Chemistry For Changing Times

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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This popular book is a useful and interesting read for the layperson, as it is colorful, conversational in tone, and easily understandable. Knowledge of chemistry leads to better understanding about the hazards and benefits of this world, enabling better personal decision-making. Explores the concept of green chemistry throughout. Extensively revises key subject areas such as Energy, Fitness and Health, and Drugs. Features new color photographs and diagrams throughout to help readers visualize chemical phenomena. Personalizes chemistry for today's reader, encouraging a focus on evaluating information about real-life issues rather than memorizing rigorous theory and mathematics. For anyone interested in learning about chemistry and its effect upon our everyday lives.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvi
To the Studentp. xxiv
Highlights of the Eleventh Editionp. xxvi
Student Media Resourcesp. xxx
Instructor Media Resourcesp. xxxi
Chemistry: A Science for All Seasonsp. 1
Science and Technology: The Roots of Knowledgep. 2
The Baconian Dream and the Carsonian Nightmarep. 3
Science: Testable, Reproducible, Explanatory, Predictive, and Tentativep. 3
The Limitations of Sciencep. 5
Science and Technology: Risks and Benefitsp. 6
Chemistry: Its Central Rolep. 8
Solving Society's Problems: Scientific Researchp. 9
Chemistry: A Study of Matter and Its Changesp. 11
Classification of Matterp. 14
The Measurement of Matterp. 16
Densityp. 21
Energy: Heat and Temperaturep. 24
Critical Thinkingp. 26
Summaryp. 29
Review Questionsp. 30
Problemsp. 30
Additional Problemsp. 32
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 33
References and Readingsp. 33
Green Chemistryp. 34
Atoms: Are They for Real?p. 36
Atoms: The Greek Ideap. 37
Lavoisier: The Law of Conservation of Massp. 38
Proust: The Law of Definite Proportionsp. 39
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matterp. 41
Out of Chaos: The Periodic Tablep. 44
Atoms: Real and Relevantp. 46
Leucippus Revisited: Moleculesp. 46
Summaryp. 48
Review Questionsp. 48
Problemsp. 49
Additional Problemsp. 51
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 52
References and Readingsp. 53
Green Chemistryp. 54
Atomic Structure: Images of the Invisiblep. 56
Electricity and the Atomp. 57
Serendipity in Science: X-Rays and Radioactivityp. 60
Three Types of Radioactivityp. 61
Rutherford's Experiment: The Nuclear Model of the Atomp. 62
The Atomic Nucleusp. 63
Electron Arrangement: The Bohr Modelp. 66
Electron Arrangement: The Quantum Modelp. 70
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Tablep. 73
Which Model to Choose?p. 75
Summaryp. 76
Review Questionsp. 77
Problemsp. 78
Additional Problemsp. 79
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 80
References and Readingsp. 80
Green Chemistryp. 81
Nuclear Chemistry: The Heart of Matterp. 84
Natural Radioactivityp. 86
Nuclear Equationsp. 87
Half-Lifep. 92
Radioisotopic Datingp. 93
Artificial Transmutationp. 95
Uses of Radioisotopesp. 96
Nuclear Medicinep. 97
Penetrating Power of Radiationp. 100
Energy from the Nucleusp. 101
The Building of the Bombp. 103
Radioactive Falloutp. 106
Nuclear Power Plantsp. 107
Thermonuclear Reactionsp. 107
The Nuclear Agep. 108
Summaryp. 110
Review Questionsp. 111
Problemsp. 112
Additional Problemsp. 113
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 114
References and Readingsp. 115
Chemical Bonds: The Ties That Bindp. 116
The Art of Deduction: Stable Electron Configurationsp. 118
Lewis (Electron-Dot) Symbolsp. 119
Sodium Reacts with Chlorine: Factsp. 119
Sodium Reacts with Chlorine: The Theoryp. 120
Using Lewis Symbols: More Ionic Compoundsp. 121
Formulas and Names of Binary Ionic Compoundsp. 124
Covalent Bonds: Shared Electron Pairsp. 126
Unequal Sharing: Polar Covalent Bondsp. 127
Polyatomic Molecules: Water, Ammonia, and Methanep. 130
Polyatomic Ionsp. 131
Rules for Writing Lewis Formulasp. 132
Odd-Electron Molecules: Free Radicalsp. 135
Molecular Shapes: The VSEPR Theoryp. 136
Shapes and Properties: Polar and Nonpolar Moleculesp. 139
Intermolecular Forces and the States of Matterp. 140
A Chemical Vocabularyp. 144
Summaryp. 145
Review Questionsp. 147
Problemsp. 147
Additional Problemsp. 150
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 151
References and Readingsp. 151
Green Chemistryp. 152
Chemical Accounting: Mass and Volume Relationshipsp. 154
Chemical Sentences: Equationsp. 155
Volume Relationships in Chemical Equationsp. 158
Avogadro's Number: 6.02 x 10[superscript 23]p. 160
The Mole: "A Dozen Eggs and a Mole of Sugar, Please"p. 160
Mole and Mass Relationships in Chemical Equationsp. 165
The Gas Lawsp. 169
Solutionsp. 175
Summaryp. 180
Review Questionsp. 181
Problemsp. 182
Additional Problemsp. 185
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 187
References and Readingsp. 187
Green Chemistryp. 188
Acids and Bases: Please Pass the Protonsp. 190
Acids and Bases: Experimental Definitionsp. 191
Acids, Bases, and Saltsp. 193
Acidic and Basic Anhydridesp. 196
Strong and Weak Acids and Basesp. 197
Neutralizationp. 198
The pH Scalep. 199
Acid Rainp. 202
Antacids: A Basic Remedyp. 202
Acids and Bases in Industry and in Usp. 203
Summaryp. 204
Review Questionsp. 206
Problemsp. 206
Additional Problemsp. 208
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 209
References and Readingsp. 209
Green Chemistryp. 210
Oxidation and Reduction: Burn and Unburnp. 212
Oxidation and Reduction: Three Viewsp. 214
Oxidizing and Reducing Agentsp. 217
Electrochemistry: Cells and Batteriesp. 218
Corrosionp. 222
Explosive Reactionsp. 223
Oxygen: An Abundant and Essential Oxidizing Agentp. 223
Other Common Oxidizing Agentsp. 225
Some Reducing Agents of Interestp. 226
A Closer Look at Hydrogenp. 228
Oxidation, Reduction, and Living Thingsp. 230
Summaryp. 231
Review Questionsp. 232
Problemsp. 233
Additional Problemsp. 234
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 235
References and Readingsp. 235
Green Chemistryp. 236
Organic Chemistry: The Infinite Variety of Carbon Compoundsp. 238
The Unique Carbon Atomp. 239
Alkanesp. 240
Cyclic Hydrocarbons: Rings and Thingsp. 244
Unsaturated and Hydrocarbons: Alkenes and Alkynesp. 245
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Benzene and Relativesp. 247
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Many Uses, Some Hazardsp. 248
The Functional Groupp. 249
The Alcohol Familyp. 251
Phenolsp. 254
Ethersp. 254
Aldehydes and Ketonesp. 256
Carboxylic Acidsp. 258
Esters: The Sweet Smell of RCOOR'p. 259
Amines and Amidesp. 261
Heterocyclic Compounds: Alkaloids and Othersp. 263
Summaryp. 264
Review Questionsp. 266
Problemsp. 266
Additional Problemsp. 268
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 269
References and Readingsp. 269
Green Chemistryp. 270
Polymers: Giants Among Moleculesp. 272
Polymerization: Making Big Ones Out of Little Onesp. 273
Natural Polymersp. 273
Celluloid: Billiard Balls and Collarsp. 274
Polyethylene: From the Battle of Britain to Bread Bagsp. 274
Addition Polymerization: One + One + One + ... Gives ONE!p. 277
Rubber and Other Elastomersp. 281
Condensation Polymers: Splitting Out Waterp. 283
Properties of Polymersp. 288
Disposal of Plasticsp. 289
Plastics and Fire Hazardsp. 290
Plasticizers and Pollutionp. 290
Plastics and the Futurep. 291
Summaryp. 293
Review Questionsp. 294
Problemsp. 294
Additional Problemsp. 295
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 296
References and Readingsp. 297
Green Chemistryp. 298
Chemistry of Earth: Metals and Mineralsp. 300
Spaceship Earth: The Materials Manifestp. 301
The Lithosphere: Organic and Inorganicp. 302
Meeting Our Needs: From Sticks to Bricksp. 303
Silicates and the Shapes of Thingsp. 304
Modified Silicates: Ceramics, Glass, and Cementp. 306
Metals and Oresp. 308
Running Out of Everything: Earth's Dwindling Resourcesp. 311
Land Pollution: Solid Wastesp. 312
The Three R's of Garbage: Reduce, Reuse, Recyclep. 313
How Crowded Is Our Spaceship?p. 315
Summaryp. 316
Review Questionsp. 316
Problemsp. 317
Additional Problemsp. 318
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 319
References and Readingsp. 319
Green Chemistryp. 320
Air: The Breath of Lifep. 322
Earth's Atmosphere: Divisions and Compositionp. 323
Chemistry of the Atmospherep. 324
Temperature Inversionp. 326
Natural Pollutionp. 326
The Air Our Ancestors Breathedp. 327
Pollution Goes Globalp. 327
Coal + Fire to Industrial Smogp. 328
Automobile Emissionsp. 331
Photochemical Smog: Making Haze While the Sun Shinesp. 333
Acid Rain: Air Pollution to Water Pollutionp. 335
The Inside Story: Indoor Air Pollutionp. 336
Ozone: The Double-Edged Swordp. 338
Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effectp. 342
The Ultimate Pollutant: Heatp. 345
Who Pollutes? How Much?p. 345
Paying the Pricep. 347
Summaryp. 348
Review Questionsp. 349
Problemsp. 349
Additional Problemsp. 350
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 351
References and Readingsp. 351
Green Chemistryp. 352
Water: Rivers of Life; Seas of Sorrowsp. 354
Water: Some Unique Propertiesp. 355
Water, Water, Everywherep. 358
The Water Cycle and Natural Contaminantsp. 358
Chemical and Biological Contaminationp. 360
An Example of Industrial Pollution: Building a Carp. 362
Groundwater Contamination to Tainted Tap Waterp. 364
Making Water Fit to Drinkp. 365
Water Treatment Plantsp. 368
From Wastewater to Drinking Waterp. 370
The Newest Soft Drink: Bottled Waterp. 371
Alternative Sewage Treatment Systemsp. 372
We're the Solution to Water Pollutionp. 372
Summaryp. 373
Review Questionsp. 374
Problemsp. 374
Additional Problemsp. 375
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 376
References and Readingsp. 377
Green Chemistryp. 378
Energy: A Fuels Paradisep. 380
Heavenly Sunlight Flooding Earth with Energyp. 381
Energy and Chemical Reactionsp. 384
Energy and the First Law: Energy Is Conservedp. 387
Energy and the Second Law: Things Are Going to Get Worsep. 387
People Power: Early Uses of Energyp. 389
Reserves and Consumption Rates of Fossil Fuelsp. 390
Coal: The Carbon Rock of Agesp. 391
Natural Gas: Mostly Methanep. 394
Petroleum: Liquid Hydrocarbonsp. 394
Convenient Energy: Electricityp. 399
Nuclear Fissionp. 401
Nuclear Fusion: The Sun in a Magnetic Bottlep. 405
Harnessing the Sun: Solar Energyp. 406
Biomass: Photosynthesis for Fuelp. 408
Hydrogen: Light and Powerfulp. 409
Other Renewable Energy Sourcesp. 411
Energy: How Much Is Too Much?p. 413
Summaryp. 414
Review Questionsp. 415
Problemsp. 416
Additional Problemsp. 418
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 419
References and Readingsp. 419
Green Chemistryp. 420
Biochemistry: A Molecular View of Lifep. 422
The Cellp. 423
Energy in Biological Systemsp. 424
Carbohydrates: A Storehouse of Energyp. 425
Fats and Other Lipidsp. 428
Proteins: Polymers of Amino Acidsp. 431
The Peptide Bond: Peptides and Proteinsp. 432
Structure of Proteinsp. 434
Enzymes: Exquisite Precision Machinesp. 438
Nucleic Acids: Parts and Structurep. 440
DNA: Self-Replicationp. 444
RNA: Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Codep. 445
The Human Genomep. 447
Summaryp. 450
Review Questionsp. 451
Problemsp. 452
Additional Problemsp. 454
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 455
References and Readingsp. 455
Green Chemistryp. 456
Food: Molecular Gastronomyp. 458
Carbohydrates in the Dietp. 460
Fats and Cholesterolp. 461
Proteins: Muscle and Much Morep. 466
Minerals: Important Inorganic Chemicals and Lifep. 468
The Vitamins: Vital, But Not All Are Aminesp. 469
Other Essentials: Fiber and Waterp. 471
Starvation and Fastingp. 472
Additives to Enhance Our Foodp. 473
Poisons in Our Foodp. 481
A World Without Food Additivesp. 483
Green Plants: Sun-Powered Food-Making Machinesp. 483
Farming with Chemicals: Fertilizersp. 485
The War Against Pestsp. 490
Biological Insect Controlsp. 494
Herbicides and Defoliantsp. 497
Sustainable Agriculturep. 498
Some Malthusian Mathematicsp. 500
Can We Feed a Hungry World?p. 502
Summaryp. 503
Review Questionsp. 504
Problemsp. 505
Additional Problemsp. 507
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 508
References and Readingsp. 508
Green Chemistryp. 510
Household Chemicals: Helps and Hazardsp. 512
A History of Cleaningp. 513
Fat + Lye to Soapp. 514
Synthetic Detergentsp. 518
Laundry Detergent Formulationsp. 519
Dishwashing Detergentsp. 523
Fabric Softeners: Quaternary Ammonium Saltsp. 524
Laundry Bleaches: Whiter Whitesp. 524
All-Purpose Cleaning Productsp. 525
Special-Purpose Cleanersp. 525
Organic Solvents in the Homep. 526
Paintsp. 527
Waxesp. 528
Cosmetics: Personal Care Chemicalsp. 528
Toothpaste: Soap with Grit and Flavorp. 532
Perfumes, Colognes, and Aftershavesp. 533
Some Hairy Chemistryp. 535
The Well-Informed Consumerp. 539
Summaryp. 540
Review Questionsp. 541
Problemsp. 542
Additional Problemsp. 543
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 544
References and Readingsp. 545
Green Chemistryp. 546
Fitness and Health: Some Chemical Connectionsp. 548
Calories: Quantity and Qualityp. 549
Vitamins and Mineralsp. 551
Body Fluids and Electrolytesp. 554
Weight-Loss Dietsp. 555
Exercise for Weight Lossp. 557
Measuring Fitnessp. 559
Some Chemistry of Musclesp. 561
Drugs and the Athletep. 564
Exercise and the Brainp. 565
No Smokingp. 566
Summaryp. 569
Review Questionsp. 570
Problemsp. 570
Additional Problemsp. 571
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 572
References and Readingsp. 573
Green Chemistryp. 574
Drugs: Chemical Cures, Comforts, and Cautionsp. 576
Scientific Drug Designp. 578
Pain Relievers: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)p. 578
Chemistry, Allergies, and the Common Coldp. 581
Antibacterial Drugsp. 583
Viruses and Antiviral Drugsp. 587
Chemicals Against Cancerp. 589
Hormones: The Regulatorsp. 592
Chemistry and Social Revolution: The Pillp. 596
Drugs for the Heartp. 599
Drugs and the Mindp. 601
Some Chemistry of the Nervous Systemp. 601
Brain Amines: Depression and Maniap. 602
Anestheticsp. 605
Depressant Drugsp. 608
Narcoticsp. 610
Antianxiety Agentsp. 613
Stimulant Drugsp. 616
Psychedelic Drugsp. 618
Drug Problemsp. 620
The Placebo Effectp. 621
New Uses for Old Drugsp. 621
Summaryp. 622
Review Questionsp. 623
Problemsp. 624
Additional Problemsp. 625
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 625
References and Readingsp. 627
Green Chemistryp. 628
Poisons: Chemical Toxicologyp. 630
Natural Poisonsp. 631
Corrosive Poisons: A Closer Lookp. 633
Poisons Affecting Oxygen Transport and Oxidative Processesp. 634
Make Your Own Poison: Fluoroacetic Acidp. 635
Heavy Metal Poisonsp. 635
More Chemistry of the Nervous Systemp. 638
The Lethal Dosep. 640
The Liver as a Detox Facilityp. 642
Chemical Carcinogens: Slow Poisonsp. 643
Three Ways to Test for Carcinogensp. 645
Birth Defects: Teratogensp. 646
Hazardous Wastesp. 647
What Price Poisons?p. 649
Summaryp. 650
Review Questionsp. 651
Problemsp. 651
Additional Problemsp. 652
Collaborative Group Projectsp. 653
References and Readingsp. 653
Green Chemistryp. 654
Review of Measurement and Mathematicsp. A-1
Glossaryp. A-16
Answersp. A-25
Photo CreditsPC-1
Indexp. I-1
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