Blade Design and Analysis for Steam Turbines

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-04-14
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Proven methods for evaluating existing steam turbine design to select proper blade for failure-free steam turbine operationBlade Design and Analysis for Steam Turbinesdetails blade functionality and how it fits in relation to the complete steam turbine system as well as construction materials and methods, manufacturing processes, and design methods to estimate reliability of blades under fatigue and vibration. Blades are at the heart of process steam turbines used to generate electricity from wind, steam, gas, and solar hydrogen. The information in this book helps turbine designers, mechanical engineers, process equipment design/maintenance engineers, and buyers of turbines estimate the reliability of blades.Blade Design and Analysis for Steam Turbines Contains abbreviations and symbol interpretations Presents a blade life assessment methodology Includes 150 illustrations Covers practical aspects of designing and assessing tools Equips you with the knowledge base to select appropriate blade designsIn-depth, practical coverage: Performance Fundamentals & Blade Loading Determination; Construction of Blades and Attachments; Relevant Strength of Materials; Fundamentals of Vibration; Damping Concepts as Applicable to Turbine Blades; Vibration Behavior of Bladed Disk System; Evaluation Concepts for Vibration of Blades; Reliability Evaluation for Blade Design; Advanced Topics

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Importance of Blades in Steam Turbinesp. 1
Brief Historical Perspective of Technological Developmentp. 2
Steam Turbine Design Process, Performance Estimation, and Determination of Blade Loadsp. 11
Turbine Design Processp. 12
Introduction to Steam Turbine Thermodynamicsp. 13
Velocity Diagramsp. 17
Euler's Equationp. 17
Impulse Turbinep. 19
Reaction Turbinep. 22
Application Requirements and Conditions of Servicep. 25
Preliminary Turbine Designp. 27
Number of Stagesp. 27
Airfoil Section Shapep. 29
Number of Bladesp. 32
Blade Loadingp. 34
Steady Loadsp. 34
Unsteady Blade Loadsp. 37
Turbine Blade Construction, Materials, and Manufacturep. 47
Airfoilsp. 49
Impulse and Reaction Bladesp. 50
Impulsep. 50
Reactionp. 51
Twisted-Tapered Airfoilsp. 52
Rootsp. 53
Circumferential or Tangential Dovetail Rootsp. 53
Axial Rootsp. 57
Pinned Rootsp. 59
Shrouds and Auxiliary Dampersp. 62
Riveted Shroudsp. 62
Integral Shroudsp. 63
Z-Lock Shroudsp. 64
Auxiliary Shroud Dampersp. 65
Blade Materialsp. 67
Stainless Steelp. 68
Titaniump. 69
Other Blade Materialsp. 70
Material Formsp. 71
Manufacturing Processesp. 73
Erosion Protection-Condensing Stagesp. 76
Bladed Disk Assembly Processesp. 79
Assembly of Bladed Disks with Circumferential Dovetail Rootsp. 79
Bladed Disk Assembly-Axial Fir Tree Rootsp. 83
Bladed Disk Assembly-Pinned Rootsp. 84
Riveted Shroud Installationp. 86
Integral Shroud Installationp. 93
Inspection, Testing, and Quality Assurancep. 96
System of Stress and Damage Mechanismsp. 99
Stress-Strain Behavior of Metalsp. 100
Engineering Stress-Strain Propertiesp. 105
True Stress-Strain Propertiesp. 106
Measure of Material's Engineering Energy Capacityp. 108
Stress Tensor and Strain Tensorp. 109
Stress at a Point and Stress Concentrationp. 110
Three-Dimensional Expression for Stress at a Pointp. 115
Principal Stresses and Direction Cosinesp. 116
Deformation and Fracture Damagep. 120
Theories of Failure under Static Loadsp. 121
Creepp. 125
Damage due to Cyclic Loadingp. 137
Review of Fundamentals of Vibrationp. 157
Discrete Systemsp. 158
Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) Systemp. 158
Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) Systemp. 161
System with Equal Frequenciesp. 164
Continuous Systemsp. 166
Cantilever Beamp. 166
Circular Platep. 169
Damping Conceptsp. 171
Rheological Modelp. 171
Factors Affecting Dampingp. 172
Viscous Dampingp. 173
Critical Dampingp. 173
Proportional Dampingp. 173
Frictional Damping and Z-Lock Shroudp. 174
Simple Estimation Method-Macromodelp. 177
Dynamic Considerationp. 181
Equivalent Viscous Dampingp. 184
Macroslip and Microslipp. 186
Summary of Simple Analysisp. 188
Vibration Behavior of Bladed Disk Systemp. 191
Single Cantilevered Bladep. 191
Packet of Bladesp. 192
Individual Disksp. 193
Analysis of a Bladed Disk Systemp. 194
Freestanding (Blades with or without a Shroud But Not Connected to One Another)p. 194
Packeted Bladed Diskp. 196
Completely Shrouded Designp. 200
Evaluation Concepts for Blade Resonant Vibrationp. 201
Campbell Diagramp. 201
Interference Diagram (SAFE Diagram)p. 202
Work Done by an Applied Forcep. 203
Interference Diagram When Harmonics of Excitation Are Larger Than One-Half of the Number of Bladesp. 217
Effect of Temperature and Speed on Natural Frequenciesp. 221
Effect on Natural Frequency due to Centrifugal Stiffeningp. 221
Lacing Wire Constructionp. 222
Determination of Effects of Number of Blades in a Packetp. 225
Quick Check for Requirement of a Lacing Wire Constructionp. 225
Sizing and Positioning of a Lacing Wirep. 227
Check of Stress in the Hole in the Bladep. 229
Partial Admission Stagep. 232
Damped Free Vibrationp. 238
Damped Forced Vibrationp. 238
Effect of Mistuning of a Bladed Disk System on Vibration Responsep. 243
Impure Mode Shapes (Packeted Bladed Disk)p. 245
Graphical Methodp. 250
Mathematical Expressionp. 253
Effect on Responsep. 254
Reliability Evaluation for Blade Designp. 257
Loads, Stress, and Evaluationp. 257
Stress due to Centrifugal Loadp. 258
Stress due to Steam Forcesp. 259
Resonant Vibrationp. 262
Blade Frequency Evaluationp. 263
Exciting Forcesp. 264
Running Speed Harmonic Excitationp. 264
Nozzle Passing Frequency (NPF) Excitationp. 265
Partial Admission Excitationp. 267
Factor of Safety Calculationp. 268
Influence of Tolerance Stack Up in Root-Disk Attachmentp. 272
Summary of Design Criteriap. 277
Checklist for Auditing a Blade Designp. 278
Life Assessment Aspects for Bladep. 283
Assessment of Useful Life of Blade in Presence of High Cycle Fatiguep. 283
Factor of Safety Concept for High Cycle Fatiguep. 289
Life Estimationp. 289
Process of Shot Peen and Laser Peen to Improve Fatigue Lifep. 294
Basic Explanation for Increase in Fatigue Lifep. 294
Residual Stress due to Shot Peenp. 296
Linear Approximation of Compressive Layer Profilep. 296
Exponential Approximation of Compressive Layer Profilep. 299
Combination of Applied and Residual Compressive Stressp. 302
Linear Approximation of Combined Stressp. 303
Exponential Approximation of Combined Stressp. 304
Mechanistic View of Improvement in Fatigue Life due to Shot Peenp. 306
Improvement during High Cycle Fatiguep. 306
Improvement during Low Cycle Fatigue-Zero Mean Stressp. 308
Process of Laser Peenp. 308
Estimation of Riskp. 313
Probabilistic Concept to Quantify Risk of a Proposed Designp. 313
Probabilistic Treatment of Factor of Safety Based on Goodman Equationp. 320
Transformation of Random Variablesp. 324
Single Cantilever Beamp. 325
Probabilistic Low Cycle Fatigue Conceptp. 330
Summaryp. 333
Deterministic Reliability Estimationp. 333
Stress and Fatigue Analysisp. 333
Creep Analysisp. 334
Modal Analysisp. 334
Response Analysisp. 335
Goodman Factor of Safety Based on Above Analysisp. 335
Deterministic Life Estimationp. 335
Probabilistic Reliability Analysisp. 338
Probabilistic Goodman Analysisp. 338
Probabilistic Frequency Analysisp. 340
Probabilistic Life Estimationp. 340
Appendix: Fourier Seriesp. 343
Bibliographyp. 347
Indexp. 351
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