Biology for the Informed Citizen

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2014-01-03
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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With Biology for the Informed Citizen, students connect the concepts of biology to the consequences of biology. Authors Donna M. Bozzone and Douglas S. Green teach the concepts of biology, evolution, and the process of science so that students can apply their knowledge as informed consumers and users of scientific information.

Cases: An engaging biological issue opens every chapter and is revisited throughout

Concepts: Foundational biological ideas are introduced within the context of important cultural and social issues

Consequences: The concepts and consequences of biology are connected in order to help students make informed decisions about biological issues

Biology for the Informed Citizen is available with or without chapters 11-15 on physiology. Both versions allow instructors to cover the chapters and topics in the order that they choose.

Author Biography

Donna M. Bozzone is Professor of Biology at Saint Michael's College. She specializes in cell and developmental biology and has written three books on cancer and is the consulting editor for the nine-volume series Biology of Cancer.

The late Douglas S. Green was Professor of Biology at Saint Michael's College. He specialized in evolution, ecology, and bioinformatics.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1. The Nature of Biology and Evolution: Why Does Biology Matter to You?
case study The "Infidelity Gene"
1.1. How Does Biology Affect Your Life?
1.2. What Are the Features of Life?
1.3. How Do Organisms Function?
Atoms, Chemical Bonding and Molecules
Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
Energy Extraction and Use
1.4. How Do Organisms Reproduce?
1.5. How Does Life Evolve?
Darwin's Theory
Extending Darwin's Theory Through Time
Evolution Is the Unifying Theme of Biology
1.6. What Patterns of Diversity Are Found in Nature?
Life Is Diverse
Evolutionary Diversification Leads to Degrees of Relatedness
Organizing Hierarchies in the Diversity of Life
:: Biology in Perspective
Technology Connection: Identifying the "Infidelity Gene"
Scientist Spotlight: Carol W. Greider (1961-)
Life Application: Determining When Life Has Ended
How Do We Know? Spontaneous Generation

CHAPTER 2. The Nature of Science: How Do We Know How the World Works?
case study The Mysterious Case of Childbed Fever
2.1. How Would a Scientist Investigate Childbed Fever?
Looking for Clues
Possible Causes
"Cadaverous Particles"
2.2. How Does Science Work?
Observations and Facts
Hypotheses and Predictions
Evaluation and Interpretation of Results
Scientific Theories
2.3. What Assumptions Does Science Make About Nature?
Cause and Effect
Consistency and Repeatability
2.4. What Are the Principal Features of Science?
Empirical Evidence
2.5. How Does Science Differ from Other Ways of Knowing?
2.6. How Does Science Differ from Pseudoscience and Quackery?
:: Biology in Perspective
Life Application: Childbed Fever
Scientist Spotlight: Robert Koch (1843-1910)
How Do We Know? Hypothesis Testing and Scientific Proof
Technology Connection: Throat Cultures


CHAPTER 3. Human Development: How Do Cells Make a Person?
case study Unusually Close Sisters
3.1. What Are the Units of Life?
3.2. What Cell Structures Play a Role in Embryo Development?
Cell Membrane
Endomembrane System
3.3. How Do Eggs and Sperm Form?
Meiosis I: The First Round of Cell Division
Meiosis II: The Second Round of Cell Division
3.4. What Happens in Fertilization?
3.5. How Does an Embryo Form and Ultimately Become a Fetus?
Gastrulation and Organ Formation
Gene Expression
3.6. What Are the Key Events of Pregnancy?
Embryonic Development: Conception to Eight Weeks
Fetal Development: Three Months to Nine Months
3.7. What Happens in Labor and Delivery?
3.8. How Do Twins Form?
3.9. What Can Conjoined Twins Tell Us About Biology and Ourselves?
Explanations for Conjoining
What Conjoining May Tell Us About Biology
What Conjoining May Tell Us About Ourselves
:: Biology in Perspective
Scientist Spotlight: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
How Do We Know? Eggs and Sperm Are Both Needed for Fertilization
Technology Connection: Ultrasound
Life Application: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

CHAPTER 4. Inheritance, Genes, and Physical Characteristics: Does Disease Have a Genetic Basis?
case study Sickle Cell Disease, Malaria, and Human Evolution
4.1. What Is Sickle Cell Disease?
How Sickling Happens
Sickle Cell Disease and Inheritance
4.2. Could Molecular Medicine Prevent Sickle Cell Disease?
4.3. Where Is Our Genetic Information Stored?
4.4. How Did Mendel Discover the Rules of Inheritance?
Mendel's Experiments
Gametes and Monohybrids
Mendel's Rules
4.5. How Much Do Mendel's Rules Explain?
Alleles Can Interact, and So Can Genes
Genes May Aff ect More Than One Characteristic
Gene Expression Depends on the Environment
4.6. What Are Genes Made Of?
4.7. How Does DNA Function?
The "Transforming Substance"
4.8. What Processes Must DNA Accomplish?
Protein Production
4.9. Why Is Protein Structure So Important?
:: Biology in Perspective
Technology Connection: Electrophoresis
How Do We Know? Pedigree Analysis
Scientist Spotlight: Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)
Life Application: The Effectiveness of Genetic Screening

CHAPTER 5. Cancer: How Can It Be Prevented, Diagnosed, and Treated?
case study Xeroderma pigmentosum
5.1. How Does Cancer Make You Sick?
5.2. How Do Cancer Cells Differ from Normal Cells?
5.3. What Is the Life Cycle of a Cell?
The Molecules That Regulate Cell Division
The Cell Cycle
5.4. In What Ways Is Cancer a Genetic Disorder?
Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
Chromosomal Abnormalities
5.5. What Risk Factors Are Associated with Cancer?
Diet and Exercise
Excessive Alcohol Use
Workplace Carcinogens and Pollution Inheritance
5.6. How Is Cancer Diagnosed?
5.7. How Is Cancer Treated?
Radiation Therapy
Cancer Treatments on the Horizon
Why Cancer Treatments Sometimes Fail
5.8. How Can Cancer Be Prevented?
:: Biology in Perspective
How Do We Know? Cancer-Causing Genes from Malfunctioning Normal Genes
Scientist Spotlight: Peyton Rous (1879-1970)
Technology Connection: Computerized Tomography (CT) Scans
Life Application: Chemoprevention

CHAPTER 6. Reproduction: What Kind of Baby Is It?
case study The Fastest Woman on Earth
6.1. How Do Males and Females Form?
The Stages of Sex Determination
Chromosome Instructions
Hormone Instructions
6.2. What Happens If the Hormonal Signals Are Missing or Misread?
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
6.3. How Do Men Produce Sperm?
The Testes
Sperm and Semen
Hormones and Sperm Production
6.4. How Do Women Produce Eggs?
The Ovaries
The Ovarian Cycle
The Uterine Cycle
Hormones and Pregnancy
6.5. How Can Pregnancy Be Prevented?
6.6. What Causes Infertility, and How Can It Be Treated?
Causes of Infertility
Infertility Treatments
6.7. How Can We Tell If a Fetus or Baby Is Healthy?
Blood and Urine Tests
Screens and Diagnostic Tests
Newborn Tests
6.8. What Tests Are on the Horizon?
:: Biology in Perspective
Life Application: Gender Testing in Sports
How Do We Know? The Female Reproductive Tract Helps Sperm Find an Egg
Technology Connection: Home Pregnancy Tests
Scientist Spotlight: Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)

CHAPTER 7. Plants, Agriculture, and Genetic Engineering: Can We Create Better Plants and Animals?
case study Golden Rice
7.1. Why Are Plants Such Good Sources of Food?
7.2. How Do Plants Make Food?
Overview of Photosynthesis
Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle
The Role of Cells in Photosynthesis
The Role of Leaves in Photosynthesis
7.3. What Are the Goals of Genetic Engineering in Plants?
Pesticide Production
Herbicide Resistance
Increased Nutritional Value
7.4. How Was Golden Rice Engineered?
Defi ne the Problem
Clone the Genes
Package the Genes
Transform the Cells
Confi rm the Strain
7.5. How Else Is Genetic Engineering Being Used?
Construction of an Organism's Genome
7.6. What Are the Risks of Genetic Engineering?
Economic Considerations
7.7. How Ethical Is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic Engineering and Our Environment
Genetic Engineering and Human Life
:: Biology in Perspective
Scientist Spotlight: Kary Mullis (1944-)
Technology Connection: How to Transform Cells
Life Application: From Teosinte to Maize
How Do We Know? Evaluating the Safety of Genetically Engineered Products

CHAPTER 8. Health Care and the Human Genome: How Will We Use Our New Medical and Genetic Skills?
case study Carrie Buck and the American Eugenics Movement
8.1. Do Complex Human Characteristics Have a Genetic Basis?
Genetic Determinism
Defining Normal
8.2. What Is Gene Therapy?
Somatic Gene Therapy
Germ-Line Gene Therapy
8.3. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Genetically Altering Humans?
Somatic Gene Therapy
Germ-Line Gene Therapy
8.4. How Can Stem Cells and Cloning Be Used to Alter People?
Stem Cells
8.5. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Stem Cell Research?
8.6. What Other Challenges Result from Advances in Medical Technology?
Danger of a New Eugenics Movement
:: Biology in Perspective
Scientist Spotlight: Nancy Wexler (1945-)
Life Application: Sex Selection
How Do We Know? How Human Embryonic Stem Cells Can Be Directed to Form Specialized Cells
Technology Connection: Who's the Daddy?

CHAPTER 9. Evolution: How Do Species Arise and Adapt?
case study Lactose Intolerance and the Geographic Variation of Human Traits
9.1. How Does Your Body Reflect an Evolutionary History?
Human (and Mammalian) Testes Hang Loose
You Can Get Scurvy, but Your Pet Can't (Unless You Have Guinea Pigs)
Your Eye Is Organized Backward
9.2. What Convinced Darwin of the Fact of Evolution?
The Voyage of the Beagle
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
The Modern Synthesis
9.3. How Do Humans Adapt to Their Environment?
Lactase Persistence
Malaria and Oxidizing Drugs
9.4. How Does Natural Selection Produce Adaptations?
The Grants' 40-Year Study of Natural Selection
Fitness and Natural Selection
Limits of Natural Selection
9.5. What Are Random Events in Evolution?
9.6. What Is the Evidence for Speciation?
Biological Species Concept
Evidence for Speciation
9.7. How Do New Species Arise?
Genetic Isolation
Genetic Divergence
Secondary Contact
9.8. Why Is It So Difficult for the Public to Accept Evolution?
:: Biology in Perspective
Scientist Spotlight: Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)
How Do We Know? Constructing Evolutionary Trees
Technology Connection: Genbank
Life Application: Public Acceptance of Evolution

CHAPTER 10. The Evolution of Disease: Why Do We Get Sick?
case study Deadly Malaria
10.1. In What Ways Is Your Body an Ecosystem?
The Many Species That Live and Evolve in Your Body
The Ecology of Our Resident Species
Species That Cause Disease
10.2. Why Do Diseases Evolve Resistance to Antibiotics?
How Resistance Evolves
Where Resistant Bacteria Come From
Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics
Why Not All Bacteria Are Resistant to Antibiotics
Antibiotics in the Environment
10.3. Why Are Some Diseases More Deadly Than Others?
Why Some Diseases Become Milder over Time
The Trade-Off Hypothesis of Reproduction Versus Transmission
10.4. Where Do New Diseases Come From?
Sources of New Diseases
Stages of a New Disease
10.5. How Can Evolution Help Us Control Disease?
Antibiotic Resistance
Controlling the Spread of Disease to Select for Milder Forms
:: Biology in Perspective
How Do We Know? The Many Species That Live on You
Life Application: Malaria and DDT
Scientist Spotlight: Paul W. Ewald (1953-)
Technology Connection: How Vaccines Are Made


CHAPTER 11. Ecology: How Do We Benefit from a Functional Ecosystem?
case study The Near-Extinction of Kirtland's Warbler
11.1. How Do Species Adapt to Their Habitat?
Adapting to Physical Conditions
Adapting to Limited Shelter
11.2. Why Do Species Compete?
The Competitive Exclusion Principle
Instances When Competitors May Coexist
11.3. How Do Species Exploit One Another?
Population Cycles
An Evolutionary Arms Race
11.4. When Can Species Cooperate?
11.5. How Do Ecological Interactions Affect Us?
We Compete with Other Species
We Develop Useful Products and Ideas as a Result of Exploitation Interactions
We Capitalize on Mutualisms
11.6. What Does a Functioning Ecosystem Do?
Exploitation Interactions Distribute Energy and Nutrients
Ecosystems Recycle Material on a Global Scale
11.7. What Benefi ts Do We Get from a Functioning Ecosystem?
Ecosystem Services
Disruptions to Ecosystem Services
:: Biology in Perspective
Scientist Spotlight: Robert Helmer MacArthur (1930-1972)
Technology Connection: Biological Control of Schistosomiasis
How Do We Know? Long-Term Ecological Research
Life Application: Ecology and Human Conflict

CHAPTER 12. Biodiversity and Human Affairs: How Is the Human Race Like a Meteorite?
case study The Discovery of America
12.1. What Are the Components of Biodiversity?
12.2. What Areas Have the Highest Biodiversity?
The Latitudinal Gradient
Why the Gradient Exists
12.3. What Can Islands Tell Us About Biodiversity?
12.4. Why Do Diff erent Regions Have Different Species?
Biogeographic Realms
Wallace's Line
12.5. How Does Biodiversity Change Through Time?
12.6. Why Is Biodiversity Needed for a Healthy Ecosystem?
Productivity, Stability, and Ecosystem Health
Why Biodiversity Increases Productivity
Why Biodiversity Increases Stability
How Biodiversity Keeps the Food Web Intact
12.7. Why Should We Preserve Biodiversity?
The Spotted Owl Controversy
Long-Term Benefi ts of an Old-Growth Forest
How Old-Growth Forests Provide Ecosystem Services
12.8. How Do We Keep Track of Biodiversity?
The Species Diversity Index
Indicator Species and Satellite Images
12.9. Why Might We Be Facing the Sixth Mass Extinction?
The Blitzkrieg Hypothesis
Background Extinction
Human Activity Threatens Biodiversity
12.10. How Can We Preserve Biodiversity?
:: Biology in Perspective
Life Application: The Importance of Genetic Diversity
How Do We Know? Experimental Island Zoogeography
Technology Connection: Satellite Imagery
Scientist Spotlight: E. O. Wilson (1929-)

CHAPTER 13, Human Population Growth: How Many People Can a Single Planet Hold?
case study A Story About Bacteria
13.1. How Can Populations Grow So Fast?
The Dif erence Between Linear and Exponential Growth
Defining Growth Rate
Determining Growth Rate
Doubling Time
13.2. Why Don't Populations Grow Forever?
The Eff ects of Population Density
Logistic Growth
Our Carrying Capacity
13.3. How Is Population Growth Influenced
by Age and Sex?
Age, Sex, and Population Growth
Age Pyramids
13.4. Why Do Developing and Developed Countries Grow Differently?
Total Fertility and Age at First Reproduction
Fertility and Mortality Differences
Family Planning Differences
Demographic Transition
13.5. How Do We Use Information About Population Growth?
The Constitution and the Census
Planning for Population Shifts
Resource Depletion
The Limits to Growth
:: Biology in Perspective
How Do We Know? Modeling Population Growth
Scientist Spotlight: Donella Meadows (1941-2001)
Life Application: The Demographics of China
Technology Connection: Male Contraception

Answers to Selected Questions

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