Beyond Feelings: A Guide to Critical Thinking

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-02-08
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill

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This succinct, interdisciplinary introduction to critical thinking successfully dares students to question their own assumptions and to enlarge their thinking through the analysis of the most common problems associated with everyday reasoning. The text offers a unique and effective organization: Part I explains the fundamental concepts; Part II describes the most common barriers to critical thinking; Part III offers strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introductionp. 1
The Contextp. 3
Who Are You?p. 4
The Influence of Time and Placep. 4
The Influence of Ideasp. 6
The Influence of Mass Culturep. 7
The "Science" of Manipulationp. 9
The Influence of Psychologyp. 11
Becoming an Individualp. 13
What is Critical Thinking?p. 16
Mind, Brain, or Both?p. 17
Critical Thinking Definedp. 18
Characteristics of Critical Thinkersp. 20
The Role of Intuitionp. 22
Basic Activities in Critical Thinkingp. 24
Critical Thinking and Writingp. 24
Critical Thinking and Discussionp. 25
Avoiding Plagiarismp. 27
What Is Truth?p. 32
Where Does It All Begin?p. 33
Imperfect Perceptionp. 34
Imperfect Memoryp. 35
Deficient Informationp. 35
Even the Wisest Can Errp. 36
Truth Is Discovered, Not Createdp. 37
Understanding Cause and Effectp. 38
What Does It Mean to Know?p. 47
Requirements of Knowingp. 47
Testing Your Own Knowledgep. 48
How We Come to Knowp. 50
Why Knowing Is Difficultp. 51
A Cautionary Talep. 53
Is Faith a Form of Knowledge?p. 54
Obstacles to Knowledgep. 55
How Good Are Your Opinions?p. 59
Opinions Can Be Mistakenp. 61
Opinions on Moral Issuesp. 61
Even Experts Can Be Wrongp. 63
Kinds of Errorsp. 65
Informed Versus Uninformed Opinionp. 65
Forming Opinions Responsiblyp. 67
What Is Evidence?p. 72
Kinds of Evidencep. 73
Evaluating Evidencep. 79
What Constitutes Sufficient Evidence?p. 80
What Is Agrument?p. 83
The Parts of an Argumentp. 84
Evaluating Agrumentsp. 85
More Difficult Argumentsp. 87
The Pitfallsp. 93
The Basic Problem: "Mine Is Better"p. 94
Egocentric Peoplep. 95
Ethnocentric Peoplep. 96
Controlling "Mine-Is-Better" Thinkingp. 97
Errors of Perspectivep. 102
Poverty of Aspectp. 102
Unwarranted Assumptionsp. 104
The Either/Or Outlookp. 106
Mindless Conformityp. 107
Absolutismp. 108
Relativismp. 108
Bias for or Against Changep. 109
Errors of Procedurep. 115
Biased Consideration of Evidencep. 115
Double Standardp. 117
Hasty Conclusionp. 117
Overgeneralization and Stereotypingp. 118
Oversimplificationp. 120
The post Hoc Fallacyp. 121
Errors of Expressionp. 126
Contradictionp. 126
Arguing in a Circlep. 127
Meaningless Statementp. 128
Mistaken Authorityp. 129
False Analogyp. 129
Irrational Appealp. 130
Errors of Reactionp. 135
Automatic Rejectionp. 137
Changing the Subjectp. 138
Shifting the Burden of Proofp. 139
Straw Manp. 139
Attacking the Criticp. 140
The Errors in Combinationp. 144
Errors of Perspectivep. 144
Errors of Procedurep. 146
Errors of Expressionp. 147
Errors of Reactionp. 149
Sample Combinations of Errorsp. 150
A Sensible View of Terminologyp. 152
A Strategyp. 157
Knowing Yourselfp. 158
Critical Thinking Inventoryp. 159
Using Your Inventoryp. 160
Challenge and Rewardp. 161
Being Observantp. 164
Observing Peoplep. 164
Observation in Science and Medicinep. 165
The Range of Applicationp. 166
Becoming More Observantp. 168
Reflecting on Your Observationsp. 168
Selecting an Issuep. 171
The Basic Rule: Less Is Morep. 171
How to Limit an Issuep. 172
Sample Issue: Pornographyp. 172
Sample Issue: Boxingp. 174
Sample Issue: Juvenile Crimep. 174
Narrowing the Issue Furtherp. 176
Conducting Inquiryp. 178
Working with Inconclusive Resultsp. 178
Where to Look for Informationp. 179
Keeping Focusedp. 187
How Much Inquiry Is Enough?p. 187
Managing Lengthy Materialp. 190
Forming a Judgmentp. 192
Evaluating Evidencep. 193
Evaluating Your Sources' Argumentsp. 194
Making Important Distinctionsp. 198
Expressing Judgmentsp. 199
Persuading Othersp. 206
Guidelines for Persuasionp. 206
An Unpersuasive Presentationp. 215
A Persuasive Presentationp. 217
Notesp. 224
INdexp. 233
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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