The Carthaginians

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2010-07-09
  • Publisher: Routledge

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The Carthaginians reveals the complex culture, society and achievements of a famous, yet misunderstood ancient people. Beginning as Phoenician settlers in North Africa, the Carthaginians then broadened their civilisation with influences from neighbouring North African peoples, Egypt, and the Greek world. Their own cultural influence in turn spread across the Western Mediterranean as they imposed dominance over Sardinia, western Sicily, and finally southern Spain.As a stable republic Carthage earned respectful praise from Greek observers, notably Aristotle, and from many Romans'”even Cato, otherwise notorious for insisting that 'Carthage must be destroyed'. Carthage matched the great city-state of Syracuse in power and ambition, then clashed with Rome for mastery of the Mediterranean West. For a time, led by her greatest general Hannibal, she did become the leading power between the Atlantic and the Adriatic.It was chiefly after her destruction in 146 BC that Carthage came to be depicted by Greeks and Romans as an alien civilisation, harsh, gloomy and bloodstained. Demonising the victim eased the embarrassment of Rome's aggression; Virgil in his Aeneid was one of the few to offer a more sensitive vision. Exploring both written and archaeological evidence, The Carthaginians reveals a complex, multicultural and innovative people whose achievements left an indelible impact on their Roman conquerors and on history.

Author Biography

Dexter Hoyos writes on Latin teaching and ancient history. His books include Unplanned Wars (1998), Hannibal's Dynasty (Routledge, 2003), Truceless War (2007), and Hannibal: Rome's Greatest Enemy (2008). He has retired after 36 years at Sydney University to continue research work on Romans and Carthaginians.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsp. xi
Keys to the Mapsp. xiii
Illustrationsp. xxi
Sources of Imagesp. xxiii
Chronological Tablep. xxvi
Sources of knowledgep. xxxiii
The Phoenicians in the Westp. 1
The Phoeniciansp. 1
Sidon and Tyrep. 2
Settlements in the Westp. 3
Carthage: Foundation and Growthp. 6
Tales of the foundationp. 6
Legends and truthsp. 7
Carthage: site and potentialp. 12
State and Governmentp. 20
Citizens and aristocratsp. 20
Carthaginian namesp. 23
Praise from Greeksp. 24
Chief magistrates: the sufetesp. 25
Adirim: the senate of Carthagep. 28
The mysterious 'pentarchies'p. 31
The generalsp. 33
Nemesis of generals: the court of One Hundred and Fourp. 35
The assembly of citizensp. 36
The Carthaginian 'sea empire'p. 39
Carthage and North Africap. 39
Carthage and the Etruscansp. 43
First treaty with Romep. 44
Projection of power: Sardiniap. 45
Projection of power: Sicilyp. 47
Carthage, Spain and the Atlanticp. 49
Hanno's Periplusp. 51
Himilco's voyagep. 54
An expansionist policy?p. 55
Traders and landowners: Carthaginian societyp. 59
Trade and tradersp. 59
Land and landowningp. 62
Workers and labourersp. 67
Slavesp. 69
The Cityscape of Carthagep. 73
The growth of the cityp. 73
Temples and other sacred buildingsp. 76
Houses and shopsp. 82
Public buildingsp. 86
The land fortifications and the portsp. 88
Religion and cultural lifep. 94
The gods and goddessesp. 94
The 'tophet' and child sacrificep. 100
Literature at Carthage: did it exist?p. 105
Visual art, including coinagep. 108
Carthage in Africap. 124
Politics and rivalries: Mazeus-'Malchus'p. 124
The Magonid ascendancyp. 128
The end of the Magonidsp. 132
The ascendancy of Hanno 'the Great'p. 134
Politics and war in the late 4th Century: Bomilcar's putschp. 138
The Libyans and Numidiansp. 142
Carthage at War: Sicilyp. 149
The Carthaginian war machine: the navyp. 149
Carthage's armiesp. 153
Carthaginians and Greeks in the 5th Centuryp. 163
Carthage vs Dionysius Ip. 166
Carthage and Timoleonp. 170
The age of Agathocles: Carthage at bayp. 172
Carthage and Pyrrhusp. 176
The First War with Rome, and Afterp. 178
The second and third treaties with Romep. 178
The outbreak of the warp. 181
Phases of war: 264 to 257p. 183
Africa invaded and saved: 256 to 255p. 185
Victories, defeats, stalemate: 254 to 242p. 186
Peace and revoltp. 189
The New Empire and Hannibalp. 193
The Sardinia crisisp. 193
The new empire in Spainp. 194
The coming of the Second Punic Warp. 197
Hannibal invades Italyp. 199
Hannibal, master of southern Italyp. 201
Limitations and setbacksp. 202
Metaurus, Zama and peacep. 203
Hannibal's war: an assessmentp. 205
Revival and Destructionp. 207
Politics and reformsp. 207
Peace and plentyp. 208
Carthage and Numidiap. 211
Politics at home and war with Masinissap. 213
The outbreak of the Third Punic Warp. 214
The Third Punic Warp. 216
Carthage in Historyp. 220
Notesp. 224
Select Bibliographyp. 234
Indexp. 241
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