Logic of the Shaped Canvasp. 440
The Eightiesp. 444
A Fresh Look at Abstractionp. 444
American Neo-Expressionismp. 448
Jonathan Borofskyp. 452
Graffiti Artp. 454
Keith Haringp. 455
The East Village Scene of the Eightiesp. 457
Jean-Michel Basquiatp. 457
David Wojnarowiczp. 459
Post-Modern Installationp. 463
Ann Hamiltonp. 464
Appropriationp. 466
Cindy Shermanp. 470
The Aesthetic of Consumerismp. 471
Political Appropriationp. 474
New Tendencies of the Ninetiesp. 478
Return to the Bodyp. 478
Transgressing Body Boundariesp. 482
The Academy of the Avant Gardep. 484
Cultural Identityp. 484
New Uses of the Camerap. 488
Art as Controversyp. 490
Fashionp. 493
Slippage: Pop Culture and Romantic Naturep. 496
Postmodern Conceptualismp. 499
Constructing the Postmodern Selfp. 500
To Say the Things That Are One's Ownp. 504
Bibliographyp. 506
Notesp. 512
Indexp. 523
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

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