Basic Statistics : Tales of Distributions

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-05-16
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Learn statistical reasoning and problem solving from a best-selling author who uses a wealth of examples from the social and behavioral sciences,, education,, nursing/allied health, and business fields--as well as examples from everyday life-to help you learn and understand. Praised for his clear explanations, Spatz shows you how to start with a data set, identify the questions it poses, determine and carry out statistical procedures, and using plain English, tell the story the data reveal.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. XV
Introductionp. 1
What Do You Mean, "Statistics"?p. 2
Clue to the futurep. 4
What's in It for Me?p. 4
Some Terminologyp. 5
Problems and Answersp. 8
Scales of Measurementp. 9
Statistics and Experimental Designp. 12
Experimental Design Variablesp. 13
Statistics and Philosophyp. 15
Statistics: Then and Nowp. 16
Helpful Features of This Bookp. 16
Concluding Thoughts for This Introductory Chapterp. 19
Additional Help for Chapter 1p. 21
Key Termsp. 21
Transition passage to descriptive statisticsp. 23
Frequency Distributions and Graphsp. 24
Simple Frequency Distributionsp. 26
Error detectionp. 27
Grouped Frequency Distributionsp. 28
Graphs of Frequency Distributionsp. 30
Describing Distributionsp. 34
The Line Graphp. 36
More on Graphicsp. 36
A Moment to Reflectp. 37
Additional Help for Chapter 2p. 38
Key Termsp. 39
Central Tendency and Variabilityp. 40
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 41
Finding Central Tendency of Simple Frequency Distributionsp. 44
Error detectionp. 46
Error detectionp. 47
When to Use the Mean, Median, and Modep. 47
Determining Skewness from the Mean and Medianp. 49
The Weighted Meanp. 50
Variabilityp. 52
The Rangep. 53
Interquartile Rangep. 54
The Standard Deviationp. 55
The Standard Deviation as a Descriptive Index of Variabiiityp. 56
Error detectionp. 57
Error detectionp. 59
Error detectionp. 61
S as an Estimate of [sigma]p. 61
Error detectionp. 64
Clue to the futurep. 65
The Variancep. 65
Clue to the futurep. 55
Estimating Answersp. 66
Additional Help for Chapter 3p. 68
Key Termsp. 68
Other Descriptive Statisticsp. 69
Using z Scores to Describe Individualsp. 70
Clue to the futurep. 72
Boxplotsp. 73
Error detectionp. 75
Effect Size Indexp. 76
The Descriptive Statistics Reportp. 79
Additional Help for Chapter 4p. 82
Key Termsp. 82
Transition passage to bivariate distributionsp. 83
Correlation and Regressionp. 84
Bivariate Distributionsp. 86
Positive Correlationp. 87
Negative Correlationp. 89
Zero Correlationp. 91
Clue to the futurep. 91
The Correlation Coefficientp. 92
Error detectionp. 93
Clue to the futurep. 96
Error detectionp. 96
Scatterplotsp. 97
Interpretations of rp. 98
Uses of rp. 100
Strong Relationships but Low Correlationsp. 103
Error detectionp. 106
Other Kinds of Correlation Coefficientsp. 106
Linear Regressionp. 107
Making Predictions from a Linear Equationp. 107
The Regression Equation-A Line of Best Fitp. 108
Error detectionp. 112
Additional Help for Chapter 5p. 116
Key Termsp. 116
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 1-5p. 116
Transition passage to inferential statisticsp. 118
Theoretical Distributions Including the Normal Distributionp. 119
Probabilityp. 120
A Rectangular Distributionp. 121
Clue to the futurep. 122
A Binomial Distributionp. 122
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Distributionsp. 124
The Normal Distributionp. 125
Error detectionp. 132
Clue to the futurep. 138
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Answersp. 138
Other Theoretical Distributionsp. 139
Additional Help for Chapter 6p. 140
Key Termsp. 140
Samples, Sampling Distributions, and Confidence Intervalsp. 141
Random Samplesp. 143
Biased Samplesp. 146
Research Samplesp. 146
Sampling Distributionsp. 147
Clue to the futurep. 148
The Sampling Distribution of the Meanp. 148
Central Limit Theoremp. 149
Constructing a Sampling Distribution When [sigma] Is Not Availablep. 155
The t Distributionp. 156
Confidence Interval about a Sample Meanp. 159
Clue to the futurep. 159
Error detectionp. 160
Categories of Inferential Statisticsp. 163
Additional Help for Chapter 7p. 164
Key Termsp. 165
Transition passage to hypothesis testingp. 166
Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size: One-Sample Designsp. 167
The Logic of Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST)p. 168
Clue to the futurep. 171
Using the t Distribution for Null Hypothesis Statistical Testingp. 172
A Problem and the Accepted Solutionp. 174
The One-Sample t Testp. 176
An Analysis of Possible Mistakesp. 178
The Meaning of p in p < .05p. 180
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Testsp. 181
Effect Size Indexp. 184
Other Sampling Distributionsp. 185
Using the t Distribution to Test the Significance of a Correlation Coefficientp. 186
Clue to the futurep. 186
Why .05?p. 188
Additional Help for Chapter 8p. 190
Key Termsp. 190
Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals: Two-Sample Designsp. 191
A Short Lesson on How to Design an Experimentp. 192
NHST: The Two-Sample Examplep. 194
Degrees of Freedomp. 196
Paired-Samples Designs and Independent-Samples Designsp. 197
Clue to the futurep. 197
The t Test for Independent-Samples Designsp. 200
Clue to the futurep. 203
The t Test for Paired-Samples Designsp. 205
Error detectionp. 208
Significant Results and Important Resultsp. 210
Effect Size Indexp. 211
Establishing a Confidence Interval about a Mean Differencep. 213
Error detectionp. 214
Reaching Correct Conclusionsp. 215
Statistical Powerp. 217
Additional Help for Chapter 9p. 220
Key Termsp. 220
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 6-9p. 221
Transition passage to more complex designsp. 222
Analysis of Variance: One-Way Classificationp. 223
Rationale of ANOVAp. 225
More New Termsp. 232
Clue to the futurep. 232
Sums of Squaresp. 232
Error detectionp. 236
Mean Squares and Degrees of Freedomp. 237
Error detectionp. 238
Calculation and Interpretation of F Values Using the F Distributionp. 238
Schedules of Reinforcement-A Lesson in Persistencep. 240
Comparisons among Meansp. 242
Assumptions of the Analysis of Variancep. 245
Effect Size Indexp. 246
Additional Help for Chapter 10p. 249
Key Termsp. 249
Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Repeated Measuresp. 250
A Data Setp. 251
One-Factor Repeated-Measures ANOVA: The Rationalep. 252
An Example Problemp. 252
Tukey HSD Testsp. 256
Type I and Type II Errorsp. 257
Some Behind-the-Scenes Information about Repeated-Measures ANOVAp. 258
Additional Help for Chapter 11p. 261
Key Termsp. 261
Analysis of Variance: Factorial Designp. 262
Factorial Designp. 263
Main Effects and Interactionp. 267
Clue to the futurep. 272
A Simple Example of a Factorial Designp. 273
Error detectionp. 277
Error detectionp. 279
Error detectionp. 281
Analysis of a 2 X 3 Designp. 282
Comparing Levels within a Factor-Tukey HSD Testsp. 289
Effect Size Indexes for Factorial ANOVAp. 290
Restrictions and Limitationsp. 291
Additional Help for Chapter 12p. 292
Key Termsp. 292
Transition passage to nonparametric statisticsp. 293
CHI Square Testsp. 294
Error detectionp. 295
The Chi Square Distribution and the Chi Square Testp. 296
Chi Square as a Test of Independencep. 297
Error detectionp. 299
Shortcut for Any 2 X 2 Tablep. 300
Effect Size Index for 2 X 2 Chi Square Datap. 301
Chi Square as a Test for Goodness of Fitp. 303
Chi Square with More Than One Degree of Freedomp. 306
Small Expected Frequenciesp. 310
When You May Use Chi Squarep. 313
Error detectionp. 313
Additional Help for Chapter 13p. 316
Key Termsp. 316
More Nonparametric Testsp. 317
The Rationale of Nonparametric Testsp. 318
Comparison of Nonparametric to Parametric Testsp. 319
Clue to the futurep. 320
The Mann-Whitney U Testp. 321
Error detectionp. 322
Error detectionp. 323
Error detectionp. 324
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks T Testp. 327
The Wilcoxon-Wilcox Multiple-Comparisons Testp. 333
Correlation of Ranked Datap. 336
Error detectionp. 338
My Final Wordp. 339
Additional Help for Chapter 14p. 341
Key Termsp. 342
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 10-14p. 342
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretationsp. 344
A Reviewp. 344
Future Stepsp. 345
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretationsp. 346
Additional Help for Chapter 15p. 356
Key Termsp. 356
Arithmetic and Algebra Reviewp. 359
Grouped Frequency Distributions and Central Tendencyp. 373
Tablesp. 378
Glossary of Wordsp. 399
Glossary of Symbolsp. 403
Glossary of Formulasp. 405
Answers to Problemsp. 412
Referencesp. 465
Indexp. 471
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