Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-01-30
  • Publisher: Pearson

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For non-majors biology courses.

Develop and Practice Science Literacy Skills

Teach students to view their world using scientific reasoning with Campbell Essential Biology. The authors’ approach equips your students to become better informed citizens, relate concepts from class to their everyday lives, and understand and apply real data, making biology relevant and meaningful to their world and futures.


The new edition incorporates instructor feedback on what key skills to highlight in new Process of Science essays and uses striking infographic figures in conveying real data to help students see and better understand how science actually works. New author-narrated Figure Walkthrough Videos appear in each chapter and guide students through key biology concepts and processes.


New topics in Why It Matters inspire curiosity and provide real-world examples to convey why abstract concepts like cell respiration or photosynthesis matter to students. This edition’s unmatched offering of author-created media supports students in the toughest topics with 24/7 access through the enhanced Pearson eText, embedded QR codes in the print text, and Mastering Biology.

Also available with Mastering Biology

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Author Biography

ERIC J. SIMON is a professor in the Department of Biology and Health Science at New England College (Henniker, New Hampshire). He teaches introductory biology to science majors and nonscience majors, as well as upper-level courses in tropical marine biology and careers in science. Dr. Simon received a B.A. in biology and computer science, an M.A. in biology from Wesleyan University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Harvard University. His research focuses on innovative ways to use technology to increase active learning in the science classroom, particularly for nonscience majors. Dr. Simon is also the author of the introductory biology textbook Biology: The Core, 2nd Edition, and a coauthor of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 9th Edition.


JEAN L. DICKEY is Professor Emerita of Biological Sciences at Clemson University (Clemson, South Carolina). After receiving her B.S. in biology from Kent State University, she went on to earn a Ph.D. in ecology and evolution from Purdue University. In 1984, Dr. Dickey joined the faculty at Clemson, where she devoted her career to teaching biology to nonscience majors in a variety of courses. In addition to creating content-based instructional materials, she developed many activities to engage lecture and laboratory students in discussion, critical thinking, and writing, and implemented an investigative laboratory curriculum in general biology. Dr. Dickey is the author of Laboratory Investigations for Biology, 2nd Edition, and is a coauthor of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 9th Edition.


JANE B. REECE was Neil Campbell’s longtime collaborator and a founding author of Campbell Essential Biology and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology. Her education includes an A.B. in biology from Harvard University (where she was initially a philosophy major), an M.S. in microbiology from Rutgers University, and a Ph.D. in bacteriology from the University of California, Berkeley. At UC Berkeley, and later as a postdoctoral fellow in genetics at Stanford University, her research focused on genetic recombination in bacteria. Dr. Reece taught biology at Middlesex County College (New Jersey) and Queensborough Community College (New York). Dr. Reece’s publishing career began in 1978 when she joined the editorial staff of Benjamin Cummings, and since then, she played a major role in a number of successful textbooks. She was the lead author of Campbell Biology Editions 8—10 and a founding author of Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections.


NEIL A. CAMPBELL (1946—2004) combined the inquiring nature of a research scientist with the soul of a caring teacher. Over his 30 years of teaching introductory biology to both science majors and nonscience majors, many thousands of students had the opportunity to learn from him and be stimulated by his enthusiasm for the study of life. He is greatly missed by his many friends in the biology community. His coauthors remain inspired by his visionary dedication to education and are committed to searching for ever better ways to engage students in the wonders of biology.



Table of Contents

1 Learning About Life


Swimming with the Turtles  

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY A Passion for Life   

The Scientific Study of Life   

An Overview of the Process of Science         

Hypotheses, Theories, and Facts        

Controlled Experiments          

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do Baby Turtles Swim?  

Evaluating Scientific Claims   

The Properties of Life

Major Themes in Biology      

The Relationship of Structure to Function      

Information Flow       

Pathways That Transform Energy and Matter

Interactions within Biological Systems          


EVOLUTION CONNECTION Turtles in the Tree of Life


2 Essential Chemistry for Biology     


Helpful Radiation       

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Nuclear Medicine     

Some Basic Chemistry           

Matter: Elements and Compounds     


THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Effective Is Radiation in Treating Prostate Cancer?

Chemical Bonding and Molecules      

Chemical Reactions    

Water and Life


Acids, Bases, and pH 

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Radioactivity as an Evolutionary Clock  

3 The Molecules of Life         


Lactose Intolerance     


Organic Compounds  

Carbon Chemistry      

Giant Molecules from Smaller Building Blocks         

Large Biological Molecules    




Nucleic Acids 

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Does Lactose Intolerance Have a Genetic Basis?            

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Lactose Intolerance in Humans

4 A Tour of the Cell   


Humans Versus Bacteria        

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Antibiotics: Drugs That Target Bacterial Cells         

The Microscopic World of Cells        

The Two Major Categories of Cells   

An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells      

Membrane Structure   

The Plasma Membrane           

Cell Surfaces  

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Was the First 21st-Century Antibiotic Discovered?

The Nucleus and Ribosomes: Genetic Control of the Cell     

The Nucleus   


How DNA Directs Protein Production          

The Endomembrane System: Manufacturing and Distributing Cellular Products      

The Endoplasmic Reticulum   

The Golgi Apparatus  



Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: Providing Cellular Energy   



The Cytoskeleton: Cell Shape and Movement

Maintaining Cell Shape          

Flagella and Cilia        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Bacterial Resistance in Humans           

5 The Working Cell    



BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Harnessing Cellular Structures        

Some Basic Energy Concepts

Conservation of Energy         


Chemical Energy        

Food Calories 

ATP and Cellular Work         

The Structure of ATP 

Phosphate Transfer    

The ATP Cycle          


Activation Energy      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Enzymes Be Engineered?     

Enzyme Activity         

Enzyme Inhibitors      

Membrane Function   

Passive Transport: Diffusion across Membranes       

Osmosis and Water Balance   

Active Transport: The Pumping of Molecules across Membranes     

Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Traffic of Large Molecules      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Origin of Membranes           

6 Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food 


Exercise Science         

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Getting the Most Out of Your Muscles       

Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling in the Biosphere

Producers and Consumers     

Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 

Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Harvest of Food Energy                      

An Overview of Cellular Respiration 

The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration       

The Results of Cellular Respiration    

Fermentation: Anaerobic Harvest of Food Energy     

Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Causes Muscle Burn?         

Fermentation in Microorganisms       

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Importance of Oxygen          

7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food


Solar Energy  

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY A Solar Revolution  

The Basics of Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis

An Overview of Photosynthesis        

The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy  

The Nature of Sunlight           

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Colors of Light Drive Photosynthesis?      

Chloroplast Pigments 

How Photosystems Harvest Light Energy     

How the Light Reactions Generate ATP and NADPH          

The Calvin Cycle: Making Sugar from Carbon Dioxide        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Creating a Better Biofuel Factory


8 Cellular Reproduction: Cells from Cells      


Life with and without Sex      

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Virgin Birth of a Shark        

What Cell Reproduction Accomplishes          

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis    

Eukaryotic Chromosomes      

Duplicating Chromosomes     

The Cell Cycle

Mitosis and Cytokinesis         

Cancer Cells: Dividing Out of Control           

Meiosis, the Basis of Sexual Reproduction    

Homologous Chromosomes  

Gametes and the Life Cycle of a Sexual Organism    

The Process of Meiosis          

Review: Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis      

The Origins of Genetic Variation       

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do All Animals Have Sex?         

When Meiosis Goes Wrong   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Advantages of Sex   

9 Patterns of Inheritance         


Dog Breeding 

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Darwin’s Dogs        

Genetics and Heredity

In an Abbey Garden   

Mendel’s Law of Segregation

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment    

Using a Testcross to Determine an Unknown Genotype       

The Rules of Probability        

Family Pedigrees        

Human Traits Controlled by a Single Gene    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Is the Genetic Basis of Short Legs in Dogs?          

Variations on Mendel’s Laws

Incomplete Dominance in Plants and People  

ABO Blood Groups: An Example of Multiple Alleles and Codominance     

Pleiotropy and Sickle-Cell Disease    

Polygenic Inheritance 

Epigenetics and the Role of Environment       

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance         

Linked Genes 

Sex Determination in Humans

Sex-Linked Genes      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Barking Up the Evolutionary Tree           

10 The Structure and Function of DNA         


Deadly Viruses          

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The Global Threat of Zika Virus      

DNA: Structure and Replication        

DNA and RNA Structure      

Watson and Crick’s Discovery of the Double Helix  

DNA Replication       

From DNA to RNA to Protein          

How an Organism’s Genotype Determines Its Phenotype     

From Nucleotides to Amino Acids: An Overview     

The Genetic Code       

Transcription: From DNA to RNA    

The Processing of Eukaryotic RNA   

Translation: The Players         

Translation: The Process        

Review: DNA S RNA S Protein       


Viruses and Other Noncellular Infectious Agents      


Plant Viruses  

Animal Viruses          

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can DNA and RNA Vaccines Protect Against Viruses?

HIV, the AIDS Virus



11 How Genes Are Controlled          



BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Breast Cancer and Chemotherapy    

How and Why Genes Are Regulated 

Gene Regulation in Bacteria   

Gene Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells  

Cell Signaling 

Homeotic Genes         

Visualizing Gene Expression 

Cloning Plants and Animals   

The Genetic Potential of Cells

Reproductive Cloning of Animals      

Therapeutic Cloning and Stem Cells  

The Genetic Basis of Cancer  

Genes That Cause Cancer      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Avatars Improve Cancer Treatment?

Cancer Risk and Prevention   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Evolution of Cancer in the Body      

12 DNA Technology 


DNA Profiling           

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Using DNA to Establish Guilt and Innocence         

Genetic Engineering   

Recombinant DNA Techniques         

Gene Editing  

Medical Applications 

Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture        

Human Gene Therapy

DNA Profiling and Forensic Science 

DNA Profiling Techniques    

Investigating Murder, Paternity, and Ancient DNA   


DNA Sequencing       


Genome-Mapping Techniques           

The Human Genome  

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Did Nic Have a Deadly Gene?     

Applied Genomics     

Systems Biology        

Safety and Ethical Issues        

The Controversy over Genetically Modified Foods   

Ethical Questions Raised by Human DNA Technologies      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Y Chromosome as a Window on History    


13 How Populations Evolve       


Evolution in Action    

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Mosquitoes and Evolution   

The Diversity of Life  

Naming and Classifying the Diversity of Life

Explaining the Diversity of Life         

Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species    

Darwin’s Journey      

Darwin’s Theory        

Evidence of Evolution

Evidence from Fossils

Evidence from Homologies    

Evolutionary Trees     

Natural Selection as the Mechanism for Evolution     

Natural Selection in Action    

Key Points about Natural Selection    

The Evolution of Populations 

Sources of Genetic Variation 

Populations as the Units of Evolution

Analyzing Gene Pools

Population Genetics and Health Science        

Microevolution as Change in a Gene Pool     

Mechanisms of Evolution      

Natural Selection        

Genetic Drift  

Gene Flow     

Natural Selection: A Closer Look      

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Did Natural Selection Shape the Beaks of Darwin’s Finches?    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Rising Threat of Antibiotic Resistance         

14 How Biological Diversity Evolves


Evolution in the Human-Dominated World    

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Humanity’s Footprint          

The Origin of Species

What Is a Species?     

Reproductive Barriers between Species         

Mechanisms of Speciation     

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do Human Activities Facilitate Speciation?         

Earth History and Macroevolution     

The Fossil Record      

Plate Tectonics and Biogeography     

Mass Extinctions and Explosive Diversifications of Life       

Mechanisms of Macroevolution         

Large Effects from Small Genetic Changes    

The Evolution of Biological Novelty  

Classifying the Diversity of Life        

Classification and Phylogeny 

Classification: A Work in Progress    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Evolution in the Anthropocene    

15 The Evolution of Microbial Life    


Human Microbiota     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Our Invisible Inhabitants     

Major Episodes in the History of Life

The Origin of Life      

A Four-Stage Hypothesis for the Origin of Life        

From Chemical Evolution to Darwinian Evolution    


They’re Everywhere! 

The Structure and Function of Prokaryotes    

The Ecological Impact of Prokaryotes

The Two Main Branches of Prokaryotic Evolution: Bacteria and Archaea    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Are Intestinal Microbiota to Blame for Obesity? 



Slime Molds   

Unicellular and Colonial Algae          


EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Sweet Life of Streptococcus mutans 

16 The Evolution of Plants and Fungi


Plant-Fungus Interactions      

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The Diamond of the Kitchen

Colonizing Land         

Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants        

The Origin of Plants from Green Algae         

Plant Diversity

Highlights of Plant Evolution 





Plant Diversity as a Nonrenewable Resource 


Characteristics of Fungi         

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Killed the Pines?     

The Ecological Impact of Fungi         

Commercial Uses of Fungi    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION A Pioneering Partnership

17 The Evolution of Animals 


Human Evolution       

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Evolving Adaptability          

The Origins of Animal Diversity       

What Is an Animal?    

Early Animals and the Cambrian Explosion   

Animal Phylogeny     

Major Invertebrate Phyla        









Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity    

Characteristics of Chordates   





The Human Ancestry 

The Evolution of Primates      

The Emergence of Humankind           

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Can Lice Tell Us About Ancient Humans?

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Are We Still Evolving?    


18 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere       


Climate Change          

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Penguins, Polar Bears, and People in Peril  

An Overview of Ecology       

Ecology and Environmentalism          

A Hierarchy of Interactions    

Living in Earth’s Diverse Environments        

Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere        

The Evolutionary Adaptations of Organisms 

Adjusting to Environmental Variability          


Freshwater Biomes    

Marine Biomes           

How Climate Affects Terrestrial Biome Distribution 

Terrestrial Biomes      

The Water Cycle         

Human Impact on Biomes      

Climate Change          

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming 

The Accumulation of Greenhouse Gases       

Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystems     

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Does Climate Change Affect Species Distribution?

Looking to Our Future           

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Climate Change as an Agent of Natural Selection

19 Population Ecology           


Biological Invasions   

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Invasion of the Lionfish       

An Overview of Population Ecology 

Population Density     

Population Age Structure       

Life Tables and Survivorship Curves 

Life History Traits as Adaptations     

Population Growth Models    

The Exponential Population Growth Model: The Ideal of an Unlimited Environment           

The Logistic Population Growth Model: The Reality of a Limited

Regulation of Population Growth      

Applications of Population Ecology   

Conservation of Endangered Species 

Sustainable Resource Management    

Invasive Species         

Biological Control of Pests    

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Fences Stop Cane Toads?     

Integrated Pest Management  

Human Population Growth    

The History of Human Population Growth    

Age Structures

Our Ecological Footprint        

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Humans as an Invasive Species   

20 Communities and Ecosystems       


Importance of Biodiversity     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Why Biodiversity Matters    


Genetic Diversity       

Species Diversity       

Ecosystem Diversity  

Causes of Declining Biodiversity       

Community Ecology              

Interspecific Interactions        

Trophic Structure       

Species Diversity in Communities     

Disturbances and Succession in Communities           

Ecological Succession

Ecosystem Ecology    

Energy Flow in Ecosystems   

Chemical Cycling in Ecosystems       

Conservation and Restoration Biology           

Biodiversity “Hot Spots”       

Conservation at the Ecosystem Level 

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Does Biodiversity Protect Human Health?          

Restoring Ecosystems

The Goal of Sustainable Development           

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Saving the Hot Spots       


21 Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function      


Controlling Body Temperature           

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY An Avoidable Tragedy        

The Structural Organization of Animals         

Anatomy and Physiology       


Organs and Organ Systems   

Exchanges with the External Environment     

Regulating the Internal Environment  


Negative and Positive Feedback         


THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Does a Python Warm Her Eggs?    


Homeostasis in the Urinary System   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Adaptations for Thermoregulation           

22 Nutrition and Digestion     


Controlling Your Weight       

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The “Secret” to Shedding Pounds    

An Overview of Animal Nutrition     

Animal Diets  

The Four Stages of Food Processing 

Digestive Compartments        

A Tour of the Human Digestive System        

System Map   

The Mouth     

The Pharynx   

The Esophagus           

The Stomach  

The Small Intestine     

The Human Microbiome        

The Large Intestine     

Human Nutritional Requirements       

Food as Fuel  

Food as Building Material      

Decoding Food Labels           

Nutritional Disorders 


Eating Disorders        


THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can a Gene Make You Fat?         

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Fat and Sugar Cravings   

23 Circulation and Respiration           


Athletic Endurance     

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Avoiding “The Wall”           

Unifying Concepts of Animal Circulation      

The Human Cardiovascular System   

The Path of Blood      

How the Heart Works

Blood Vessels


THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Live High, Train Low?    

Cardiovascular Disease          

Unifying Concepts of Animal Respiration     

The Human Respiratory System        

The Path of Air          

The Brain’s Control over Breathing   

The Role of Hemoglobin in Gas Transport    

The Toll of Smoking on the Lungs    

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Evolving Endurance        

24 The Body’s Defenses        

 Chapter Thread


BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Herd Immunity        

An Overview of the Immune System             

Innate Immunity         

External Innate Defenses        

Internal Innate Defenses         

The Lymphatic System           

Circulatory Function  

Immune Function       

Adaptive Immunity    

Step 1: Recognizing the Invaders       

Step 2: Cloning the Responders         

Step 3: Responding to Invaders         

Step 4: Remembering Invaders          

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE How Do We Know Vaccines Work?      

Immune Disorders     


Autoimmune Diseases

Immuno┐deficiency Diseases 


EVOLUTION CONNECTION Viral Evolution versus the Flu Vaccine   

25 Hormones 


Steroid Abuse

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Baseball’s Ongoing Steroid Problem           

Hormones: An Overview       

The Human Endocrine System           

The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland         

The Thyroid and Metabolism 

The Pancreas and Blood Glucose       

The Adrenal Glands and Stress          

The Gonads and Sex Hormones        

Mimicking Sex Hormones     

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Do ’Roids Cause Rage?   

EVOLUTION CONNECTION Steroids and Male Aggression    

26 Reproduction and Development    


High-Tech Babies      

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY New Ways of Making Babies          

Unifying Concepts of Animal Reproduction  

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction  

Human Reproduction 

Male Reproductive Anatomy 

Female Reproductive Anatomy          


The Female Reproductive Cycle         

Reproductive Health   


Sexually Transmitted Infections         

Human Development 

Fertilization by Sperm

Basic Concepts of Embryonic Development  

Pregnancy and Early Development    

The Stages of Pregnancy        


Reproductive Technologies    


In Vitro Fertilization   

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Are Babies Conceived through In Vitro Fertilization as

Healthy as Babies Conceived Naturally?        

The Ethics of IVF      

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The “Grandmother Hypothesis”  

27 Nervous, Sensory, and Locomotor Systems         



BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Medicinal Poisons   

An Overview of Animal Nervous Systems   


Organization of Nervous Systems     

Sending a Signal through a Neuron   

Passing a Signal from a Neuron to a Receiving Cell  

The Human Nervous System: A Closer Look

The Central Nervous System 

The Peripheral Nervous System         

The Human Brain       

The Senses     

Sensory Input 



Locomotor Systems   

The Skeletal System   

The Muscular System

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can Botulism Toxin Prevent Headaches?

Stimulus and Response: Putting It All Together        



28 The Life of a Flowering Plant       



BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY The Buzz on Coffee Plants  

The Structure and Function of a Flowering Plant       

Monocots and Eudicots                      

Roots, Stems, and Leaves      

Plant Tissues and Tissue Systems      

Plant Cells      

Plant Growth  

Primary Growth: Lengthening

Secondary Growth: Thickening         

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE What Happened to the Lost Colony of Roanoke?

The Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant  

The Flower     

Overview of the Flowering Plant Life Cycle  

Pollination and Fertilization    

Seed Formation          

Fruit Formation          

Seed Germination       

EVOLUTION CONNECTION The Problem of the Disappearing Bees   

29 The Working Plant


The Interdependence of Organisms    

BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Planting Hope in the Wake of Disaster        

How Plants Acquire and Transport Nutrients

Plant Nutrition

From the Soil into the Roots  

The Role of Bacteria in Nitrogen Nutrition    

The Transport of Water          

The Transport of Sugars        

THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Can the Pressure Flow Mechanism Be Directly Measured?        

Economic Uses of Plant Transport Products  

Plant Hormones         





Abscisic Acid 

Response to Stimuli   



EVOLUTION CONNECTION Plants, Bugs, and People 


A Metric Conversion Table   

B The Periodic Table 

C Credits       

D Selected Answers  


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