The Art of Systems Architecting, Third Edition

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-01-06
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Extensively rewritten to reflect the latest developments, this text explains how to create a system from scratch, presenting invention/design rules together with clear explanations of how to use them. The author supplies practical guidelines for avoiding common systematic failures while implementing new mandates. He uses a heuristics-based approach that provides an organized attack on very ill-structured engineering problems. Examining architecture as more than a set of diagrams and documents, but as a set of decisions that either drive a system to success or doom it to failure, the book provide methods for integrating business strategy with technical architectural decision making.Multi/Card Deck Copy

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
A Brief Review of Classical Architecting Methodsp. 1
Notesp. 4
Extending the Architecting Paradigmp. 5
Introduction: The Classical Architecting Paradigmp. 5
Responding to Complexityp. 5
The High Rate of Advances in the Computer and Information Sciencesp. 7
The Foundations of Modern Systems Architectingp. 8
The Architecture Paradigm Summarizedp. 19
The Waterfall Model of Systems Acquisitionp. 20
Spirals, Increments, and Collaborative Assemblyp. 23
Scopes of Architectingp. 25
Conclusionp. 27
Notes and Referencesp. 27
Heuristics as Toolsp. 29
Introduction: A Metaphorp. 29
Heuristics as Abstractions of Experiencep. 30
Selecting a Personal Kit of Heuristic Toolsp. 31
Using Heuristicsp. 34
A Process Framework for Architecting Heuristicsp. 35
Heuristics on Heuristicsp. 38
A Taxonomy of Heuristicsp. 39
New Directionsp. 41
Conclusionp. 41
Notes and Referencesp. 42
New Domains, New Insights
DC-3p. 47
The Historyp. 47
Architecture Interpretationp. 51
Three Story Variationsp. 51
Was the Boeing 247 Successfully Architected?p. 52
What Is the "Architecture" of the DC-3?p. 53
Art Raymond's Principlesp. 53
Notes and Referencesp. 55
Builder-Architected Systemsp. 57
Introduction: The Form-First Paradigmp. 57
Technological Substitutions within Existing Systemsp. 59
Consequences of Uncertainty of End Purposep. 61
Architecture and Competitionp. 61
Reducing the Risks of Uncertainty of End Purposep. 63
Risk Management by Intermediate Goalsp. 64
The "What Next?" Quandaryp. 65
Controlling the Critical Features of the Architecturep. 66
Abandonment of an Obsolete Architecturep. 67
Creating Innovative Teamsp. 68
Architecting "Revolutionary" Systemsp. 70
Systems Architecting and Basic Researchp. 72
Heuristics for Architecting Technology-Driven Systemsp. 73
Conclusionp. 74
Exercisesp. 74
Notes and Referencesp. 75
Mass and Lean Productionp. 77
Introductionp. 77
An Architectural History of Mass Productionp. 77
Cottage Industry (1890s to 1910s)p. 78
Birth of Mass Production (1908-1913)p. 78
Competition from New Quarters (1920s to 1930s)p. 79
The Toyota Production System (1940s to 1980s)p. 80
Metaphor or Vision Changesp. 81
Craftsmenp. 81
A Car for the Masses, or If We Build It, It Will Sellp. 81
Cars as Fashionp. 82
The Supermarket Metaphorp. 82
The Toyota Wayp. 82
Elements of the Architecture of the Ford Production Systemp. 82
The Assembly Linep. 83
Enterprise Distributionp. 83
Management Processesp. 84
Quality Assurance for Distributed Productionp. 84
Devotion to Component-Level Simplificationp. 84
Social Contractp. 85
Conclusionp. 85
Notes and Referencesp. 86
Manufacturing Systemsp. 87
Introduction: The Manufacturing Domainp. 87
Manufacturing in Contextp. 88
Architectural Innovations in Manufacturingp. 91
Dynamic Manufacturing Systemsp. 93
Lean Productionp. 105
Flexible Manufacturingp. 108
Heuristics for Architecting Manufacturing Systemsp. 111
Conclusionp. 111
Exercisesp. 112
Notes and Referencesp. 112
Intelligent Transportation Systemsp. 115
Introductionp. 115
ITS Conceptsp. 116
ITS Sociotechnical Issuesp. 118
Who Is the Client for an Architect?p. 118
Public or Private?p. 119
Facts and Perceptionsp. 121
Architecture as Shared Invariantsp. 122
Dominance of Economicsp. 122
Notes and Referencesp. 123
Social Systemsp. 125
Introduction: Defining Sociotechnical Systemsp. 125
Public Participationp. 125
The Foundations of Sociotechnical Systems Architectingp. 127
The Separation of Client and Userp. 127
Socioeconomic Insightsp. 128
The Interaction between the Public and Private Sectorsp. 130
Facts versus Perceptions: An Added Tensionp. 131
Heuristics for Social Systemsp. 134
Conclusionp. 135
Exercisesp. 135
Notes and Referencesp. 136
Hierarchical to Layered Systemsp. 137
Business Backgroundp. 137
Motivation for Changep. 138
The Layered Alternativep. 140
The Pain of the Transitionp. 142
Resultsp. 144
Software and Information Technology Systemsp. 147
Introduction: The Status of Software Architectingp. 147
Software as a System Componentp. 151
Systems, Software, and Process Modelsp. 153
The Problem of Hierarchyp. 161
The Role of Architecture in Software-Centered Systemsp. 166
Programming Languages, Models, and Expressionp. 167
Architectures, "Unifying" Models, and Visionsp. 169
Directions in Software Architectingp. 170
Exercisesp. 178
Notes and Referencesp. 179
The Global Positioning Systemp. 181
The Historyp. 181
The Origins of GPS: The Foundational Programsp. 181
Inertial Navigation and Its Limitsp. 182
Weapon Deliveryp. 182
The Transit Programp. 182
Timationp. 183
621Bp. 184
The Origin of GPSp. 184
Parkinson and Curriep. 185
The Fateful Weekendp. 185
The Long Road to Revolutionp. 186
The Timeline to Operationp. 186
Commercial Markets and the Gulf Warp. 187
Revolution in the Second Generationp. 187
Ubiquitous GPSp. 188
GPS-Guided Weaponsp. 188
Architecture Interpretationp. 189
Right Idea, Right Time, Right Peoplep. 189
Be Technically Aggressive, But Not Suicidalp. 190
Consensus without Compromisep. 191
Architecture as Invariantsp. 192
Revolution through Coupled Changep. 192
Conclusionp. 193
Notes and Referencesp. 194
Collaborative Systemsp. 195
Introduction: Collaboration as a Categoryp. 195
Collaborative System Examplesp. 197
Analogies for Architecting Collaborative Systemsp. 202
Collaborative System Heuristicsp. 203
Variations on the Collaborative Themep. 207
Misclassificationp. 208
Standards and Collaborative Systemsp. 211
Conclusionp. 213
Exercisesp. 214
Exercises to Close Part IIp. 214
Notes and Referencesp. 215
Models and Modeling
Introduction to Part IIIp. 217
A Civil Architecture Analogyp. 217
Guide to Part IIIp. 218
Representation Models and Systems Architectingp. 221
Introduction: Roles, Views, and Modelsp. 221
Roles of Modelsp. 222
Models, Viewpoints, and Viewsp. 223
Classification of Models by Viewp. 225
Conclusionp. 243
Exercisesp. 245
Notes and Referencesp. 245
Design Progression in Systems Architectingp. 247
Introduction: Architecting Process Componentsp. 247
Design Progressionp. 248
Introduction by Examplesp. 249
Design as the Evolution of Modelsp. 250
Evaluation Criteria and Heuristic Refinementp. 250
Design Concepts for Systems Architecturep. 254
Architecture and Design Disciplinesp. 277
Conclusionp. 282
Exercisesp. 282
Notes and Referencesp. 283
Integrated Modeling Methodologiesp. 285
Introductionp. 285
General Integrated Modelsp. 286
Integrated Modeling and Softwarep. 292
Integrated Models for Manufacturing Systemsp. 307
Integrated Models for Sociotechnical Systemsp. 308
Conclusionp. 309
Exercisesp. 310
Notes and Referencesp. 310
Architecture Frameworksp. 313
Introductionp. 313
Defining an Architecture Frameworkp. 314
Current Architecture Frameworksp. 315
Research Directionsp. 327
Adapting Processes to Frameworksp. 329
Conclusionp. 333
Notes and Referencesp. 333
The Systems Architecting Profession
Architecting in Business and Governmentp. 339
Problem-System-Program-Organizationp. 339
Strategy and Architecture in Business and Governmentp. 343
Architecture of Programsp. 346
Strategic Architecting of Programsp. 350
Enterprise Architecturep. 353
Conclusionp. 359
Notes and Referencesp. 359
The Political Process and Systems Architectingp. 361
Introduction: The Political Challengep. 361
Politics as a Design Factorp. 362
The First Skill to Masterp. 364
Heuristics in the Political Process: "The Facts of Life"p. 365
A Few More Skills to Masterp. 373
Conclusionp. 373
The Professionalization of Systems Architectingp. 375
Introductionp. 375
The Profession of Systems Engineeringp. 375
Systems Architecting and Systems Standardsp. 378
The Origins of Systems Standardsp. 379
Commercial Standardsp. 382
Company Standardsp. 384
A Summary of Standards Developments, 1950-1995p. 385
Systems Architecting Graduate Educationp. 386
Curriculum Designp. 387
Advanced Study in Systems Architectingp. 389
Professional Societies and Publicationsp. 389
Conclusion: An Assessment of the Professionp. 390
Notes and Referencesp. 391
Heuristics for Systems-Level Architectingp. 395
Introduction: Organizing the Listp. 395
Heuristic Tool Listp. 397
Exercisesp. 407
Notes and Referencesp. 407
Reference Texts Suggested for Institutional Librariesp. 409
Architecting Backgroundp. 409
Managementp. 409
Modelingp. 410
Specialty Areasp. 410
Softwarep. 410
Systems Sciencesp. 411
Systems Thinkingp. 411
On Defining Architecture and Other Termsp. 413
Defining "Architecture"p. 413
Models, Viewpoints, and Viewsp. 420
Referencep. 422
Glossaryp. 423
Author Indexp. 427
Subject Indexp. 431
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