Case Studies in Pharmacy Ethics

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-03-26
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Focuses on ethical choices faced by pharmacists. Presents a new model for analyzing cases and ethics of new drug distribution systems, such as hospitals, where formularies limit drug choices on basis of cost and efficacy, and Internet-based pharmacies. Previous edition: c1999. Softcover. DNLM: Ethics, Pharmacy.

Table of Contents

List of Casesp. xv
Introduction: Four Questions of Ethicsp. 3
What Are the Source, Meaning, and Justification of Ethical Claims?p. 4
Distinguish Between Evaluative Statements and Statements Presenting Nonevaluative Factsp. 4
Distinguish Between Moral and Nonmoral Evaluationsp. 5
Determine Who Ought to Decidep. 7
What Kinds of Acts Are Right?p. 9
Consequentialismp. 9
Deontological or "Duty-Based" Ethicsp. 10
Other Issues of Normative Ethicsp. 12
How Do Rules Apply to Specific Situations?p. 13
What Ought to Be Done in Specific Cases?p. 15
Notesp. 17
Ethics and Values in Pharmacy
A Model for Ethical Problem Solvingp. 21
The Five-Step Modelp. 21
Application of the Modelp. 22
Respond to the Sense That Something Is Wrongp. 23
Gather Informationp. 24
Identify the Ethical Problem/Moral Diagnosisp. 25
Seek a Resolutionp. 26
Work with Others to Choose a Course of Actionp. 27
Notesp. 28
Values in Health and Illnessp. 29
Identifying Value Judgments in Pharmacyp. 30
Separating Ethical and Other Evaluationsp. 35
What Is the Source of Moral Judgments?p. 41
Grounding Ethics in the Professional Codep. 42
Grounding Ethics in the Physician's Ordersp. 46
Grounding Ethics in Hospital Policyp. 49
Grounding Ethics in the Patient's Valuesp. 51
Grounding Ethics in Religious or Philosophical Perspectivesp. 52
Notesp. 54
Ethical Principles in Pharmacy Ethics
Benefiting the Patient and Others: The Duty to Do Good and Avoid Harmp. 57
Benefiting the Patientp. 58
Health in Conflict with Other Goodsp. 58
Relating Benefits and Harmsp. 61
Benefits of Rules and Benefits in Specific Casesp. 63
Benefiting Society and Individuals Who Are Not Patientsp. 65
Benefits to Societyp. 65
Benefits to Specific Nonpatientsp. 68
Benefits to the Professionp. 69
Benefits to the Pharmacist and the Pharmacist's Familyp. 71
Notesp. 72
Justice: The Allocation of Health Resourcesp. 73
Justice Among Patientsp. 74
Justice Between Patients and Othersp. 77
Justice in Public Policyp. 79
Justice and Other Ethical Principlesp. 83
Notesp. 85
Autonomyp. 86
Determining Whether a Patient Is Autonomousp. 89
External Constraints on Autonomyp. 93
Overriding the Choices of Autonomous Personsp. 95
Notesp. 100
Veracity: Dealing Honestly with Patientsp. 102
The Condition of Doubtp. 104
Lying in Order to Benefitp. 106
Protecting the Patient by Lyingp. 106
Protecting the Welfare of Othersp. 108
Special Cases of Truth Tellingp. 111
Patients Who Don't Want to Be Toldp. 111
Family Members Who Insist That the Patient Not Be Toldp. 113
The Right of Access to Medical Recordsp. 114
Notesp. 116
Fidelity: Promise-Keeping and Confidentialityp. 118
The Ethics of Promises: Explicit and Implicitp. 119
The Limits on the Promise of Confidentialityp. 122
Breaking Confidence to Benefit the Patientp. 123
Breaking Confidence to Benefit Othersp. 126
Incompetent, Impaired, and Dishonest Colleaguesp. 128
Notesp. 133
Avoidance of Killingp. 134
Active Killing Versus Letting One Diep. 137
Withholding Versus Withdrawing Treatmentp. 142
Direct Versus Indirect Killingp. 144
Justifiable Omissionsp. 148
Voluntary and Involuntary Killingp. 150
Killing as Punishmentp. 152
Notesp. 155
Special Problem Areas
Abortion, Sterilization, and Contraceptionp. 159
Abortionp. 159
Abortion for Medical Problems of the Fetusp. 161
Abortion Following Sexual Assaultp. 164
Abortion to Save the Life of the Pregnant Womanp. 167
Abortion and the Mentally Incapacitated Womanp. 169
Abortion for Socioeconomic Reasonsp. 171
Sterilizationp. 172
Contraceptionp. 174
Notesp. 179
Genetics, Birth, and the Biological Revolutionp. 181
Genetic Counselingp. 183
Genetic Screeningp. 187
In Vitro Fertilizationp. 189
Surrogate Motherhoodp. 192
Genetic Engineeringp. 194
Notesp. 196
Mental Health and Behavior Controlp. 199
The Concept of Mental Healthp. 200
Mental Illness and Autonomous Behaviorp. 203
Mental Illness and Third-Party Interestsp. 207
Other Behavior-Controlling Therapiesp. 209
Notesp. 213
Formularies and Drug Distribution Systemsp. 215
Formulariesp. 216
Eliminating Unproven Therapiesp. 217
Eliminating Proven but Marginally Beneficial Therapiesp. 220
Eliminating Proven but Cost-Ineffective Therapiesp. 222
Appeals to Override Formulariesp. 224
Physician Behavior with Drug Company Influencep. 226
Drug Distribution Systemsp. 229
Mail-Order Pharmaciesp. 229
Drugs from Canadap. 231
Notesp. 234
Experimentation on Human Subjectsp. 236
Calculating Risks and Benefitsp. 239
Privacy and Confidentialityp. 242
Equity in Researchp. 245
Conflicts of Interest in Researchp. 248
Informed Consent in Researchp. 250
Notesp. 253
Consent and the Right to Refuse Treatmentp. 255
The Elements of a Consentp. 256
The Standards for Consentp. 259
Comprehension and Voluntarinessp. 263
Notesp. 272
Death and Dyingp. 274
The Definition of Deathp. 275
Competent and Formerly Competent Patientsp. 278
Never-Competent Patientsp. 281
Limits Based on Interests of Othersp. 285
Notesp. 289
Appendixp. 293
The Hippocratic Oathp. 293
Code of Ethics for Pharmacistsp. 294
Indexp. 297
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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