9780134765037

Campbell Essential Biology

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780134765037

  • ISBN10:

    0134765036

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-02-01
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

For non-majors biology courses.


Develop and Practice Science Literacy Skills

Teach students to view their world using scientific reasoning with Campbell Essential Biology. The authors’ approach equips your students to become better informed citizens, relate concepts from class to their everyday lives, and understand and apply real data, making biology relevant and meaningful to their world and futures.

 

The new edition incorporates instructor feedback on what key skills to highlight in new Process of Science essays and uses striking infographic figures in conveying real data to help students see and better understand how science actually works. New author-narrated Figure Walkthrough Videos appear in each chapter and guide students through key biology concepts and processes.

 

New topics in Why It Matters inspire curiosity and provide real-world examples to convey why abstract concepts like cell respiration or photosynthesis matter to students. This edition’s unmatched offering of author-created media supports students in the toughest topics with 24/7 access through the enhanced Pearson eText, embedded QR codes in the print text, and Mastering Biology.


Also available with Mastering Biology or as an easy-to-use, standalone Pearson eText

Mastering is the teaching and learning platform that empowers you to reach every student. By combining trusted author content with digital tools developed to engage students and emulate the office-hour experience, Mastering personalizes learning and often improves results for each student. A wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, many of them contributed by Essential Biology authors, encourage students to actively learn and retain tough course concepts. Instructors can assign interactive media before class to engage students and ensure they arrive ready to learn.


Pearson eText allows educators to easily share their own notes with students so they see the connection between their reading and what they learn in class—motivating them to keep reading, and keep learning. Portable access lets students study on the go, even offline. And, reading analytics offer insight into how students use the eText, helping educators tailor their instruction.


Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; Mastering Biology and Pearson eText do not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with Mastering Biology or Pearson eText, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.

 

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0134812948 / 9780134812946 Campbell Essential Biology 7/e Plus Mastering Biology with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

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Author Biography

ERIC J. SIMON is a professor in the Department of Biology and Health Science at New England College (Henniker, New Hampshire). He teaches introductory biology to science majors and nonscience majors, as well as upper-level courses in tropical marine biology and careers in science. Dr. Simon received a B.A. in biology and computer science, an M.A. in biology from Wesleyan University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Harvard University. His research focuses on innovative ways to use technology to increase active learning in the science classroom, particularly for nonscience majors. Dr. Simon is also the author of the introductory biology textbook Biology: The Core, 2nd Edition, and a coauthor of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 9th Edition.

 

JEAN L. DICKEY is Professor Emerita of Biological Sciences at Clemson University (Clemson, South Carolina). After receiving her B.S. in biology from Kent State University, she went on to earn a Ph.D. in ecology and evolution from Purdue University. In 1984, Dr. Dickey joined the faculty at Clemson, where she devoted her career to teaching biology to nonscience majors in a variety of courses. In addition to creating content-based instructional materials, she developed many activities to engage lecture and laboratory students in discussion, critical thinking, and writing, and implemented an investigative laboratory curriculum in general biology. Dr. Dickey is the author of Laboratory Investigations for Biology, 2nd Edition, and is a coauthor of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 9th Edition.

 

JANE B. REECE was Neil Campbell’s longtime collaborator and a founding author of Campbell Essential Biology and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology. Her education includes an A.B. in biology from Harvard University (where she was initially a philosophy major), an M.S. in microbiology from Rutgers University, and a Ph.D. in bacteriology from the University of California, Berkeley. At UC Berkeley, and later as a postdoctoral fellow in genetics at Stanford University, her research focused on genetic recombination in bacteria. Dr. Reece taught biology at Middlesex County College (New Jersey) and Queensborough Community College (New York). Dr. Reece’s publishing career began in 1978 when she joined the editorial staff of Benjamin Cummings, and since then, she played a major role in a number of successful textbooks. She was the lead author of Campbell Biology Editions 8–10 and a founding author of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections.

 

NEIL A. CAMPBELL (1946–2004) combined the inquiring nature of a research scientist with the soul of a caring teacher. Over his 30 years of teaching introductory biology to both science majors and nonscience majors, many thousands of students had the opportunity to learn from him and be stimulated by his enthusiasm for the study of life. He is greatly missed by his many friends in the biology community. His coauthors remain inspired by his visionary dedication to education and are committed to searching for ever better ways to engage students in the wonders of biology.

 

 

Table of Contents

1 Learning About Life

 CHAPTER THREAD

Swimming with the Turtles  

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY A Passion for Life   

The Scientific Study of Life   

An Overview of the Process of Science         

Hypotheses, Theories, and Facts        

Controlled Experiments          

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do Baby Turtles Swim?  

Evaluating Scientific Claims   

The Properties of Life

Major Themes in Biology      

The Relationship of Structure to Function      

Information Flow       

Pathways That Transform Energy and Matter

Interactions within Biological Systems          

Evolution        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Turtles in the Tree of Life

 

UNIT 1 CELLS

2 Essential Chemistry for Biology     

 CHAPTER THREAD

Helpful Radiation       

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Nuclear Medicine     

Some Basic Chemistry           

Matter: Elements and Compounds     

Atoms

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Effective Is Radiation in Treating Prostate Cancer?

Chemical Bonding and Molecules      

Chemical Reactions    

Water and Life

Water  

Acids, Bases, and pH 

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Radioactivity as an Evolutionary Clock  

 

3 The Molecules of Life         

 CHAPTER THREAD

Lactose Intolerance     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Got Lactose?

Organic Compounds  

Carbon Chemistry      

Giant Molecules from Smaller Building Blocks         

Large Biological Molecules    

Carbohydrates

Lipids 

Proteins          

Nucleic Acids 

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Does Lactose Intolerance Have a Genetic Basis?            

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Lactose Intolerance in Humans

 

4 A Tour of the Cell   

 CHAPTER THREAD

Humans Versus Bacteria        

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Antibiotics: Drugs That Target Bacterial Cells         

The Microscopic World of Cells        

The Two Major Categories of Cells   

An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells      

Membrane Structure   

The Plasma Membrane           

Cell Surfaces  

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Was the First 21st-Century Antibiotic Discovered?

The Nucleus and Ribosomes: Genetic Control of the Cell     

The Nucleus   

Ribosomes     

How DNA Directs Protein Production          

The Endomembrane System: Manufacturing and Distributing Cellular Products      

The Endoplasmic Reticulum   

The Golgi Apparatus  

Lysosomes     

Vacuoles        

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: Providing Cellular Energy   

Chloroplasts   

Mitochondria  

The Cytoskeleton: Cell Shape and Movement

Maintaining Cell Shape          

Flagella and Cilia        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Bacterial Resistance in Humans           

 

5 The Working Cell    

 CHAPTER THREAD

Nanotechnology         

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Harnessing Cellular Structures        

Some Basic Energy Concepts

Conservation of Energy         

Heat    

Chemical Energy        

Food Calories 

ATP and Cellular Work         

The Structure of ATP 

Phosphate Transfer    

The ATP Cycle          

Enzymes         

Activation Energy      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Enzymes Be Engineered?     

Enzyme Activity         

Enzyme Inhibitors      

Membrane Function   

Passive Transport: Diffusion across Membranes       

Osmosis and Water Balance   

Active Transport: The Pumping of Molecules across Membranes     

Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Traffic of Large Molecules      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Origin of Membranes           

 

6 Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food 

 CHAPTER THREAD

Exercise Science         

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Getting the Most Out of Your Muscles       

Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling in the Biosphere

Producers and Consumers     

Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 

Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Harvest of Food Energy                      

An Overview of Cellular Respiration 

The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration       

The Results of Cellular Respiration    

Fermentation: Anaerobic Harvest of Food Energy     

Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Causes Muscle Burn?         

Fermentation in Microorganisms       

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Importance of Oxygen          

 

7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

 CHAPTER THREAD

Solar Energy  

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY A Solar Revolution  

The Basics of Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis

An Overview of Photosynthesis        

The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy  

The Nature of Sunlight           

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Colors of Light Drive Photosynthesis?      

Chloroplast Pigments 

How Photosystems Harvest Light Energy     

How the Light Reactions Generate ATP and NADPH          

The Calvin Cycle: Making Sugar from Carbon Dioxide        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Creating a Better Biofuel Factory

 

UNIT 2 GENETICS     

8 Cellular Reproduction: Cells from Cells      

 CHAPTER THREAD

Life with and without Sex      

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Virgin Birth of a Shark        

What Cell Reproduction Accomplishes          

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis    

Eukaryotic Chromosomes      

Duplicating Chromosomes     

The Cell Cycle

Mitosis and Cytokinesis         

Cancer Cells: Dividing Out of Control           

Meiosis, the Basis of Sexual Reproduction    

Homologous Chromosomes  

Gametes and the Life Cycle of a Sexual Organism    

The Process of Meiosis          

Review: Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis      

The Origins of Genetic Variation       

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do All Animals Have Sex?         

When Meiosis Goes Wrong   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Advantages of Sex   

 

9 Patterns of Inheritance         

 CHAPTER THREAD

Dog Breeding 

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Darwin’s Dogs        

Genetics and Heredity

In an Abbey Garden   

Mendel’s Law of Segregation

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment    

Using a Testcross to Determine an Unknown Genotype       

The Rules of Probability        

Family Pedigrees        

Human Traits Controlled by a Single Gene    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Is the Genetic Basis of Short Legs in Dogs?          

Variations on Mendel’s Laws

Incomplete Dominance in Plants and People  

ABO Blood Groups: An Example of Multiple Alleles and Codominance     

Pleiotropy and Sickle-Cell Disease    

Polygenic Inheritance 

Epigenetics and the Role of Environment       

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance         

Linked Genes 

Sex Determination in Humans

Sex-Linked Genes      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Barking Up the Evolutionary Tree           

 

10 The Structure and Function of DNA         

 CHAPTER THREAD

Deadly Viruses          

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The Global Threat of Zika Virus      

DNA: Structure and Replication        

DNA and RNA Structure      

Watson and Crick’s Discovery of the Double Helix  

DNA Replication       

From DNA to RNA to Protein          

How an Organism’s Genotype Determines Its Phenotype     

From Nucleotides to Amino Acids: An Overview     

The Genetic Code       

Transcription: From DNA to RNA    

The Processing of Eukaryotic RNA   

Translation: The Players         

Translation: The Process        

Review: DNA S RNA S Protein       

Mutations       

Viruses and Other Noncellular Infectious Agents      

Bacteriophages           

Plant Viruses  

Animal Viruses          

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can DNA and RNA Vaccines Protect Against Viruses?

HIV, the AIDS Virus

Prions 

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Emerging Viruses

 

11 How Genes Are Controlled          

 CHAPTER THREAD

Cancer

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Breast Cancer and Chemotherapy    

How and Why Genes Are Regulated 

Gene Regulation in Bacteria   

Gene Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells  

Cell Signaling 

Homeotic Genes         

Visualizing Gene Expression 

Cloning Plants and Animals   

The Genetic Potential of Cells

Reproductive Cloning of Animals      

Therapeutic Cloning and Stem Cells  

The Genetic Basis of Cancer  

Genes That Cause Cancer      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Avatars Improve Cancer Treatment?

Cancer Risk and Prevention   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Cancer in the Body      

 

12 DNA Technology 

 CHAPTER THREAD

DNA Profiling           

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Using DNA to Establish Guilt and Innocence         

Genetic Engineering   

Recombinant DNA Techniques         

Gene Editing  

Medical Applications 

Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture        

Human Gene Therapy

DNA Profiling and Forensic Science 

DNA Profiling Techniques    

Investigating Murder, Paternity, and Ancient DNA   

Bioinformatics

DNA Sequencing       

Genomics       

Genome-Mapping Techniques           

The Human Genome  

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Did Nic Have a Deadly Gene?     

Applied Genomics     

Systems Biology        

Safety and Ethical Issues        

The Controversy over Genetically Modified Foods   

Ethical Questions Raised by Human DNA Technologies      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Y Chromosome as a Window on History    

 

UNIT 3 EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

13 How Populations Evolve       

 CHAPTER THREAD

Evolution in Action    

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Mosquitoes and Evolution   

The Diversity of Life  

Naming and Classifying the Diversity of Life

Explaining the Diversity of Life         

Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species    

Darwin’s Journey      

Darwin’s Theory        

Evidence of Evolution

Evidence from Fossils

Evidence from Homologies    

Evolutionary Trees     

Natural Selection as the Mechanism for Evolution     

Natural Selection in Action    

Key Points about Natural Selection    

The Evolution of Populations 

Sources of Genetic Variation 

Populations as the Units of Evolution

Analyzing Gene Pools

Population Genetics and Health Science        

Microevolution as Change in a Gene Pool     

Mechanisms of Evolution      

Natural Selection        

Genetic Drift  

Gene Flow     

Natural Selection: A Closer Look      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Did Natural Selection Shape the Beaks of Darwin’s Finches?    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Rising Threat of Antibiotic Resistance         

 

14 How Biological Diversity Evolves

 CHAPTER THREAD

Evolution in the Human-Dominated World    

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Humanity’s Footprint          

The Origin of Species

What Is a Species?     

Reproductive Barriers between Species         

Mechanisms of Speciation     

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do Human Activities Facilitate Speciation?         

Earth History and Macroevolution     

The Fossil Record      

Plate Tectonics and Biogeography     

Mass Extinctions and Explosive Diversifications of Life       

Mechanisms of Macroevolution         

Large Effects from Small Genetic Changes    

The Evolution of Biological Novelty  

Classifying the Diversity of Life        

Classification and Phylogeny 

Classification: A Work in Progress    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Evolution in the Anthropocene    

 

15 The Evolution of Microbial Life    

 CHAPTER THREAD

Human Microbiota     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Our Invisible Inhabitants     

Major Episodes in the History of Life

The Origin of Life      

A Four-Stage Hypothesis for the Origin of Life        

From Chemical Evolution to Darwinian Evolution    

Prokaryotes    

They’re Everywhere! 

The Structure and Function of Prokaryotes    

The Ecological Impact of Prokaryotes

The Two Main Branches of Prokaryotic Evolution: Bacteria and Archaea    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Are Intestinal Microbiota to Blame for Obesity? 

Protists           

Protozoans     

Slime Molds   

Unicellular and Colonial Algae          

Seaweeds       

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Sweet Life of Streptococcus mutans 

 

16 The Evolution of Plants and Fungi

 CHAPTER THREAD

Plant-Fungus Interactions      

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The Diamond of the Kitchen

Colonizing Land         

Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants        

The Origin of Plants from Green Algae         

Plant Diversity

Highlights of Plant Evolution 

Bryophytes     

Ferns  

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms  

Plant Diversity as a Nonrenewable Resource 

Fungi  

Characteristics of Fungi         

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Killed the Pines?     

The Ecological Impact of Fungi         

Commercial Uses of Fungi    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION A Pioneering Partnership

 

17 The Evolution of Animals 

 CHAPTER THREAD

Human Evolution       

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Evolving Adaptability          

The Origins of Animal Diversity       

What Is an Animal?    

Early Animals and the Cambrian Explosion   

Animal Phylogeny     

Major Invertebrate Phyla        

Sponges         

Cnidarians      

Molluscs        

Flatworms      

Annelids         

Roundworms 

Arthropods     

Echinoderms  

Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity    

Characteristics of Chordates   

Fishes 

Amphibians    

Reptiles          

Mammals       

The Human Ancestry 

The Evolution of Primates      

The Emergence of Humankind           

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Can Lice Tell Us About Ancient Humans?

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Are We Still Evolving?    

 

UNIT 4 ECOLOGY

18 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere       

 CHAPTER THREAD

Climate Change          

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Penguins, Polar Bears, and People in Peril  

An Overview of Ecology       

Ecology and Environmentalism          

A Hierarchy of Interactions    

Living in Earth’s Diverse Environments        

Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere        

The Evolutionary Adaptations of Organisms 

Adjusting to Environmental Variability          

Biomes           

Freshwater Biomes    

Marine Biomes           

How Climate Affects Terrestrial Biome Distribution 

Terrestrial Biomes      

The Water Cycle         

Human Impact on Biomes      

Climate Change          

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming 

The Accumulation of Greenhouse Gases       

Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystems     

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Does Climate Change Affect Species Distribution?

Looking to Our Future           

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Climate Change as an Agent of Natural Selection

 

19 Population Ecology           

 CHAPTER THREAD

Biological Invasions   

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Invasion of the Lionfish       

An Overview of Population Ecology 

Population Density     

Population Age Structure       

Life Tables and Survivorship Curves 

Life History Traits as Adaptations     

Population Growth Models    

The Exponential Population Growth Model: The Ideal of an Unlimited Environment           

The Logistic Population Growth Model: The Reality of a Limited
Environment   

Regulation of Population Growth      

Applications of Population Ecology   

Conservation of Endangered Species 

Sustainable Resource Management    

Invasive Species         

Biological Control of Pests    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Fences Stop Cane Toads?     

Integrated Pest Management  

Human Population Growth    

The History of Human Population Growth    

Age Structures

Our Ecological Footprint        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Humans as an Invasive Species   

 

20 Communities and Ecosystems       

 CHAPTER THREAD

Importance of Biodiversity     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Why Biodiversity Matters    

Biodiversity    

Genetic Diversity       

Species Diversity       

Ecosystem Diversity  

Causes of Declining Biodiversity       

Community Ecology              

Interspecific Interactions        

Trophic Structure       

Species Diversity in Communities     

Disturbances and Succession in Communities           

Ecological Succession

Ecosystem Ecology    

Energy Flow in Ecosystems   

Chemical Cycling in Ecosystems       

Conservation and Restoration Biology           

Biodiversity “Hot Spots”       

Conservation at the Ecosystem Level 

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Does Biodiversity Protect Human Health?          

Restoring Ecosystems

The Goal of Sustainable Development           

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Saving the Hot Spots       

 

 

Appendices

A Metric Conversion Table   

B The Periodic Table 

C Credits       

D Selected Answers  

 

 

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