The Audience, The Message, The Speaker

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-26
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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This brief, core introduction to public speaking combines a concern with classic rhetoric with a strong focus on ethics, diversity, and the latest technology.The Audience, The Message, The Speakeremphasizes the speaker's responsibility to convey succinct, meaningful information that is well organized, reliable, and clearly expressed for the relevant audience.

Table of Contents

Prologue: Theory of Oral Communication
The Fundamentals of Communication
Making Ourselves Understood
Communication Models
The Audience
Preparing to Meet the Audience
The Communication Process
The Audience
The Message
The Speaker
Value to the Speaker
Speaker-Audience Relationship
Getting Started
Preparing to Meet the Audience
Receiving an Invitation to Speak
Adapting Your Speech to the Audience
Particular Interests
Possible opposition
Political Perspective
Religious Influences
Cultural Differences
The Relevance Factor
Stepping into the Listeners’ Shoes
Speaking So That People Will Listen
Gain the Attention
Have a Clear Purpose
Emphasize key Words and Points
Provide Connecting Phrases
Build Attention Features
Ease the Strain of Listening
Penetrate Stereotyped Notions
Observe the Time Limit
Respect for the Audience / The Audience’s Bill of Rights
Finding Common Ground
Connecting with the Audience
Framing the Issue
Avoiding Divisiveness
Basic Agreement
Qualified Meaning of Common Ground
Positive Results
The Audience in a Pluralistic Society
Diverse Perceptions of Communication Skills
Learning About Yourself and Others
Common Characteristics
The Cultural Effects of Diversity
Diversity in the Workplace
Social Implication of Diversity
The Speaker’s Dilemma
Overcoming Cultural Barriers
The Challenge of Pluralism
Listening and Reacting
Choosing to Listen
Listening Models
Learning to Listen
Forming Good Listening Habits
Feedback to the Speaker
Listening Passively
Listening Actively
Comprehensive Listening
Obstacles to Listening
Critical Listening
Listening for Faulty Reasoning
Retention and Access
Semantics of Listening and Reacting
Levels of Abstraction
Semantic Reactions
Shaping Perception
Intentional Choice of Words
The Message
The Topic, Purpose, and Content of the Speech
The Topic
The General Purpose
The Speech to Inform
The Speech to Persuade
The Speech to Motivate
The Speech to Entertain
The Content
Using the Internet
Taking Notes
Forms of Support
Definition of Terms
Specific Instances
Controlled Studies
Statistical Data
Testimonial Evidence
Interest Grabbers
Selecting Your Material
Organizing and Outlining
The Need to be Organized
The Value of an Outline
The Basic Structure
The Introduction
Attention Statement
Purpose Statement
Giving Focus to the Subject
Phrasing the Purpose Statement
The Presummary
The Body of the Speech
Main Headings
Supporting Information
The Conclusion
Reinforcing the Thesis
Finished Outline
The Speech to Inform
The Qualities of Exposition
The Focus Makes It Your Own
Being Familiar with your Subject
Speaking Opportunities
Topics for the Speech to Inform
Taking a Neutral Position
Priming the Audience’s Interest
Helping to Inform the Voter
Instant Speech
Speaking in the Business World
Training Specialist
Speaking to a Committee
The Informative Presentation
Thinking and Reasoning
Critical Thinking
Selective Learning
Examining Beliefs
Testing What You Read and Hear
Learning What You Need to Know
Interpreting Information and Drawing
The Inductive Process
Signs and Causes
The Deductive Process
Discovering What You Believe
the Speech to Persuade
The Persuasive Message
The Inherent Qualities of Persuasion
Modes of Proof
Taking a Position
Status Quo
Conflicting Beliefs
Persuasive Information
Constructing and Argumentative Case
Advancing a Claim
Using Evidence to Support a Claim
Providing a Warrant to Reinforce Evidence
Forming a Thesis
Facing Opposition
Emotional Appeals
Shared Values
Personal Integrity / Credibility of the Speaker
The Speaker
The Speaker's Frame of Mind
Desire to be Heard
Thorough Preparation
Techniques to Relieve Anxiety
Creating a New Self-Image
Message to Ourselves
Changing our Self-perception
Self-regulating Mechanism
Comfort zones
Making Adjustments
Imprinting the New Image
Convincing Yourself
Rewards of Speaking
Delivering the Message
The Use of Language
Words and their Meaning
Offensive Language
Modes of Delivery
Impromptu Speaking
The Fully Scripted Speech
Speaking Extemporaneously
The Dimensions of the Message
Primary Message
Auxiliary Messages
Secondary Messages
Nonverbal Communication
Vocal Communication
Emphasizing Key Points
Pointer Phrase
Oratorical Emphasis
Visual Reinforcement
Responding to Questions
Know Your Subject
Anticipate Questions
Direct Answers to the Whole Audience
Be Succinct
Encourage Involvement
Maintain Control
Know When to Stop
The Power of Visuals
Do it Right
Practice, Practice, Practice
High Stakes Presentation
Speaking to a Specific Audience
The Tools of the Trade
What Visuals Can Accomplish
Making It Happen with Visual Aids
Projecting Images
Plain and Simple Visuals
Desktop Visuals
Microphones and Cameras
Public Address Systems
Radio Microphones
Television Cameras
Putting it All Together
Meeting Ethical Standards
Telling It Like It Is
Values Clarification
Applying Your Own Ethics
Ethical Standards at Risk
Political Ethics
Avoiding Plagiarism
Civil Disobedience
Social Contracts
The Value of Ethical Conduct
The Speaker's Code of Ethics
Moral Questions
Reason is the Ultimate Ethic
Appendix: Speaking Opportunities
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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