Building Social Relationships

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-07-31
  • Publisher: Aapc Inc
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Parents and professionals often ask how to teach social skills and how to design social skills programs for children with ASD. Often they are seeking answers to basic questions such as ¿where do we start¿ and ¿what strategies do we use?¿ This book addresses the need for social programming for children and adolescents with ASD by providing a comprehensive five-step model. The model incorporates the following five steps: assess social functioning, distinguish between skill acquisition and performance deficits, select intervention strategies, implement intervention, and evaluate and monitor progress. This model will also show you how to organize and make sense of the myriad of social skills strategies and resources currently available to parents and professionals ¿ it is not meant to replace other resources or strategies, but synthesize them into one comprehensive program.

Author Biography

Dr. Scott Bellini is the assistant director of the Indiana Resource Center for Autism (IRCA) at the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
What Are Social Interaction Skills?p. 3
Why Teach Social Interaction Skills?p. 5
The Need for EFFECTIVE Social Skills Programmingp. 6
Five Basic Tenets of Social Skills Programmingp. 11
Individuals With ASD Want to Establish Meaningful Social Relationshipsp. 12
If We Want Children and Adolescents With ASD to Be Successful Socially, We Must Teach Them the Skills to Be Successfulp. 13
Successful Social Behaviors Are Not Always "Appropriate" Social Behaviorsp. 14
Social Success Is Dependent Upon Our Ability to Adapt to Our Environmentp. 14
Social Interaction Skills Are Not the Equivalent of Academic Skillsp. 15
Chapter Summaryp. 16
The Essence of Social Interaction Skills: Three Integrated Componentsp. 17
Thinkingp. 19
Knowledgep. 19
Perspective Taking and Theory of Mindp. 21
Self-Awarenessp. 23
Feelingp. 25
Anxietyp. 26
Doingp. 28
Chapter Summaryp. 31
Common Social Skill Difficulties Associated With ASDp. 33
Difficulties With Nonverbal Communicationp. 35
Difficulties With Social Initiationp. 37
Difficulties With Social Reciprocity and Terminating Interactionsp. 39
Difficulties With Social Cognitionp. 41
Difficulties Associated With Perspective Taking and Self-Awarenessp. 45
Social Anxiety and Avoidancep. 48
Chapter Summaryp. 50
Five-Step Model for Social Skills Programmingp. 51
Assessing Social Functioningp. 53
Social Skills Assessmentp. 55
General Interviews of Social Functioningp. 56
Problem Identification and Analysis Interviewp. 63
Rating Scalesp. 68
Observationp. 82
Setting Goals and Objectivesp. 88
Distinguishing Between Goals and Objectivesp. 88
Establishing Criteria for Social Objectivesp. 90
Reframing Problems Into Teachable Skillsp. 91
How Many Social Objectives Should Be Selected?p. 93
Final Thoughts on Educational and Treatment Objectivesp. 96
Chapter Summaryp. 97
Distinguishing Between Skill Acquisition Deficits and Performance Deficitsp. 99
A Bridge to Intervention Strategiesp. 101
Skill Acquisition: From Novice to Masteryp. 103
Factors Affecting Performancep. 107
Motivationp. 108
Sensory Sensitivitiesp. 109
Anxietyp. 110
Attention and Impulsivityp. 110
Memoryp. 111
Self-Efficacyp. 112
Movement Differencesp. 114
Distinguishing Between a Skill Acquisition Deficit and a Performance Deficitp. 115
Performance Across Settings and Peoplep. 115
Independent Performancep. 116
Fluencyp. 116
Reinforcementp. 117
Environmental Modificationsp. 117
Chapter Summaryp. 118
Selecting Intervention Strategiesp. 119
Matching Intervention Strategies With Type of Skill Deficitp. 120
Social Accommodation vs. Social Assimilationp. 122
Strategies That Promote Skill Acquisitionp. 125
Thoughts, Feelings, and Interestsp. 126
Use of Pictures and Videos to Read Emotionsp. 128
Thought Bubble Activityp. 130
If-Then Statementsp. 130
Interest Inventoryp. 131
Mind Reading Worksheetsp. 131
Mind Reading Computer Programsp. 133
Reciprocal Interaction Activitiesp. 134
Conversation Gamep. 135
Newspaper Reporterp. 136
Improvisational Activitiesp. 137
Social Storiesp. 139
Role-Playing/Behavioral Rehearsalp. 141
Video Modeling and Video Self-Modelingp. 143
Why Video Modeling and VSM Are Effective for Children With ASDp. 145
Two Types of VSMp. 146
Guidelines for Implementing Video Modeling Interventionsp. 147
Sample VSM Applicationsp. 151
Social Problem Solving and Social Rulesp. 153
A Step-by-Step Process for Analyzing Social Situationsp. 154
Strategies That Promote Cognitive Flexibility and Consideration of Multiple Viewpointsp. 157
Teaching Social Rulesp. 160
Coachingp. 162
Self-Monitoringp. 163
Self-Monitoring Strategyp. 164
Relaxation Techniques/Emotional Regulationp. 169
Tension Release and Breathingp. 169
Biofeedbackp. 172
Self-Awareness Trainingp. 172
Promptingp. 174
Types of Promptsp. 175
Guidelines for Using Promptsp. 176
Interaction/Conversation Planningp. 178
Conversation Mapp. 179
Chapter Summaryp. 182
Strategies That Enhance Performancep. 183
Reinforcement/Contingency Strategiesp. 184
Basic Principles of Reinforcementp. 184
Group Contingency Systemsp. 187
Behavior Contractsp. 188
Gaming Skillsp. 191
Suggestions for Incorporating Gaming Skills Into a Social Skills Programp. 192
Environmental Modificationsp. 193
Peer-Mediated Interventionsp. 195
Guidelines for Selecting Peer Mentors for PMI Programsp. 196
Implementing a PMI Programp. 197
Increased Social Opportunities/Live Practicep. 198
Considerations When Selecting Activitiesp. 199
Disability Awaeness and Peer Support Strategiesp. 200
Disability Awarenessp. 201
Peer Mentors and Peer Buddiesp. 205
Priming Social Behaviorp. 207
Chapter Summaryp. 210
Implementing Intervention Strategiesp. 211
Planning the Program: Before You Startp. 212
Selecting the Target Childp. 212
Determining the Format of the Programp. 213
Selecting Peer Modelsp. 216
Assembling the Teamp. 217
Gathering Materials and Resourcesp. 218
Determining Where the Sessions Will Take Placep. 220
Determining the Schedulep. 220
Structuring and Implementing the Programp. 222
Using Play Materialsp. 223
Connecting Treatment Objectives and Targeted Skillsp. 223
Introducing the Skillp. 224
Teaching the Skillp. 225
Providing Parent/Teacher Training and Feedbackp. 225
Special Considerations for Conducting Group Trainingp. 227
Using Prompts to Facilitate Social Interactionsp. 227
Using Reinforcementp. 228
Using Play Items and Play Themesp. 228
Collecting Datap. 228
Structure of Sessionsp. 229
Facilitating Generalization of Skillsp. 235
Generalization Strategies From a Behavioral Perspectivep. 235
Generalization Strategies From a Cognitive Perspectivep. 236
Chapter Summaryp. 238
Evaluating and Monitoring Progressp. 239
Observationp. 242
Types of Recording Systemsp. 242
Interviewsp. 248
Rating Scalesp. 248
Social Validity and Treatment Fidelityp. 249
Social Validityp. 250
Treatment Fidelityp. 251
Chapter Summaryp. 253
Final Words on Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children and Adolescents With ASDp. 255
Referencesp. 259
Indexp. 265
Appendixp. 268
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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