Brazil Five Centuries of Change

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-06-04
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Revised and updated in this second edition, Brazil: Five Centuries of Change vividly traces the development of Brazil over the last 500 years. Author Thomas E. Skidmore, a preeminent authority on Brazil, provides a lively political and economic narrative while also including relevant details on society and culture. Skidmore's particularly major revision of the colonial chapters begins with the discovery of Brazil by Pedro Alvares Cabral and includes Portugal's remarkable command of the vast country in the face of Spanish, French, and Dutch colonial interests. The text goes on to cover the move of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil in 1808, the country's independence in 1822, establishment of the Empire within the context of expansion of the coffee trade, the importance of slavery in nineteenth-century Brazil, and the move towards abolition. This second edition offers an unparallelled look at Brazil in the twentieth century, including in-depth coverage of the 1930 revolution and Vargas's rise to power; the ensuing unstable democratic period and the military coups that followed; and the reemergence of democracy in 1985. It concludes with the recent presidency of Luiz Inacio "Lula" da Silva, covering such economic successes as record-setting exports, dramatic foreign debt reduction, and improved income distribution. The second edition features numerous new images and a new bibliographic guide to recent works on Brazilian history for use by both instructors and students. Informed by the most recent scholarship available, Brazil: Five Centuries of Change, Second Edition, explores the country's many blessings--ethnic diversity, racial democracy, a vibrant cultural life, and a wealth of natural resources. It also looks at Brazil's historically severe problems--including political instability, military rule, chronic inflation, and international debt--and its deplorable environmental record. An ideal choice for undergraduate and graduate courses in Latin American history, this eloquent and detailed look at Brazil will be the standard history of the country for years to come.

Author Biography

Thomas E. Skidmore is Carlos Manuel de Cespedes Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University. He is the coauthor of Modern Latin America, Sixth Edition.

Table of Contents

List of Exhibits and Figuresp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Introduction: A Brief Sketch of Brazil and Its Place in the Worldp. 1
The Birth and Growth of Colonial Brazilp. 9
Portuguese Arrival in the New Worldp. 9
Factors Leading Up to Cabral's Voyagep. 11
Early Consolidation of the Monarchyp. 12
Social Structure with a Merchant Classp. 12
Long-standing Involvement in Trade Routesp. 13
Too Small to Send Nationals to Settle Abroadp. 13
Securing the Frontiersp. 14
From Trading to Colonizingp. 15
Brazil's Colonial Economy and Its Nexus with Portugalp. 19
The Influence of Enlightenment Ideasp. 24
Conspiracies against the Portuguesep. 25
Peoples and Dramas in the Making of the Colonyp. 29
Hunting Indigenous People for Enslavement and the Jesuit Rolep. 29
The Portuguese Explorers and Their Expeditionsp. 32
The Role of the Mamelucop. 33
The Concept of Race as Applied to Indians in the Colonyp. 35
The Place of African Slaves and Free Coloredsp. 36
The Persistence of the African in Brazilian Culturep. 38
From Colony to Independence as a Monarchyp. 41
The Portuguese Court Comes to Brazilp. 41
Creating a New Portuguese Americap. 43
Brazilian Hierarchiesp. 46
The Tribulations of Brazil's First Emperorp. 47
Uprisings under the Regencyp. 50
Recentralizationp. 53
The Role of Pedro IIp. 54
The Rise of Coffeep. 56
The Emerging Problems with Slavery as an Institutionp. 60
The Question of Abolitionp. 62
The Paraguayan Warp. 64
The Making of "Modern" Brazilp. 71
A New Generation and the Military Questionp. 71
Abolition and Its Aftermath: The Brazilian Wayp. 73
The End of the Empirep. 78
Selling Brazilp. 81
"Whitening" Brazilp. 82
The Reality behind the Facadep. 84
Coffee Fluctuations, Emerging Industry, and Urban Laborp. 87
The Roots of Industrializationp. 88
Worker Organization and Employers' Strategyp. 90
Evaporation of the Oligarchical Consensusp. 92
A Message from Belowp. 92
Economic Strainsp. 93
Building to a Dictatorship and World War IIp. 97
The Shock of World War Ip. 97
The Economy after the Warp. 99
Brazil's Uneven Developmentp. 101
New Currents in the 1920sp. 102
Modernism, Brazilian Stylep. 104
Rise of Anti-Liberal Thoughtp. 105
The Disintegration of the Old Politicsp. 107
The Revolution of 1930p. 108
Swing toward Centralizationp. 110
Ideological Polarizationp. 112
Getulio Vargas as Dictatorp. 114
The Vargas Stylep. 116
Corporatist Inroadsp. 117
A New Search for National Identityp. 118
Juggling the International Optionsp. 120
World War II and the Rise of U.S. Influencep. 121
Collapse of the Dictatorship at Homep. 124
Returning to Democracy, for a Whilep. 126
The 1945 Election and the Dutra Periodp. 126
Vargas Returnsp. 128
From Oligarch to Populistp. 129
Vargas's Legislative Program Runs into Troublep. 131
Suicidep. 133
Population Growth, Regional Disequilibria, and Migrationp. 136
A New President, Juscelino Kubitschek, Electedp. 140
Political Strategyp. 141
The Economic Development Programp. 142
Dealing with the World Economyp. 143
The Brief Presidency of Janio Quadrosp. 145
The Succession of Joao Goulartp. 147
Populists versus the Militaryp. 148
The Economic Crisis Escalatesp. 149
Rule of the Militaryp. 153
The Generals Search for a Political Basep. 153
Growing Opposition, Growing Repression: 1964-1967p. 155
Triumph of the Hard Linep. 156
The Arrival of the Guerrillasp. 158
Brazilian Culture and the Generalsp. 159
The Effects of Repressionp. 166
Military Rule and Questions about Brazilian Political Traditionp. 168
The Economic "Miracle" Wrought by the Authoritariansp. 169
The Benefits and Costs of Foreign Loansp. 171
The Winners and Losersp. 172
The Road to Redemocratizationp. 175
Battles within the Officer Corpsp. 175
Manipulating the Electoral Systemp. 177
Redemocratization-New Hope, Old Problemsp. 180
An Unintended Successionp. 180
Sarney and the New Democracyp. 181
The Cruzado Planp. 183
The Debt Crisis and the Economyp. 185
Lost Investmentp. 186
The Brain Drainp. 187
Widening Gaps between Rich and Poorp. 188
Education and Health Carep. 191
Housing and Communicationsp. 192
Public Health: A Success Storyp. 193
Changes Affecting Womenp. 194
Race Relationsp. 198
Contemporary Culturep. 201
The Political Spectrum in the New Democracyp. 202
The Collor Debaclep. 207
The Electionp. 208
The Policiesp. 209
The Endp. 210
Another Vice President in Commandp. 211
Back to Stabilization: The Plano Realp. 212
The Presidential Election of 1994p. 215
The Cardoso Government's First Termp. 216
Going for a Second Termp. 219
Social Justice Delayedp. 222
Selling Off the Statep. 224
Brazil in the Shadow of an Argentine Defaultp. 225
Brazilian Democracy Takes a New Turn: Or Does It?p. 229
Lula Finally Becomes Legitimatep. 229
The Economic Scenep. 230
The 2002 Presidential Campaignp. 230
Lula's First Stepsp. 233
The PT in Powerp. 235
Exports Take Center Stage as Lula Continues to Governp. 237
Government Fortunes Further Reverse as the PT Tastes Scandalp. 240
The Last Year of Lula's First Termp. 243
The Economy in 2006p. 244
Some Hard Lessons for Lula's Socialismp. 245
The Landless Movementp. 245
Riots among the Criminal Populationp. 246
Conflict with Bolivia over Natural Gasp. 247
The 2006 Presidential Campaignp. 248
Lula's Second Term and the Outlook Aheadp. 250
Lula's Luckp. 252
What's Next?p. 254
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 257
Indexp. 271
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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