9780190903268

Bioethics Principles, Issues, and Cases

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190903268

  • ISBN10:

    0190903260

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-06-28
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Fourth Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria for evaluating them. Integrating eighty-seven readings--ten of them new to this edition--substantive introductions to each issue, numerous classic bioethical cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, this text addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics.

Author Biography


Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several textbooks, including The Power of Critical Thinking, Sixth Edition (2018), Philosophy Here and Now, Third Edition (2018), Writing Philosophy, Second Edition (2018), and Living Philosophy, Second Edition (2017).

Table of Contents


*=New to this Edition
Preface
PART 1. PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES
Chapter 1. Moral Reasoning in Bioethics
Ethics and Bioethics
Ethics and the Moral Life
In Depth: Morality and the Law
Moral Principles in Bioethics
Autonomy
Nonmaleficence
Beneficence
Utility
Justice
Ethical Relativism
In Depth: Anthropology and Moral Diversity
Ethics and Religion
Moral Arguments
Argument Fundamentals
Patterns of Moral Arguments
Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms
In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning
Evaluating Premises
Assessing Whole Arguments
Key Terms
Summary
Argument Exercises
Further Reading
Notes
Chapter 2. Bioethics and Moral Theories
The Nature of Moral Theories
Influential Moral Theories
Utilitarianism
In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule
Kantian Ethics
* Principlism
Natural Law Theory
Rawls' Contract Theory
Virtue Ethics
In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught?
The Ethics of Care
Feminist Ethics
Casuistry
Criteria for Judging Moral Theories
Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of Adequacy
Applying the Criteria
Utilitarianism
Kant's Theory
Key Terms
Summary
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Utilitarianism," John Stuart Mill
"The Moral Law," Immanuel Kant
* Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle
* "Caring," Nel Noddings
* "The Need for More Than Justice," Annette C. Baier
"Moral Saints," Susan Wolf
PART 2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL AND PATIENT
Chapter 3. Paternalism and Patient Autonomy
Shades of Autonomy and Paternalism
Refusing Treatment
In Depth: The Hippocratic Oath
In Depth: Physician Autonomy
* Legal Brief: Advance Directives
Futile Treatment
Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious Grounds
In Depth: CPR and DNR
In Depth: Moral Conflicts in Nursing
Classic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia
Applying Major Theories
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Paternalism," Gerald Dworkin
"The Refutation of Medical Paternalism," Alan Goldman
"Why Doctors Should Intervene," Terrence F. Ackerman
"Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine," Robert L. Schwartz
* "Four Models of the Physician-Patient Relationship," Ezekiel J. Emanuel and Linda L. Emanuel
"Patient Autonomy and Physician Responsibility," Commentaries by Patrick C. Beeman and Ryan C. VanWoerkom
* "Confronting Death: Who Chooses, Who Controls? "A Dialogue Between Dax Cowart And Robert Burt
Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeal
"Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship," AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
"Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?" Helga Kuhse
* "Paternalism Revisited," Harriet Hall
Chapter 4. Truth-Telling and Confidentiality
Paternalism and Deception
In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It?
Confidential Truths
Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to Warn
In Depth: Truth-Telling and Cultural Diversity
Classic Case File: Carlos R.
Applying Major Theories
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration," David C. Thomasma
"On Telling Patients the Truth," Mack Lipkin
"Is It Ever OK to Lie to Patients?," Shelly K. Schwartz
"Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth," Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein
"Why Privacy Is Important," James Rachels
"Confidentiality in Medicine--A Decrepit Concept," Mark Siegler
"Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society," Ruth Macklin
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California
Chapter 5. Informed Consent
Autonomy and Consent
Conditions of Informed Consent
In Depth: Decision-Making Capacity
In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent
Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent Cases
Applying Major Theories
Classic Case File: Jerry Canterbury
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"The Concept of Informed Consent," Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp
"Informed Consent--Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?" Jay Katz
"Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care," Howard Brody
"Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model," Robert J. Levine
Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals
CHAPTER 6. Human Research
The Science of Clinical Trials
In Depth: The Tuskegee Tragedy
Beneficence, Science, and Placebos
Science and Informed Consent
In Depth: Women in Clinical Trials
Research on the Vulnerable
In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial?
Applying Major Theories
Key Terms
Summary
Classic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia Study
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
The Nuremberg Code
Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Medical Association
"The Belmont Report," The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
"Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments," Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
"Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial," Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman
"A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients," Benjamin Freedman
"Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study," Allan M. Brandt
* "Is It Time to Stop Using Race in Medical Research?" Angus Chen
"The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World," Marcia Angell
"Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries," Baruch Brody
PART 3. LIFE AND DEATH
Chapter 7. Abortion
Starting Point: The Basics
Fact File: U.S. Abortions
In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion 2017
The Legal Struggle
In Depth: Late-Term Abortion
Persons and Rights
In Depth: Does a Fetus Feel Pain?
Applying Major Theories
Key Terms
Summary
Classic Case File: Nancy Klein
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"A Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson
"Why Abortion Is Immoral," Don Marquis
"An Almost Absolute Value in History," John T. Noonan, Jr.
"On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion," Mary Anne Warren
"Virtue Theory and Abortion," Rosalind Hursthouse
"Abortion and the Concept of a Person," Jane English
"Abortion," Margaret Olivia Little
"Abortion Through a Feminist Ethics Lens," Susan Sherwin
Roe v. Wade, United States Supreme Court
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, United States Supreme Court
Chapter 8. Reproductive Technology
In Vitro Fertilization
Fact File: Assisted Reproduction
Surrogacy
In Depth: IVF and Children's Future Children
Cloning
In Depth: Cloning Time Line
Applying Major Theories
In Depth: Sherri Shepherd: How Surrogacy Can Go Wrong
Key Terms
Summary
Classic Case File: Baby M
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"IVF: The Simple Case," Peter Singer
"IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns," Mary Anne Warren
"'Give Me Children or I Shall Die!' New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children," Cynthia B. Cohen
"Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation," Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
"The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty," John A. Robertson
"Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment? " Laura M. Purdy
"Is Women's Labor a Commodity?" Elizabeth S. Anderson
"Egg Donation and Commodification," Bonnie Steinbock
"The Wisdom of Repugnance," Leon R. Kass
"Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con," Dan W. Brock
CHAPTER 9. Genetic Choices
Genes and Genomes
Genetic Testing
In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests
Gene Therapy
Fact File: Available Genetic Tests for Cancer Risk
Fact File: Recent Research in Gene Therapy
Stem Cells
Applying Major Theories
Classic Case File: The Kingsburys
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life," Leon R. Kass
"Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?" Laura M. Purdy
"The Morality of Screening for Disability," Jeff McMahan
"Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future," Dena S. Davis
"Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing," Robert Wachbroit
"The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms--The Case of Wrongful Handicaps," Dan W. Brock
"Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?" John Harris
"Genetic Enhancement," Walter Glannon
"Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings," Julian Savulescu
"Germ-Line Gene Therapy," LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer
"What Does 'Respect for Embryos' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?" Bonnie Steinbock
Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Pontifical Academy for Life
Chapter 10. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide
Deciding Life and Death
Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments
In Depth: Assisted Suicide: What Do Doctors Think?
Autonomy, Mercy, and Harm
In Depth: Oregon's Death With Dignity Act
* In Depth: End-Of-Life Decisions in the Netherlands
Applying Major Theories
In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public Opinion
Classic Case File: Nancy Cruzan
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making," Timothy E. Quill
"Voluntary Active Euthanasia," Dan W. Brock
"When Self-Determination Runs Amok," Daniel Callahan
"Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View," John D. Arras
"Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels
"Dying at the Right Time: Reflections on (Un)Assisted Suicide," John Hardwig
"The Philosophers' Brief," Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson
* "Legalizing Assisted Dying Is Dangerous for Disabled People," Liz Carr
* "For Now Have I My Death'': The 'Duty to Die' Versus the Duty to Help the Issue Stay Alive," Felicia Ackerman
Vacco v. Quill, United States Supreme Court
PART 4. JUSTICE AND HEALTH CARE
Chapter 11. Dividing up Health Care Resources
Health Care in Trouble
In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities
Fact File: U.S. Health Care
Theories of Justice
* In Depth: Comparing Health Care Systems: United States, Canada, and Germany
* Fact File: Poll: The Public's Views on the ACA ("Obamacare")
A Right to Health Care
In Depth: Public Health and Bioethics
The Ethics of Rationing
Classic Case File: Christine deMeurers
Key Terms
Summary
Cases for Evaluation
Further Reading
Notes
Readings
"Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?" Norman Daniels
"The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care," Allen E. Buchanan
"Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude," H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.
* "Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care," Eric C. Schneider, Dana O. Sarnak, David Squires, et al.
"Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain," James F. Childress et al.
"Human Rights Approach to Public Health Policy," D. Tarantola and S. Gruskin
Appendix
Glossary
Index

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