Articulation and Phonological Disorders Speech Sound Disorders in Children

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2016-05-25
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


The leading, most current and comprehensive review of information critical to the study of clinical phonology available.

Long renowned for providing the most up-to-date, extensive coverage of the clinical literature in the area of speech sound disorders available, this leading resource has earned its status as a classic in the field and its rightful place on every speech, language, and hearing clinician’s bookshelf. Readers get an introduction to the normal aspects of speech sound articulation, normal speech sound acquisition, classification and factors related to the presence of speech sound disorders, the assessment and remediation of speech sound disorders, and phonology as it relates to language and dialectal variations. Rather than prescribing a single approach to speech sound disorders, the authors present a range of perspectives on the nature, assessment and treatment of these disorders. Articulation and Phonological Disorders is primarily concerned with those disorders not etiologically associated with known or obvious sensory, structural or neuromotor deficits. Among the changes and updates to the Eighth Edition are an expanded focus on evidence-based practice, the reorganization of several chapters, and an updated discussion of childhood apraxia of speech.

Author Biography

Dr. John Bernthal is Professor Emeritus of Special Education and Communication Disorders at the University of Nebraska--Lincoln.  He has been a speech-language pathologist for over 40 years including employment in the public school, at several universities, and professor and Department Chair for over 30 years. He conducted research, taught and published in the area of speech sounds disorders. He is a past president of the American Speech Language Hearing Association, an ASHA fellow, and recipient of Honors of the Association.


Dr. Nicholas Bankson is a Professor Emeritus of Communication Sciences and Disorders at James Madison University. He has had a 40-year career as a speech-language pathologist, including employment in the public schools, serving as the state supervisor of school programs in Kansas, plus 27 years as a department chair in Communication Sciences and Disorders at Boston University and James Madison University. His scholarly efforts have focused on speech sound disorders and assessment of language disorders in children. He is an ASHA Fellow, and is the recipient of the Honors of ASHA.


Dr. Peter Flipsen Jr. is a Professor of Speech-Language Pathology at Pacific University. He has more than 20 years of experience in the field as a clinician, teacher, and researcher. He teaches courses in phonetics and speech sound disorders in children and has published more than 25 peer-reviewed journal articles in the field. His research has focused on classification of speech sound disorders, measurement of intelligibility of speech, and speech and language development in children with cochlear implants.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction to the Study of Speech Sound Disorders 1

by Nicholas W. Bankson, John E. Bernthal, and Peter Flipsen Jr.

An Evolving Area of Practice 1

A Working Framework 2

The Scope of the Problem 3

The Cause of the Problem 4

The Importance of the Problem 5

Approaching the Problem with Evidence 5


2 Normal Aspects of Articulation 7

by Ray Kent

Structure of Language 7

Fundamentals of Articulatory Phonetics 11

Coarticulation: Interactions Among Sounds in Context 36

Aerodynamic Considerations in Speech Production 40

Acoustic Considerations of Speech 42

Sensory Information in Speech Production 44

Summary of Levels of Organization of Speech 44

Concluding Note on Implications for Speech Acquisition 46

Questions for Chapter 2 48


3 Speech Sound Acquisition 49

by Sharynne McLeod

Relevance of Understanding Typical Speech Sound Acquisition for SLPS 49

Models of Speech Acquisition 50

How Speech Acquisition Data Are Obtained 59

Overall Sequence of Speech Sound Acquisition 64

Phase 1: Laying the Foundations for Speech 65

Phase 2: Transitioning from Words to Speech 70

Phase 3: The Growth of the Inventory 72

Phase 4: Mastery of Speech and Literacy 87

Factors Influencing Typical Acquisition of Speech 89

Conclusion: Understanding and Applying Typical Speech Acquisition 91

Questions for Chapter 3 92


4 Factors Related to Speech Sound Disorders 93

by Peter Flipsen Jr., Nicholas W. Bankson, and John E. Bernthal

Structure and Function of the Speech and Hearing Mechanism 93

Motor Abilities 105

Cognitive-Linguistic Factors 111

Psychosocial Factors 116

Conclusion 121

Questions for Chapter 4 122


5 Classification and Comorbidity in Speech Sound Disorders 123

by Peter Flipsen Jr., John E. Bernthal, and Nicholas W. Bankson

Organically Based Speech Sound Disorders 123

Childhood Apraxia of Speech 132

Speech Sound Disorders of Unknown Origin 136

Comorbidity 144

Conclusion 149

Questions for Chapter 5 149


6 Assessment: Data Collection 150

by Nicholas W. Bankson, John E. Bernthal, and Peter Flipsen Jr.

Speech Sound Sampling 150

Screening for Speech Sound Disorders 151

Comprehensive Speech Sound Assessment: The Assessment Battery 153

Assessment in Very Young Children 166

Related Assessment Procedures 168

Conclusion 175

Questions for Chapter 6 175


7 Assessment: Decision Making 176

by John E. Bernthal, Nicholas W. Bankson, and Peter Flipsen Jr.

Case Selection 176

The Nature of the Problem 188

Target Selection 190

Other Factors to Consider in Intervention Decisions 194

Computer-Assisted Phonological Analysis 195

Case Study: Assessment Data 196

Conclusion 200

Questions for Chapter 7 200


8 The Basics of Remediation and Evidence-Based Practice 201

by Nicholas W. Bankson, John E. Bernthal, and Peter Flipsen Jr.

Basic Remediation Considerations 201

Facilitating Generalization 206

Dismissal from Instruction 213

Some Basics of Evidence-Based Practice 215

Conclusion 222

Questions for Chapter 8 222


9 Motor-Based Treatment Approaches 223

by Peter Flipsen Jr., John E. Bernthal, and Nicholas W. Bankson

Approaches to Intervention 223

Treatment Continuum 224

Motor Learning Principles 225

Optimizing Learning: The Challenge Point Framework 227

Teaching Sounds/Establishment 228

Beyond Individual Sounds 235

Core Vocabulary Approach 242

The Use of Nonspeech Oral-Motor Activities 243

Childhood Apraxia of Speech 244

Treating Older Children and Adolescents 252

Case Study Revisited: Motor Perspective 257

Questions for Chapter 9 258


10 Linguistically Based Treatment Approaches 259

by Peter Flipsen Jr., Nicholas W. Bankson, and John E. Bernthal

Minimal Pair Contrast Therapy 260

Cycles Phonological Pattern Approach (CPPA) 266

Broader-Based Language Approaches 269

Remediation Guidelines for Linguistically Based Approaches 273

Case Study Revisited: Linguistic Perspective 274

Questions for Chapter 10 276


11 Language and Dialectal Variations 277

by Brian A. Goldstein and Aquiles Iglesias

Dialect 277

Characteristics of American English Dialects 279

Phonology in Speakers of Language Varieties Other Than English 285

Phonological Development in Bilingual Children 292

Assessment Considerations for Children from Culturally and Linguistically

Diverse Populations 294

Intervention for Speech Sound Disorders in Children from Culturally and

Linguistically Diverse Populations 296

Summary 299

Questions for Chapter 11 300


12 Phonological Awareness: Description, Assessment, and Intervention 302

by Brigid C. McNeill, Laura M. Justice, Gail T. Gillon, and C. Melanie Schuele

What Is Phonological Awareness? 302

Phonological Awareness as Literacy Development 304

The Development of Phonological Awareness 305

Phonological Awareness Development and Reading 307

Phonological Awareness and Speech Sound Disorders 309

The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist 311

Assessment 312

Intervention 316

Phonological Awareness Experiences for Preschool Children 319

Promoting Phonological Awareness in School-Age Children with Speech Sound Disorders 320

Questions for Chapter 12 324


Appendix A: Procedures for Teaching Sounds 325

Appendix B: Activities for Facilitating Phonemic Awareness in School-Aged Children 329

Appendix C: Accent Modification 331

References 334

Index 369

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