9781605354729

Biogeography

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  • ISBN13:

    9781605354729

  • ISBN10:

    1605354724

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2016-10-31
  • Publisher: Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

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Summary

Biogeography, first published in 1983, is one of the most comprehensive text and general reference books in the natural sciences. The fifth edition builds on the strengths of previous editions to provide an insightful and integrative explanation of how geographic variation across terrestrial and marine environments has influenced the fundamental processes of immigration, extinction, and evolution to shape species distributions and nearly all patterns of biological diversity. It is an empirically and conceptually rich text that illustrates general patterns and processes using examples from a broad diversity of life forms, time periods and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Biogeography, Fifth Edition, is written as a primary text for undergraduate and graduate courses, and is also an invaluable reference for biogeographers, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and conservation biologists. Its fundamental assertion is that patterns in biological diversity make little sense unless viewed within an explicit geographic context. Starting from principal patterns and fundamental principles, and assuming only a rudimentary knowledge of biology, geography, and Earth history, the text explains the relationships between geographic variation in biological diversity and the geological, ecological, and evolutionary processes that have produced them.

The use of color illustrations, evaluated and optimized for colorblind readers, has transformed our abilities to illustrate key concepts and empirical patterns in the geography of nature. By providing a description of the historical development of biogeography, evolution and ecology, along with a comprehensive account of the principal patterns, fundamental principles and recent advances in each of these fields of science, our ultimate vision is for Biogeography to serve as the centerpiece of a one- or two-semester core course in biological diversity.

Instructor's Resource Library
The Biogeography, Fifth Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes all of the textbook's figures (both art and photographs) and tables in electronic format. All images are provided in both JPEG (high- and low-resolution versions) and ready-to-use PowerPoint presentations. The figures have all been formatted and color-enhanced for optimal projection in the classroom.

Author Biography


Mark V. Lomolino is a Professor in the Department of Environmental and Forest Biology at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. His research and teaching focus on biogeography, community ecology, and conservation of biological diversity. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society. Dr. Lomolino received the American Society of Mammalogists Award for his dissertation studies on the ecology, evolution, and biogeography of insular mammals.

Brett R. Riddle is a Professor in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His research focuses primarily on the history of biodiversity in western North America, with ongoing projects including: historical assembly of the warm desert biotas; phylogeography of Great Basin cold desert and montane island biotas; and molecular systematics and biogeography of a diverse cadre of North American rodent groups. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society.

Robert J. Whittaker is Professor of Biogeography in the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford and holds a part time Professorial position at the Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate in the University of Copenhagen. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society. He is coauthor of Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation (OUP, 2007). His research interests span island biogeography, diversity theory, macroecology, and conservation biogeography.

Table of Contents



UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE DISCIPLINE

Chapter 1. The Science of Biogeography
What Is Biogeography?
Integrative nature of the field
Relationships to other sciences and an outline of this bookPhilosophy and basic principles
Doing Contemporary Biogeography

Chapter 2. The History and Reticulating Phylogeny of Biogeography
Ancient Knowledge
Globalization of the Geography of Nature
Box 2.1. Persistent Themes of Biogeography
Foundations of Modern Biogeography
Theoretical Maturation during the 19th Century: A Morass before Darwin and Wallace
Four British scientists
Box 2.2. Biogeographic Principles Advocated by Alfred Russel Wallace
Other contributions of the 19th Century
Conceptual Revolutions of the 20th Century
Synopsis

UNIT 2. THE GEOGRAPHIC AND ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BIOGEOGRAPHY

Chapter 3. The Geographic Template: Visualization and Analysis of Biogeographic Patterns
Definition and Components of the Geographic Template
Climate
Soil formation and soil types
Chemistry and physics of aquatic environments
Tides and the intertidal zone
Time
Two-Dimensional Renderings of the Geographic Template
Early maps and cartography
Flattening the globe: Projections and geographic coordinate systems
Visualizing Biogeographic Patterns
Exemplars of visualization in biogeography
The GIS revolution
Cartograms and strategic distortions
Obtaining Geo-Referenced Data
Humboldt's legacy: A global system of observatories
Remote sensing and satellite imagery
Interpolation over space and time
Analyzing Biogeographic Patterns

Chapter 4. Distributions of Species: Ecological Foundations
The Distribution of Individuals
The Distribution of Species and Populations
Mapping and measuring the range
Population growth and demography
Hutchinson's multidimensional niche concept
The geographic range as a reflection of the niche
The relationship between distribution and abundance
What Limits the Geographic Range?
Physical limiting factors
Disturbance, dispersal, and time
Interactions with other organisms
Synthesis

Chapter 5. The Distribution and Dynamics of Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
Historical and Biogeographic Perspectives
Communities and Ecosystems
Community organization: Energetic considerations
Distribution of ecological communities
Temporal patterns: Ecological succession
Mapping Communities: Compositional and Functional Approaches
Terrestrial Biomes
Forests
Woodlands and savanna
Grasslands
Deserts
Aquatic Communities
Marine communities
Freshwater communities
A Global Comparison of Biomes and Communities
Ecosystem Geography
Synthesis in Community Ecology and Biogeography

UNIT 3. BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND EARTH HISTORY

Chapter 6. Dispersal and Immigration
Box 6.1. The Fundamental, Unifying Principles of Biogeography
What Is Dispersal?
Dispersal as an ecological process
Dispersal as a historical biogeographic event
Dispersal and Range Expansion
Jump dispersal
Diffusion
Secular migration
Mechanisms of Movement
Active dispersal
Passive dispersal
The Nature of Barriers
Physiological barriers
Ecological and psychological barriers
Biotic Exchange and Dispersal Routes
Corridors
Filters
Sweepstakes routes
Other means of biotic exchange
Dispersal curves within and among species
Establishing a Colony
Influence of habitat selection
What constitutes a propagule?
Survival in a new ecosystem
Advances in the Study of Dispersal

Chapter 7. Speciation and Extinction
Box 7.1. Some Terms Used by Systematists and Evolutionary Biologists
What Are Species?
The evolution of species concepts
Units below the species level
Higher Classifications
How Do New Species Arise?
Mechanisms of genetic differentiation
Allopatric speciation
Sympatric and parapatric speciation
Diversification
Ecological differentiation
Adaptive radiation
Extinction
Ecological processes
Recent extinctions
Extinctions in the fossil record
Macroevolution
The punctuated equilibrium concept and evolution in the fossil record
Species selection
The role of historical contingency
Micro- and Macroevolution: Toward a Synthesis

Chapter 8. The Changing Earth
The Geological Timescale
Estimating time
The Theory of Continental Drift
Wegener's theory
Early opposition to continental drift
Evidence for continental drift
Box 8.1. Discoveries That Contributed to the Acceptance of the Theory of Continental Drift
The Current Model: Plate Tectonic Theory
Earth's Tectonic History
Tectonic History of the Continents
Gondwana, Laurasia, and the formation of Pangaea
The breakup of Pangaea
The breakup of Laurasia and its rifting from Gondwana
The breakup of Gondwana
Cenozoic Tectonics
The Indo-Australian Region and Wallacea
Central America and the Antilles
Tectonic Development of Marine Basins and Island Chains
Epeiric seas
Formation of the Mediterranean and Red Seas
Dynamics of the Pacific Ocean
Paleoclimates and paleocirculations
Climatic and Biogeographic Consequences of Plate Tectonics

Chapter 9. Glaciation and Biogeographic Dynamics of the Pleistocene
The Record and Drivers of Pleistocene Glaciation
Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
Effects of Climatic Cycles on Non-Glaciated Areas
Temperature
Geographic shifts in climatic zones
Sea level changes during the Pleistocene
Biogeographic Responses to Climatic Cycles of the Pleistocene
Biogeographic responses of terrestrial biotas
Box 9.1. Biogeographic Responses to Climatic Cycles of the Pleistocene
Dynamics of plant communities in the aridlands of North and South America
Aquatic systems
Biotic Exchange and Glacial Cycles
Pleistocene Refugia
Extinctions of the Pleistocene Megafauna

UNIT 4. EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LINEAGES AND BIOTAS

Chapter 10. The Geography of Diversification and Regionalization
Fundamental Geographic Patterns
Endemism and Cosmopolitanism
The origins of endemics
Provincialism
Terrestrial and freshwater regions
Box 10.1. How Have Big Data Sets, Quantitative Approaches, and Evolutionary Affinities Changed How We Define Terrestrial Biogeographic Regions?
Subdividing the terrestrial regions
Distributional congruence reflects a shared history of diversification
Marine regions and provinces
Quantifying Similarity among Biotas
Disjunction
Patterns
Processes
Maintaining Distinct Biotas
Barriers between biogeographic regions
Resistance to invasion
Avian migration and provincialism
Biotic Interchange
The Great American Biotic Interchange
Box 10.2. Old versus Young Isthmus: Geology, Fossils, Ecology, and Molecular Phylogenies
The Lessepsian exchange: The Suez Canal
Biotic interchange: A final point
The Convergence of Isolated Lineages and Biotas
Convergence at the species level
Convergence of entire assemblages
Overview

Chapter 11. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Lineages
Classifying Biological Diversity and Inferring Evolutionary Relationships
Systematics
Evolutionary systematics
Numerical phenetics
Phylogenetic systematics
Box 11.1. The Principles and Rules of Hennigian Logic
Box 11.2. The Basis of Hennig's Paradigm: A Hypothetical Example of Cladogenesis and Cladogram Construction
Molecular Systematics
Evolution of methods in molecular systematics
Molecular characters and properties of molecular evolution
Molecular versus morphological characters
The Fossil Record
Limitations of the fossil record
Biogeographic implications of fossils
Molecular Clocks and Estimating Times of Divergence
An Emerging Synthesis of Molecular Systematics and Paleontology

Chapter 12. Reconstructing the Geographic History of Lineages and Biotas
Shifting Paradigms in Historical Biogeography
Determining centers of origin and directions of dispersal on a stable Earth
From center of origin-dispersal to vicariance
Box 12.1. Sea Snakes: Illustrating the Logic and Flaws of a Center of Origin-Dispersal Paradigm
Beyond Vicariance Biogeography and Simple Vicariance
Box 12.2. Defining and Delineating Areas of Endemism
Box 12.3. Processes That Reduce the Generality of the General Area Cladogram
Different approaches to the same question, or different questions?
Which approach to use?
Phylogeography
The dual nature of phylogeography
Combining phylogeography and ecological niche modeling
Reconstructing shallow histories of lineages and biotas
The impact of phylogeography on biogeography and other disciplines
Box 12.4. Statistical Phylogeography
A Brief Overview of Lineage and Biotic Histories
Histories in Gondwana
Histories in Laurasia
Connections between Gondwana and Laurasia
Histories in the marine realm
Continental histories in, and just before, the ice ages
A Few Final Thoughts on Historical Reconstruction of Lineages and Biotas

UNIT 5. ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY

Chapter 13. Island Biogeography
The Nature of Islands
Patterns in Species Richness and Models of Diversity Dynamics
The species-area relationship
Box 13.1. Interpretations and Comparisons of Parameters in the Species-Area Relationship: An Additional Caution
The species-isolation relationship
The equilibrium model of island biogeography
Advancing island biogeography theory
Box 13.2. Empirical Studies Test the Equilibrium Model
Patterns in Species Composition
Forces assembling insular biotas
Release, displacement, and the ecological assembly of insular communities
Distributions of particular species
Box 13.3. New Zealand's Moas: Four Times Anomalous
The Evolutionary Marvels of Island Life
Dispersal denied: Sticking to the wreck
Transformations of life's most fundamental characteristic--size
Evolving ecologies
The Perils of Island Life
Taxon cycles and evolutionary traps

Chapter 14. Areography, Ecogeography, and Macroecology of Continental and Oceanic Biotas
The Macroecological Approach
The Geographic Range: Areography
Patterns in range shape and size
The frequency distribution of range size
Geographic gradients in range size
Geographic range size as a function of body size
Temporal dynamics of range size
Shapes of ranges
The internal structure of geographic ranges
Ecogeographic Rules: The Terrestrial Realm
Body size and Bergmann's rule
Appendages and Allen's rule
Pelage color and Gloger's rule
Lack's rule and the geography of life history traits
Ecogeographic Rules: The Marine Realm
Thorson's rule of larval development
Temperature, diversity, and Jordan's rule of vertebrae
Geographic gradients in ecological interactions and morphological defenses
The Geography of Biological Diversity
Diversity measures and terminology
Latitudinal Gradients in Biological Diversity
The nature and complexity of the pattern
An ancient but not primordial pattern
Topographic and Oceanic Modifiers
The peninsula effect
Elevational gradients in diversity
Depth and diversity in the aquatic realm
Explanations for the Geography of Biological Diversity
Coda

Unit 6. Conservation and the Frontiers of Biogeography

Chapter 15. Biogeography of Humanity, Biological Diversity, and Conservation Biogeography
Box 15.1. The Geography of Life before Man
The Dynamic Biogeography of Humanity
Migrations out of Africa
Colonizing the Pacific: Indonesia, Sahul, and Oceania
Conquering the cold: Expansions across the Palearctic region
Invasions of the New World
Ecogeography and Island Biogeography of Humanity
The Biodiversity Crisis and Conservation Biogeography
Biological diversity and the Linnaean shortfall
Box 15.2. Challenges and Successes in Addressing the Linnaean Shortfall
Conservation biogeography and the Wallacean shortfall
The geography of recent extinctions and endangerment
Geographic range collapse
The dynamic geography of extinction forces

Chapter 16. From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography

Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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