The Bedford Handbook

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-10-07
  • Publisher: MPS HIGH SCHOOL
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Writing well in college requires time and lots of practice. The Bedford Handbook is a practical tool, worth holding onto, that will help your writing suceed no matter the class.

Author Biography

Diana Hacker personally class-tested her handbooks with nearly four thousand students over thirty-five years at Prince George’s Community College in Maryland, where she was a member of the English faculty. Hacker handbooks, built on innovation and on a keen understanding of the challenges facing student writers, are the most widely adopted in America. Hacker handbooks, all published by Bedford/St. Martin’s, include The Bedford Handbook, Tenth Edition (2017); A Writer’s Reference, Eighth Edition (2015); Rules for Writers, Eighth Edition (2016); A Pocket Style Manual, Seventh Edition (2015); and Writer’s Help 2.0, Hacker Version.
Nancy Sommers, who has taught composition and directed composition programs for thirty years, now teaches in Harvard’s Graduate School of Education.  She led Harvard’s Expository Writing Program for twenty years, directing the first-year writing program and establishing Harvard’s WAC program. A two-time Braddock Award winner, Sommers is well known for her research and publications on student writing. Her articles “Revision Strategies of Student and Experienced Writers” and “Responding to Student Writing” are two of the most widely read and anthologized articles in the field of composition.  Recently she has been exploring different audiences through blogging and through publishing in popular media. Sommers is the lead author on Hacker handbooks, all published by Bedford/St. Martin’s, and is coauthor of Fields of Reading, Tenth Edition (2013).

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors  
Introduction: Why good habits matter 
Part I The Writing Process 
Online activities    
1 Exploring, planning, and drafting 
         Becoming a college writer: Choose topics you care about 
     a Assessing the writing situation 
     b Exploring your subject 
     c Drafting and revising a working thesis  
         How to solve five common problems with thesis statements    * NEW
     d Drafting a plan 
     e Drafting an introduction 
     f Drafting the body 
     g Drafting a conclusion 
     h Managing your files   
2 Revising, editing, and reflecting    
         Becoming a college writer: Form a community of readers around you 
     a Seeing revision as a social process   * NEW
     b Using peer review: Revising with comments    * NEW
     c Using peer review: Giving constructive comments * NEW
         How to write helpful peer review comments * NEW
     d Highlights of one student’s peer review process * NEW
     e Approaching global revision in cycles  
     f Revising and editing sentences 
         How to improve your writing with an editing log  * NEW
     g Proofreading the final draft 
     h Sample student revision: Literacy narrative 
         Writing guide: How to write a literacy narrative 
      i Preparing a portfolio; reflecting on your writing  
         Writing guide: How to write a reflective letter 
3 Building effective paragraphs   
     a Focusing on a main point 
     b Developing the main point 
     c Choosing a suitable pattern of organization 
     d Making paragraphs coherent 
     e Adjusting paragraph length 
Part II  Academic Reading and Writing 
Online activities    
4 Reading and writing critically   
         Becoming a college writer: Engage with the texts you read 
     a Reading actively 
     b Outlining a text to identify main ideas 
     c Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
     d Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading 
         How to draft an analytical thesis statement           * NEW
     e Sample student writing: Analysis of an article 
         Writing guide: How to write an analytical essay  
5  Reading and writing about multimodal texts   
     a Reading actively 
     b Outlining to identify main ideas 
     c Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
          How to write a summary of a multimodal text     * NEW
     d Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading  
     e Sample student writing: Analysis of an advertisement 
6  Reading and writing arguments   
          Becoming a college writer: Consider counterarguments  
     a Distinguishing between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics 
     b Distinguishing between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals 
     c Judging how fairly a writer handles opposing views 
     d Identifying your purpose and context  
     e Viewing your audience as a panel of jurors 
     f Establishing credibility and stating your position 
         How to draft a thesis statement for an argument    * NEW
     g Backing up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument 
     h Supporting your claims with specific evidence  
     i Anticipating objections; countering opposing arguments  
     j Building common ground 
     k Sample student writing: Argument 
        Writing guide: How to write an argument essay   
     l Remixing a written argument for an oral presentation   * NEW
7  Reading and writing about literature    
     a Reading actively 
     b Forming an interpretation 
     c Drafting a working thesis 
     d Using evidence from the text; avoiding plot summary 
     e Observing the conventions of literature papers 
     f Integrating quotations from the text 
     g Documenting secondary sources and avoiding plagiarism 
     h Sample student writing: Literary analysis 
Part III Clear Sentences  
Online activities    
8 Prefer active verbs.       
     a Active versus passive verbs  
         Writer’s Choice: Using the active or the passive voice        * NEW
     b Active versus be verbs  
     c Subject that names the actor  
9 Balance parallel ideas.    
     a Parallel ideas in a series  
     b Parallel ideas presented as pairs  
     c Repetition of function words  
10 Add needed words.    
     a In compound structures  
     b that  
     c In comparisons  
     d a, an, and the  
11 Untangle mixed constructions.   
     a Mixed grammar  
     b Illogical connections  
     c is when, is where, and reason . . . is because  
12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.   
     a Limiting modifiers  
     b Misplaced phrases and clauses  
     c Awkwardly placed modifiers  
     d Split infinitives  
     e Dangling modifiers  
13 Eliminate distracting shifts.   
     a Point of view (person, number)  
         Writer’s Choice: Choosing a point of view    * NEW
     b Verb tense   
     c Verb mood, voice  
     d Indirect to direct questions or quotations  
14 Emphasize key ideas.    
     a Coordination and subordination  
      Writer’s Choice: Positioning major and minor ideas      * NEW
     b Choppy sentences  
     c Ineffective or excessive coordination  
     d Ineffective subordination  
     e Excessive subordination  
     f Other techniques  
15 Provide some variety.   
     a Sentence openings  
         Writer’s Choice: Strengthening with variety   * NEW
     b Sentence structures  
     c Inverted order  
     d An occasional question 
Part IV Word Choice  
Online activities    
16 Tighten wordy sentences.    
     a Redundancies  
     b Unnecessary repetition  
     c Empty or inflated phrases  
     d Simplifying the structure  
     e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words  
17 Choose appropriate language.    
     a Jargon  
         Writer’s Choice: Using discipline-specific terms    * NEW
     b Pretentious language, euphemisms, “doublespeak”  
     c Obsolete and invented words  
     d Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English  
     e Levels of formality  
     f Sexist language  
     g Offensive language  
18 Find the exact words.   
    a Connotations  
    b Specific, concrete nouns  
    c Misused words  
    d Standard idioms  
    e Clichés  
    f Figures of speech  
Part V Grammatical Sentences  
Online activities    
19 Repair sentence fragments.   
     a Subordinate clauses  
     b Phrases  
     c Other fragmented word groups  
     d Acceptable fragments  
20 Revise run-on sentences.      
     a Revision with a coordinating conjunction  
     Writer’s Choice: Clustering ideas in meaningful ways    * NEW
     b Revision with a semicolon, colon, or dash  
     c Revision by separating sentences  
     d Revision by restructuring  

21 Make subjects and verbs agree. 
     a Standard subject-verb combinations  
     b Words between subject and verb 
     c Subjects joined with and  
     d Subjects joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor  
     e Indefinite pronouns  
     f Collective nouns  
     g Subject following verb  
     h Agreement with subject, not subject complement  
     i who, which, and that  
     j Words with plural form, singular meaning  
     k Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases  

22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree.    
     a Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)
     b Collective nouns  
     c Antecedents joined with and  
     d Antecedents joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor  

23 Make pronoun references clear.   
     a Ambiguous or remote reference  
     b Broad reference of this, that, which, and it  
     c Implied antecedents  
     d Indefinite use of they, it, and you  
     e who for persons, which or that for things  

24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me.   
     a Subjective case for subjects and subject complements  
     b Objective case for objects  
     c Appositives  
     d Pronoun following than or as  
     e we or us before a noun  
     f Subjects and objects of infinitives  
     g Pronoun modifying a gerund  

25 Distinguish between who and whom.   
     a In subordinate clauses  
     b In questions  
     c As subjects or objects of infinitives  
26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care.    
     a Adjectives to modify nouns  
     b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs  
     c good and well, bad and badly  
     d Comparatives and superlatives  
     e Double negatives  
27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and moods in Standard English.    
     a Irregular verbs  
     b lie and lay  
     c -s (or -es) endings  
     d -ed endings  
     e Omitted verbs  
     f Verb tense  
     g Subjunctive mood  
Part VI Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges   
Online activities    
28 Verbs    361 
      a Appropriate form and tense  
      b Passive voice  
      c Base form after a modal  
      d Negative verb forms  
      e Verbs in conditional sentences  
      f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives  
29 Articles (a, an, the)   
      a Articles and other noun markers  
      b When to use the  
      c When to use a or an  
      d When not to use a or an  
      e No articles with general nouns  
      f Articles with proper nouns  
30 Sentence structure    
      a Linking verb between a subject and its complement  
      b A subject in every sentence  
      c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same grammatical function  
      d Repeated subjects, objects, adverbs in adjective clauses  
      e Mixed constructions with although or because  
      f Placement of adverbs  
      g Present participles and past participles  
      h Order of cumulative adjectives  
31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions   
      a Prepositions showing time and place  
      b Nouns (including -ing form) after prepositions  
      c Common adjective + preposition combinations  
      d Common verb + preposition combinations  
Part VII Punctuation  
Online activities    
32 The comma    
      a Independent clauses joined with and, but, etc.  
      b Introductory clauses or phrases 
      c Items in a series  
      d Coordinate adjectives  
      e Nonrestrictive elements  
      f Transitions, parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasts  
      g Direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags, interjections  
      h he said etc.  
      i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers  
33 Unnecessary commas   
      a Between two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses  
      b Between a verb and its subject or object  
      c Before the first or after the last item in a series  
      d Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective  
      e Before and after restrictive elements  
      f Before essential concluding adverbial elements  
      g After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence  
      h Other misuses  
34 The semicolon    
      a Independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction  
      b Independent clauses linked with a transitional expression  
      c Series containing internal punctuation  
      d Misuses  
35 The colon  
      a Before a list, an appositive, a quotation, or a summary  
      b Conventional uses 
      c Misuses  
36 The apostrophe     
      a Possessive nouns  
      b Possessive indefinite pronouns  
      c Contractions  
      d Not for plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words as words  
      e Misuses  
37 Quotation marks    
      a Direct quotations  
      b Quotation within a quotation  
      c Titles of short works  
      d Words as words  
      e With other punctuation marks  
      f Misuses  
38 End punctuation   
      a The period  
      b The question mark  
      c The exclamation point  
39 Other punctuation marks    
      a Dash  
      b Parentheses  
      c Brackets  
      d Ellipsis mark  
      e Slash  
Part VIII Mechanics  
Online activities    
40 Abbreviations   
      a Titles with proper names  
      b Familiar abbreviations  
      c Conventional abbreviations  
      d Units of measurement 
      e Latin abbreviations  
      f Plural of abbreviations 
      g Misuses  
41 Numbers   
      a Spelling out  
      b Using numerals  
42 Italics   
      a Titles of works  
      b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft  
      c Foreign words  
      d Words as words, letters as letters, and numbers as numbers 
43 Spelling   
      a Spelling rules  
      b The dictionary  
      c Words that sound alike  
      d Commonly misspelled words  
44 The hyphen    
      a Compound words  
      b Hyphenated words used as adjectives  
      c Fractions and compound numbers  
      d With certain prefixes and suffixes  
      e To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters  
      f Word division  
45 Capitalization      
      a Proper versus common nouns  
      b Titles with proper names 
      c Titles and subtitles of works  
      d First word of a sentence  
      e First word of a quoted sentence  
      f First word after a colon 
Part IX Grammar Basics  
Online activities    
46 Parts of speech   
      a Nouns 
      b Pronouns    
      c Verbs   
      d Adjectives    
      e Adverbs 494  
      f Prepositions   
      g Conjunctions   
      h Interjections  
47 Sentence patterns   
      a Subjects  
      b Verbs, objects, and complements  
      c Pattern variations  
48 Subordinate word groups     
      a Prepositional phrases 
      b Verbal phrases  
      c Appositive phrases 
           Writer’s Choice: Building credibility with appositives    * NEW
      d Absolute phrases  
      e Subordinate clauses 
49 Sentence types    
      a Sentence structures  
      b Sentence purposes 
Part X Researched Writing  
Online activities   
50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering sources  
        Becoming a college writer: Join a research conversation 
      a Managing the project 
      b Posing questions worth exploring  
        How to enter a research conversation         * NEW
      c Mapping out a search strategy  
      d Searching efficiently; mastering a few shortcuts   
        How to go beyond a Google search          * NEW
      e Conducting field research, if appropriate 
      f Writing a research proposal       * NEW
51 Managing information; taking notes responsibly    
     a Maintaining a working bibliography  
     b Keeping track of source materials  
     c Avoiding unintentional plagiarism  
      How to avoid plagiarizing from the Web       * NEW
52 Evaluating sources     
     a Thinking about how sources might contribute to your writing  
     b Selecting sources worth your time and attention  
     c Selecting appropriate versions of online sources   
     d Reading with an open mind and a critical eye   
     e Assessing Web sources with care   
     f Constructing an annotated bibliography  
   Writing guide: How to write an annotated bibliography  
Writing MLA papers  
53 Supporting a thesis     
     a Forming a working thesis  
     b Organizing ideas with a rough outline  
     c Using sources to inform and support your argument  
     d Drafting an introduction for your thesis  
     e Drafting the paper in an appropriate voice  
54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism     
     a Understanding how the MLA system works  
     b Avoiding plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources  
     How to be a responsible research writer 
55 Integrating sources     
        Becoming a college writer: Provide context for sources    
     a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively          * NEW
     b Using quotations effectively  
     c Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
     d Synthesizing sources   
56 Documenting sources     
     a MLA in-text citations  
     b MLA list of works cited  
         How to answer the basic question “Who is the author?”   
         How to cite a source reposted from another source   
         How to cite course materials    
     c MLA information notes (optional)  
57 Manuscript format; sample research paper    
     a MLA manuscript format  
     b Sample MLA research paper     * NEW
Writing APA papers  
58 Supporting a thesis     
     a Forming a working thesis 
     b Organizing your ideas 
     c Using sources to inform and support your argument 
59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism     
     a Understanding how the APA system works  
     b Understanding what plagiarism is  
     c Using quotation marks around borrowed language 
     d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words 
60 Integrating sources   
     a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively          * NEW
     b Using quotations appropriately  
     c Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
     d Synthesizing sources   
61 Documenting sources    
     a APA in-text citations 
     b APA list of references 
62 Manuscript format; sample research paper     
     a APA manuscript format 
     b Sample APA research paper   * NEW
Writing Chicago papers  
63 Chicago papers    
     a Supporting a thesis  
     b Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism  
     c Integrating sources  
     d Chicago documentation style    
     e Chicago manuscript format  
     f Sample Chicago-style research paper (excerpt) 
Part XI Writing in the Disciplines 
Online activities    
64 Learning to write in a discipline 
     a Finding commonalities across disciplines 
     b Recognizing the questions that writers in a discipline ask 
     c Understanding the kinds of evidence that writers in a discipline use 
     d Becoming familiar with a discipline’s language conventions 
     e Using a discipline’s preferred citation style    
65 Approaching writing assignments in the disciplines 
     a Writing in psychology 
     b Writing in business  
     c Writing in biology 
     d Writing in nursing 
APPENDIX: A Document Design Gallery  

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

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