City Lights Urban-Suburban Life in the Global Society

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-11-13
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Now in its third edition, City Lights: Urban-Suburban Life in the Global Society is the most interdisciplinary urban studies book on the market. It skillfully blends social science perspectives with insights from the visual arts and humanities to provide a comprehensive introduction to cities,suburbs, and post-suburban areas and how they work. Motivating students to develop their own perspectives on the issues, author E. Barbara Phillips provides an extended discussion of "doing social science," systematically showing how scholarly controversy and public debates over urban-suburbanpolicy are rooted in deep-seated differences: in ideologies, research methods, theoretical orientations, academic disciplines, and/or levels of analysis. Featuring a unique combination of serious scholarship and an accessible, engaging writing style, City Lights, Third Edition, is ideal for courses in urban sociology, urban studies, urban growth and development, urban theory, and urban history. It incorporates many helpful pedagogical features,including almost 200 photographs and illustrations, real-life case studies, excerpts from classic works, key terms, and suggestions for further learning. In addition, end-of-chapter projects encourage students to apply what they have learned by participating in research, activism, or other civicpursuits in their own communities. Thoroughly revised and updated, the third edition: * Focuses on the U.S. city but also integrates a global emphasis throughout, with in-depth profiles of such cities as Kyoto, Cordoba, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Mexico City; numerous global-local links; and a new chapter (5) on global urbanization and the urban system * Updated statistical data * Detailed coverage of the Internet's influence on personal, political, and economic relations * Discussions of numerous new topics including the impact of terrorism on cities, new immigrants in the U.S. and elsewhere, gated communities, building "green," and the "New Urbanism" in the U.S * Analyses of recent political, social, and economic changes--including economic downturns--and their effects on urbanites and suburbanites in the U.S. and worldwide

Table of Contents

Chapters 4-20 end with ""Another Look"" sections
An Invitation To The City
The Knowing Eye And Ear
Two Paths To Understanding The City
""Acquaintance With"" and ""Knowledge About"" Metropolitan Life
Rethinking the Two Paths
Understanding Chicago In Its Heyday
Using Social Science and Literature as Paths to Knowledge
Labor Radicalism, Industrial Progress, and Social Reform
Urban Researchers and Writers: Convergent Goals
The City Beautiful
Chicago: Microcosm of the New Industrial Order
Thinking About Cities
What You See Depends On How You Look At It
Different Modes of Understanding
Academic and Occupational Perspectives
Even Road Maps Contain a Point of View
Expanding Our Vision Of The City
Fragmentation of the Social Sciences
Ways of Expanding Our Vision
Urban Studies
Disciplinary Perspectives: The Examples Of Slums And Megaslums
Political Science
Psychology, Social Psychology, and Social Psychiatry
Public Administration
City Planning and Urban Design
Communications and Information Technology
Environmental Studies
Literature and the Arts
Making Some Connections
Posing The Questions Doing Science
Reasoning, Deductive and Inductive
Systematic Analysis
Facts, Hypotheses, and Value Judgments
Why Social Scientists Disagree
Theoretical Orientations
Disciplinary Perspectives
Research Methods
Levels of Analysis
Ideologies and Values
Subtle Influences on Researchers
Attitudes Toward Solving Social Problems
What Questions To Ask
Polis, Metropolis, Megalopolis
From Urban Specks To Global Cities The First Cities
Digging into Urban History
What Is a City?
The First Urban Settlements: An Overview
The Childe Thesis: The Urban Revolution in Mesopotamia
Counterviews on the Origin of Cities: Trade, the Sacred, and the Spirit of the People
An Emerging Theory of Early City Making
Trying To Classify Cities
Preindustrial versus Industrial Cities (Sjoberg)
A Sampler Of Cities
The Glory that Was Greece
Kyoto, ""The Most Japanese of Japanese Cities""
From Rome to Medieval, European Cities
Muslim Cordoba, Spain: ""Ornament of the World""
Mexico City: Imperial City, Colonial City, Megalopolis
Manchester, England: Symbol of the New Industrial City
Huis Ten Bosch, Japan, Theme-Park City
Bom Bahia/Bombay/Mumbai/""Slumbay""
Silicon Valley
Shanghai, China
U.S. Urban Roots
Specks in the Wilderness
Antiurbanism of the Intellectuals
From Walking City to Streetcar Suburb
Urbanization & The Urban System Urbanization Of The World's Population
The Process of Urbanization
Industrialization and Urbanization in Western Europe and North America
Urbanization in PoorCountries
Worldwide, the Future Is Urban
The World Urban System
Globalization of Cities
The International Division of Labor, Old and New
U.S. Cities in the World Urban System
Cities in the Global Environment
The Ties That Bind What Is A Community?
Communities Based on Territory
Communities Based on Common Culture
A Sense of Community
The Athenian Polis Of Ancient Greece
A Communal Way of Life
The Classical Urban Theory
Typologies of the Rural-Urban Shift
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (Tonnies)
Mechanical and Organic Social Solidarity (Durkheim)
Culture and Civilization (Spengler)
Urban Personality (Wirth)
Preindustrial and Industrial Cities (Sjoberg)
Adding a Third Type: Technosschaft
How Useful Are The Rural-Urban Typologies?
Untested Hypotheses
Contrary Evidence
Deterministic Assumptions
Contemporary Irrelevance
Jumbled Variables
Metropolitan Community Social Cement In The Metropolis
Metropolitan Community: Alive or Extinct?
One View: Metropolitan Division of Labor
Alternative View: New International Division of Labor (""Needle"")
Urban Ecologists versus New Urban Theorists: A Case Study
Measuring Functional Interdependence
The Need for New Concepts
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and Micropolitan Area in the U.S.
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Megalopolis
Rural and Micropolitan Areas
Where Are We Headed in the U.S.?
U.S. Population Shifts
From Rural to Urban
From Urban to Suburban and Postsuburban
Back to the Land?
From Frostbelt to Sunbelt
Interpreting the Population Trends
Making Connections Searching For Community, Or New Houses?
Diatribes Against ""Suburbia""
The Myth of Suburbia
Taking the Sub out of Suburban
The Transformation of Milpitas, California, 1954-2000
ZIP Codes as Neighborhoods
Placeless, Faceless Communities: Interconnectivities
Social Networks
A Structural Approach to Community
What Now, What Next?
Gated Communities
Grand Dreams and Grandiose Schemes
Pluribus Versus Unum
Movin' On Migrant Experiences In The United States
The Old Migration
Internal Migration
The New Migration
Some Impacts of the Newcomers
From Ellis Island To Lax
Adjustments to Urban Life
Irish Catholics and East European Jews in New York City
Chicanos and Koreans in Los Angeles
International Migration And Internal Migration Globally
Numbers, Definitions, and Data Issues
The Need For New U.S. Models
Cubans in Miami
Some Impacts of the Newcomers
Global Villagers
Identity Crisis From Ellis Island To Lax
Global Identity . . .
. . . versus the Pull of ""Lesser Loyalties""
Civics versus Ethnics
Whatever Happened To The U.S. Melting Pot?
Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Groups
From Minority to Majority
A Clash of Values: White Ethnics versus WASP Superculture
Once Again, the Entanglement of Race/Ethnicity and Class
The Grand Canyon
Symbolic Ethnicity
Feelings and Food
The Stewpot
Native Americans: The Unassimilated
African-Americans: Permanent Underclass?
Hispanics/Latinos: Climbing Up?
Making It: Japanese-Americans
Gays and Lesbians: An Ethnic-like Group?
Rules Of The Game
Social Ladders
Two Ways Of Looking At Social Stratification: Marx And Weber
Living on the Cusp
Marx and Weber: No Specifically Urban Theory
Marx and the Concept of Class
""Dream Up, Blame Down""
Marx, the Inescapable Critic
Weber's View of Social Stratification: Class, Status, Power
Conceptual Updates
The American Class Structure
Cultural Capital
Studies Of Urban Social Stratification In The United States
Yankee City: Lifestyles in a New England Town
Jonesville: A Typical Town, and How Its People Justify Inequality
Studies Of Particular Strata In The City
Global Social Stratification Research
Veracruz, Mexico
Eastern Europe, and China
Globalization and Inequality
Other Variables Influencing Social Rank
Ethnicity, Religion, and Region
Women in Cities
Discovering The Rules Taking A Fresh Look At The Familiar
Pedestrian Behavior
Subway Behavior
Eavesdropping: Urbanites as Spies
Bar Behavior
ATM Behavior
Office Behavior: A Comparative Look
Everyday Games And Dramas
Whose Games Do We Play?
""The Definition of the Situation"" (Thomas)
Social Order Amid Multiple Realities
""The Presentation of Self"" (Goffman)
Walking The Tightrope
Minimizing Involvement, Maximizing Social Order
Constructing Social Reality
The Public Definition of Reality
Combining Micro- And Macroanalysis To Study Social Behavior
Case Study: Tally's Corner
Who Runs This Town?
The Skeleton Of Power The Scope Of Government
Government's Limited Scope in the U.S.
Paradoxical Attitudes Toward Government
Public-Private Sector Relationships
The Proper Role of Local Government
Local Political Environments
Cities As Creatures Of Their State
General Law Cities and Charter Cities
Dillon's Rule
Changing Relationships
State Legislatures and City Interests
Suburbs versus Cities
Urbanization of the Suburbs
Local Governments in a Global Society: ""Taking Responsibility for the Sky""
Forms Of City Government
Mayor-Council Form
Council-Manager Form
Commission Form
Organization Of City Governments
Mayors, Strong or Weak
Hyperpluralism and Government by Bureaucrats
The Context Of Local Government
Fragmentation of the Metropolis
Special Districts
Counties (Including Urban Counties)
The State's Role in Urban Affairs
Areawide Planning Efforts
Changing Governmental Structures And Patterns
Broad Regional Government?
Traditional Responses and Minor Adaptations
Innovative Experiments
Privatization of Public Services
The Report Card
The Federal Role In Urban Affairs
Expansion of Federal Involvement in U.S. Life, 1930s-1950s
How Federal Policy Affected Postwar Housing and Transportation
From Federalism to the New Federalism, 1960s-1992
A Nameless Period: 1992-2008
The Question Reconsidered: Who Runs This Town?
Case Study: What Bananas Learned About the Formal Structure of Government
Bosses, Boodlers, And Reformers The City Political Machine
A Bunch of Crooks or Friend of the Poor?
How City Machines Work
What Services Machines Provide(d)
Case Study: New York City's Tweed Ring, 1866-1871
Case Study: The Daley Machine in Chicago, 1955-1976 and Beyond
Why Machines Rise, Why Machines Fall
Local Government Reform
The Goo-Goos: A Disparate Lot
Thrusts of the Reform Movement
How Successful Were the Reformers?
Bosses And Machines: An Update
Robert Moses, Newer-style Boss
The Local-National Connection
Getting Things Done Coalition Politics
Case Study: The Fight over Yerba Buena
Community Power
The Elitist Model
The Pluralist Model
The City-as-a-Growth-Machine Model
Comparing The Models
Why the Theorists Disagree
Applying These Models Elsewhere
Citizen Politics
Citizen Politics
Citizen Participation
Dark Shadows
Electronic Democracy?
Case Study Continued: How Bananas Learned Who Runs This Town and Got Some Things Done
Space And Place
Metropolitan Form And Space Bringing Space Back In
Henri Lefebvre's Influence
The System Of Cities
Central Place Theory
Does Central Place Theory Work Today?
Classifying Cities by Function
Newer Spatial Models
The Global Network of Cities
The Internal Structure Of U.S. Cities
Classic Models of U.S. Cities
How Useful Are the Classic Models?
Social Area Analysis: A Method of Investigating Urban Growth and Differentiation
Computer Models of Urban Structure
Perspectives On Metropolitan Space Since The 1970s
The Political Economy Model or the ""New"" Urban Paradigm
The Multinucleated Metropolitan Region Model
Where People Live
How Race and Ethnicity Affect Housing Patterns
What People Live In
How Age Affects Housing Patterns
Economic Activities In U.S. Metropolitan Space
Central Business District (CBD)
Decentralized and Multicentered Commercial Activities
A Sense Of Place Perception: Filtering Reality
Cultural Filters
Social Filters
Psychological Filters
Perceiving The Built Environment
Architecture as Symbolic Politics
Las Vegas, Nevada
China: Shaping an Emerging National Identity
Does Environment Determine Behavior?
Case Study: Pruitt-Igoe
Case Study 2: Cabrini-Green, Chicago
The Spirit And Energy Of Place
Genius loci
Feng shui
Experiencing Personal Space
Personal Space as Protective Bubble
Personalizing Our Space: Home Territories
""The Architecture of Despair""
Privatization of Domestic Public Space
Privatization of Once-Public Space
Experiencing Social Space
Public and Private Space as Symbol
Colonizing Social Space
Street People's Turf
Globalization and the Experience of ""Somewhere""
Policy Implications
Environmental Psychology
Key Concepts and Research Thrusts
Rats, Chickens, and People
Shaping Space
Design Principles
Designing the Natural Environment
The Image Of The City
Making the City Observable
Designers, Grand And Less Grand
Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's Washington, D.C.
Utopian Visionaries
Company Towns: Lowell, Massachusetts, and Pullman, Illinois
The City Beautiful Movement
Ebenezer Howard's Garden City
Megastructures or Ministructures?
Postnationalist Architecture
The New Urbanism
Celebration, Florida: Walt Disney meets Norman Rockwell?
Other Alternatives
""Green"" Structures
Carless Communities?
Paying Their Way
Producing, Consuming, Exchanging, Taxing, and Spending
Political Economy: A Beginning Vocabulary
Supply, Demand, Price, and the Market Mechanism
An Alternative Vocabulary
Surplus Value
Monopoly Capitalism
Late Capitalism
Social Structures of Accumulation
The Informational Mode of Development
A Participatory Budget
A Newer Vocabulary
Restorative Economy and Sustainability
The Economy Of Metropolitan Areas
Cities and MSAs in the National and Global Economies
Basic and Nonbasic Sectors
The Underground Economy
Identifying Basic Sector Industries
Case Study: Caliente
Globalization And Local Finance
A Volatile Global Economy
Paying for Local Services
International Trends
U.S. National, Regional, and State Trends and Policies
Blue-Collar, White-Collar, No-Collar, Shirtless The Postwork Society The Human Dimension: Work And The Individual
Lowell, Massachusetts: Working Conditions of America's First Female Labor Force
New England to the New South to Offshore: More Hard Times in the Mills
Modern Times
The Anomic Division of Labor
Worker Satisfaction, Overwork, and Stress
Local Occupational Structures
The Relationship of Jobs to Social Climate and Governance
Changing U.S. Employment Patterns
Contingent or Temporary Work
The Dual City
The Dual Nation
Poverty In U.S. Metropolitan Areas
Defining Poverty
Who Are the U.S. Metropolitan Poor?
Why Are They Poor?
Tally's Corner
What Should Be Done About Poverty?
Brief Biographies
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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