Atlas of Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-03-12
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Beautifully and lavishly illustrated,Atlas of Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyographydemystifies the major conditions affecting peripheral nerves and provides electrodiagnostic strategies for confirming suspected lesions of the peripheral nervous system. Building on the success of the landmarkAtlas of Electromyography, this new text is divided into sections based on the major peripheral nerves. It contains detailed illustrations of each nerve along with a discussion of its anatomy, followed by a thorough outline of the clinical conditions and entrapment syndromes that affect the nerve, including a list of the etiologies, clinical features, and electrodiagnostic strategies used for each syndrome. Routine and special motor and sensory nerve conduction studies are shown in an anatomical illustration. In addition, each muscle supplied by the peripheral nerve is illustrated showing the root, plexus, and peripheral nerve supply to the muscle and is accompanied by a corresponding human photograph. Written text provides information about the nerve conduction studies, muscle origin, tendon insertion, voluntary activation maneuver, and the site of optimum needle insertion, which is identified in the figures by a black dot or a needle electrode. Atlas of Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyographyis the perfect anatomical guide for neurologists, specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation, and electrodiagnostic medicine consultants, while also providing support for individuals in residency training programs, critical care medicine, neurological surgery, and family practice.

Table of Contents

Overview of Nerve Conduction Studies
How the peripheral nervous system conveys information
Stimulating and Recording Electrodes
Electrode Amplifiers and Ground Electrode
Reducing Artifacts and Interference
Electrical Safety
Temperature Effect
Effect of Aging
Motor Nerve Conduction
Measurements of the compound muscle action potential
Calculating conduction velocity
Sensory Nerve Conduction
Measurements of the sensory nerve action potential
Role of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in localizing lesions
Late Responses: F-wave and H-reflex
Types of Nerve Injury
Features of demyelination
Axonal loss injury
Features of axonal loss
Wallerian degeneration
Ion channel disorders (channelopathies)
Features of channelopathies
Due to toxins
Due to autoimmune conditions
Due to genetic mutations
Overview of Electromyography
The motor unit
Innervation ratio
Muscle selection for needle EMGThe needle EMG examination
Insertional activity
Spontaneous activity
Fibrillation potentials
Positive sharp waves
Numeric grading scale to semi-quantify fibrillation potentials
Fasciculation potentials
Complex repetitive discharges
Myotonic discharges
Myokymic discharges
Neuromyotonic discharges
Isaac's syndrome and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) syndrome
Cramp discharges
End-plate activity
Motor unit potentials (MUPs)
MUP parameters
Rise time
Phases and turns
Firing pattern and recruitment
Henneman's Size Principle
In neurogenic disorders
In myopathic disorders
Complications related to needle electromyography
Brachial Plexus
Upper trunk lesion
Middle trunk lesion
Lower trunk lesion
Median Nerve
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome
Pronator teres syndrome
Ligament of Struther's syndrome
Nerve conduction studies
Short segment ("inching technique")F-wave
Martin-Gruber anastomosis
Comparative studies for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome
Digital branch injury
Needle electromyography
Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Opponens Pollicis
Flexor Pollicis Brevis, Superficial Head
First and Second Lumbricals
Pronator Quadratus
Flexor Pollicis Longus
Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Digits 2 and 3Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (sublimis)
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Pronator Teres
Ulnar Nerve
Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (retrocondylar groove)
Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (cubital tunnel syndrome)
Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (Guyon's canal)
Nerve conduction studies
Short segment ("inching technique")F-wave
Martin-Gruber anastomosis
Riches-Cannieu anastomosis ("all ulnar hand")Sensory
Needle electromyography
Adductor Pollicis
Flexor Pollicis Brevis, Deep Head
First Dorsal Interosseous
Second, Third, and Fourth Dorsal Interossei
Palmar Interossei
Third and Fourth Lumbricals
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Opponens Digiti Minimi
Flexor Digiti Minimi
Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Digits 4 and 5Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Radial Nerve
Radial nerve lesion in the arm
Radial nerve lesion in the axilla
Posterior interosseous nerve syndrome
Superficial radial nerve lesion
Nerve conduction studies
Anomalous innervation to ulnar dorsum of hand
Needle electromyography
Extensor Indicis Proprius
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Extensor Pollicis Longus
Abductor Pollicis Longus
Extensor Digitorum Communis and Extensor Digiti Minimi
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Extensor Carpi Radialis, Longus and Brevis
Triceps, Lateral Head
Triceps, Long Head
Triceps, Medial Head
Axillary Nerve
Axillary nerve lesion
Motor nerve conduction study
Needle electromyography
Deltoid, Anterior Fibers
Deltoid, Middle Fibers
Deltoid, Posterior Fibers
Teres Minor
Musculocutaneous Nerve
Musculocutaneous nerve lesion
Nerve conduction studies
Sensory (lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm)
Needle electromyography
Biceps Brachii
Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm
Lesion of the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm
Sensory nerve conduction study
Suprascapular Nerve
Suprascapular nerve lesion
Motor nerve conduction study
Needle electromyography
Dorsal Scapular Nerve
Dorsal scapular nerve lesion
Needle electromyography
Rhomboideus Major and Minor
Levator Scapulae
Long Thoracic Nerve
Long thoracic nerve lesion
Motor nerve conduction study
Needle electromyography
Serratus Anterior
Subscapular Nerves and the Thoracodorsal Nerve
Needle electromyography
Teres Major
Latissimus Dorsi
Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerves
Needle electromyography
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Cervical Plexus
Needle electromyography
Levator Scapulae
Phrenic Nerve
Phrenic nerve lesion
Phrenic nerve conduction studies
Needle electromyography
Sacral Plexus
Sacral plexus lesion
Sciatic Nerve
Sciatic nerve lesion
Needle electromyography
Biceps Femoris (Long Head)
Biceps Femoris (Short Head)
Tibial Nerve
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Nerve conduction studies
Sensory (sural nerve)
Medial and lateral plantar (mixed nerve)
Needle electromyography
Gastrocnemius, Medial Head
Gastrocnemius, Lateral Head
Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Abductor Hallucis
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Abductor Digiti Minimi (Quinti)
Adductor Hallucis
Common Peroneal Nerve
Common peroneal mononeuropathy at the knee
Nerve conduction studies
Motor (Extensor digitorum brevis)
Accessory deep peroneal nerve
Motor (tibialis anterior)
Short segment ("inching technique") across the knee
Sensory (superficial peroneal)
Needle electromyography
Tibialis Anterior
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Peroneus Tertius
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Peroneus Longus
Peroneus Brevis
Superior Gluteal Nerve
Needle electromyography
Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Inferior Gluteal Nerve
Needle electromyography
Gluteus Maximus
Pudendal Nerve
Pudendal nerve lesion
Needle electromyography
Sphincter Ani Externus (External Anal Sphincter)
Levator Ani
Lumbar Plexus
Lesion of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (meralgia paresthetica)
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve conduction study
Needle electromyography of abdominal wall muscles
External Oblique, Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominis
Femoral Nerve
Femoral nerve lesion
Nerve conduction studies
Sensory (saphenous nerve)
Needle electromyography
Iliacus (Iliopsoas)
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Intermedius
Vastus Medialis
Obturator Nerve
Obturator nerve lesion
Needle electromyography
Adductor Longus
Adductor Brevis
Adductor Magnus
Paraspinal Muscles
Needle electromyography
Cervical Paraspinal
Thoracic Paraspinal
Lumbosacral Paraspinal
Cranial Nerves and Muscles
Facial motor conduction studies
Blink reflex studies
Needle electromyography
Orbicularis Oculi
Orbicularis Oris
Dermatomes and Peripheral Nerve Cutaneous Distributions
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