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Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications,9780131382268
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Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications

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Prentice Hall
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    Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications


The Leading Guide To Process Safety Now Extensively Updated For Today's Processes And Systems   As chemical processes have grown more complex, so have the safety systems required to prevent accidents. Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition,offers students and practitioners a more fundamental understanding of safety and the application required to safely design and manage today's sophisticated processes. The third edition continues the definitive standard of the previous editions. The content has been extensively updated to today's techniques and procedures, and two new chapters have been added. A new chapter on chemical reactivity provides the information necessary to identify, characterize, control, and manage reactive chemical hazards. A new chapter on safety procedures and designs includes new content on safely management, and specific procedures including hot work permits, lock-tag-try, and vessel entry.   Subjects Include Inherently safer design Toxicology and industrial hygiene Toxic release and dispersion models Fires and explosions, and how to prevent them Reliefs and relief sizing Hazard identification Risk assessment Safe designs and procedures Case histories   Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition,is an ideal reference for professionals. It can be used for both graduate and undergraduate instruction. This edition contains more than 480 end-of-chapter problems. A solutions manual is available for instructors.

Author Biography

Daniel A. Crowl is Herbert H. Dow Professor for Chemical Process Safety at Michigan Tech. He serves on the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Safety and Chemical Engineering Education (SACHE) Committee, and is author/editor of several AIChE books on process safety. His awards include AIChE’s Bill Doyle Award; the ACS Chemical Health and Safety Award; the Walton/Miller award from AIChE’s Safety and Health Division; and the AIChE Board’s Gary Leach Award. He is a Fellow of AIChE, ACS Safety and Health Division , and CCPS.


Joseph F. Louvar is Research Professor at Wayne State University’s College of Engineering, where he teaches chemical process safety, risk assessment, and process design. He was recently the CCPS staff consultant for the Undergraduate Education Committee, commonly known as the Safety and Chemical Engineering Education Committee (AIChE’s SACHE) and has previously chaired this committee for over ten years. His books include Health and Environmental Risk Analysis: Fundamentals with Applications (Prentice Hall, 1997).

Table of Contents

Preface         xv

About the Authors         xvii

On the Cover         xviii

Nomenclature         xix

Chapter 1: Introduction          1

1-1 Safety Programs   2

1-2 Engineering Ethics   4

1-3 Accident and Loss Statistics   4

1-4 Acceptable Risk   12

1-5 Public Perceptions   14

1-6 The Nature of the Accident Process   15

1-7 Inherent Safety   20

1-8 Seven Significant Disasters   23

Suggested Reading   31

Problems   32


Chapter 2: Toxicology         37

2-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms   38

2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms   41

2-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms   42

2-4 Toxicological Studies   43

2-5 Dose versus Response   44

2-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves   50

2-7 Relative Toxicity   56

2-8 Threshold Limit Values   56

2-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond   58

On-Line Resources   59

Suggested Reading   60

Problems   60


Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene         65

3-1 Government Regulations   66

3-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification   78

3-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation   84

3-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control   99

On-Line Resources   109

Suggested Reading   109

Problems   110


Chapter 4: Source Models         119

4-1 Introduction to Source Models   119

4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole   122

4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank   126

4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes   131

4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes   140

4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes   146

4-7 Flashing Liquids   163

4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling   169

4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases   170

4-10 Conservative Analysis   172

Suggested Reading   173

Problems   174


Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models         185

5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion   186

5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models   190

5-3 Dense Gas Dispersion   209

5-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas   219

5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria   225

5-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy   233

5-7 Release Mitigation   234

Suggested Reading   235

Problems   236


Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions         245

6-1 The Fire Triangle   245

6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions   247

6-3 Definitions   247

6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors   249

6-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting   260

6-6 Flammability Diagram   262

6-7 Ignition Energy   270

6-8 Autoignition   270

6-9 Auto-Oxidation   271

6-10 Adiabatic Compression   272

6-11 Ignition Sources   273

6-12 Sprays and Mists   274

6-13 Explosions   275

Suggested Reading   304

Problems   305


Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions         317

7-1 Inerting   318

7-2 Static Electricity   333

7-3 Controlling Static Electricity   356

7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments   363

7-5 Ventilation   367

7-6 Sprinkler Systems   370

7-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions   374

Suggested Reading   374

Problems   375


Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity         381

8-1 Background Understanding   382

8-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards   384

8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters   390

8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards   416

Suggested Reading   418

Problems   418


Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs         429

9-1 Relief Concepts   430

9-2 Definitions   432

9-3 Location of Reliefs   433

9-4 Relief Types and Characteristics   436

9-5 Relief Scenarios   443

9-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs   444

9-7 Relief Systems   444

Suggested Reading   452

Problems   453


Chapter 10: Relief Sizing         459

10-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service   460

10-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service   466

10-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service   470

10-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service   471

10-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief   472

10-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs   481

10-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions   481

10-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels   488

10-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids   492

Suggested Reading   496

Problems   497


Chapter 11: Hazards Identification         505

11-1 Process Hazards Checklists   508

11-2 Hazards Surveys   508

11-3 Hazards and Operability Studies   524

11-4 Safety Reviews   530

11-5 Other Methods   537

Suggested Reading   538

Problems   538


Chapter 12: Risk Assessment         549

12-1 Review of Probability Theory   550

12-2 Event Trees   564

12-3 Fault Trees   569

12-4 QRA and LOPA   577

Suggested Reading   588

Problems   588


Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs         597

13-1 Process Safety Hierarchy   598

13-2 Managing Safety   599

13-3 Best Practices   600

13-4 Procedures–Operating   600

13-5 Procedures–Permits   601

13-6 Procedures–Safety Reviews and Accident Investigations   603

13-7 Designs for Process Safety   604

13-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions   615

13-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions   615

13-10 Designs for Handling Dusts   616

Suggested Reading   617

Problems   618


Chapter 14: Case Histories         621

14-1 Static Electricity   622

14-2 Chemical Reactivity   626

14-3 System Designs   631

14-4 Procedures   637

14-5 Training   642

14-6 Conclusion   645

Suggested Reading  646

Problems   646


Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants         649


Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons         653


Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams         659

Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures   659

Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service   664


Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4         669


Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data         679


Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals         681


Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances         687


Index 695

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