British Foreign and Defence Policy Since 1945 Challenges and Dilemmas in a Changing World

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-07-15
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
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The end of the Cold War, 9/11, conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the emergence of 'rogue' and 'failing' states, have all fundamentally served to transform the international arena and Britain's role and position within it. This volume sets out the choices, problems and dilemmas facing contemporary policy-makers against a background of British external policy responses to emerging challenges since 1945.

Author Biography

ROBERT SELF is Professor of Governance and International Relations at London Metropolitan University.

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Mapsp. ix
List of Abbreviationsp. xi
Introduction: Britain's Place in a Changing Worldp. 1
From 'superpower' to 'global hub'p. 1
Trying (and failing) to adjust to harsh realities?p. 5
'Traditionalist' versus 'transformationalist' perspectivesp. 7
British Power and the Burden of Historyp. 13
The rise of British imperial powerp. 13
New threats and challenges: the British Empire and the 'resource gap' before 1914p. 16
The First World War and its legacyp. 20
Foreign and defence policy challenges of the 1930sp. 22
The Second World War and the consequences of relative economic declinep. 27
Continuity and consensus in post-war foreign and defence policyp. 31
Ernest Bevin and the foundations of the post-war foreign policy consensusp. 34
From Empire to Commonwealthp. 40
The imperial legacy and the test of warp. 40
The withdrawal from Empire, phase 1: India and Palestinep. 42
Retrenchment and resistance, 1945-57p. 47
The Suez crisis, 1956: the last blast of imperialism?p. 50
Withdrawal from Empire, phase 2: Harold Macmillan and the 'Wind of Change'p. 55
Forces driving the process of decolonizationp. 59
Constraints upon Britain's imperial retreatp. 60
Britain and the transition to black majority rule in southern Africap. 62
Fighting for the Falklandsp. 64
Britain and the Commonwealth of Nationsp. 68
Britain and European decolonisation: a comparative perspectivep. 70
Britain, the Atlantic Alliance and the 'Special Relationship'p. 74
Wartime cooperation and conflictp. 74
Ernest Bevin and the policy of containmentp. 77
Fluctuating fortunes: Churchill, Eden and Macmillan, 1951-63p. 83
The Atlantic alliance in decline, 1964-79p. 86
'Special' once more? Thatcher, Major, Reagan and Bush, 1979-97p. 87
New Labour, Clinton and George W. Bushp. 94
Gordon Brown and 'our most important bilateral relationship'p. 101
The nature of the 'Special Relationship'p. 103
'Special Relationships': a sectoral perspectivep. 105
Anglo-American relations since 1945: a cost-benefit analysisp. 107
Britain and Europep. 111
Paying the 'Price of Victory'p. 111
Britain and the limits of cooperation, 1945-55p. 117
'Missing the boat': Britain's first two applications, 1955-69p. 120
Edward Heath's European crusade and Labour's referendum, 1970-79p. 126
Margaret Thatcher and the EU budget, 1979-84p. 129
The Single European Act (SEA), the Delors Report and monetary union, 1984-90p. 132
John Major: a change of tone but not substancep. 134
Tony Blair and the 'Europeanisation' of New Labourp. 136
New Labour, the euro, the Constitutional Treaty and other problemsp. 142
Gordon Brown and selective Europeanism since 2007p. 146
New Labour and the EU: continuity and changep. 150
The Problems of Conventional Defencep. 152
British military power: reacting to economic decline or adjusting to change?p. 152
Disillusioned hopes of military power with reduced expenditure, 1945-57p. 159
Duncan Sandys and the defence White Paper of 1957p. 162
The Wilson governments and the retreat from 'East of Suez'p. 165
The Thatcher governments and 'the Way Forward'p. 168
'Options for Change' in a world turned upside down, 1989-97p. 171
New Labour and hopes of delivering security in a changing worldp. 173
Too many commitments, too little money? Defence funding since 1997p. 176
Blair, Brown and the crisis of military overstretchp. 180
Expenditure priorities and the failures of defence procurementp. 186
Conventional defence forces since 1945: Plus ca changep. 188
Britain and the Bomb: The Quest for a Nuclear Deterrentp. 192
Wartime collaboration and US betrayalp. 194
The Attlee government and the independent nuclear deterrentp. 197
Churchill and the hydrogen bombp. 200
Great power status - but at a pricep. 202
Trying (and failing) to keep up with the superpowersp. 205
The Thatcher government and the purchase of Tridentp. 207
New Labour and the upgrading of Tridentp. 209
The US connection and the 'son of Star Wars'p. 214
New Labour, the 'Ethical Dimension' and 'Liberal Intervention'p. 216
Labour's commitment to an 'ethical dimension' in British foreign policyp. 216
New Labour and human rights abroadp. 220
New Labour, ethics and arms exportsp. 225
The arms trade, bribery and the control of international corruptionp. 231
International development and developing world debt reliefp. 234
Climate change and the environmental agendap. 241
The 'Blair doctrine', liberal intervention and the Kosovo campaignp. 242
Afghanistan, the Taliban and the 'war on terror'p. 245
Saddam Hussein, Operation Desert Fox and the Iraq Warp. 248
Gordon Brown and the' 'Responsibility to Protect'p. 250
The 'ethical dimension' in retrospectp. 252
Making Foreign and Defence Policy in a Changing Worldp. 255
The complexity of the foreign policy process in Britainp. 255
Executive dominance in the formulation of foreign policyp. 259
Who makes British defence policy?p. 264
Outside the magic circle: who is excluded from the policy process?p. 268
Executive 'overload' and the problem of prioritiesp. 270
The problems of long-term planning and 'horizon-scanning'p. 272
Redefining the role of the FCO within a challenging Whitehall environmentp. 274
Reviewing Britain's overseas representationp. 279
A much too Diplomatic Service? Defending the national interestp. 282
Reforming the composition and career structure: the Foresight initiativep. 283
The role of the intelligence servicesp. 284
Conclusion: the Challenge of an Uncertain Futurep. 288
The changing international environment after 1945p. 288
Continuity and change in British policyp. 289
The challenge of the unknown: redefining the threatp. 291
Devising a strategy for an uncertain worldp. 295
Britain's position in the world - the more that changes the more that stays the samep. 299
Useful Websites for Foreign and Defence Sourcesp. 302
Bibliographyp. 303
Indexp. 327
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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