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Clinical Phonetics

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-02-05
  • Publisher: PEARSON
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A comprehensive introduction to the art and science of applying phonetics to clinical transcription
Clinical Phonetics was written specifically for readers who need to know phonetic knowledge and skills for clinical purposes in speech-language pathology. It covers the basic aspects of the phonetics of American English, including phonetic symbols, articulatory descriptions, and acoustic correlates, but it is unique in offering clinically relevant experience with authentic articulatory descriptions and speech samples from children and adults who have speech disorders or who use regional dialects. A wealth of clinically relevant topics further aids readers in preparing for their own transcription experiences as professionals.

Now featuring the insights and expertise of two new co-authors, the 5th Edition retains its focus on clinical applications while offering more opportunities for clinical transcription, significantly updated content, and an improved organization to maximize clarity and ease of learning.

Also available with the Enhanced Pearson eText*
The Enhanced Pearson eText provides a rich, interactive learning environment designed to improve student mastery of content with embedded video, authentic audio samples, and multiple-choice quizzes with feedback. 

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Author Biography

Lawrence D. Shriberg, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is Principal Investigator of the Phonology Project, Communicative and Cognitive Sciences Unit, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison. Dr. Shriberg's research is centered on genetic and other origins of pediatric speech sound disorders. Goals of the research using a framework termed the Speech Disorders Classification System are to develop behavioral markers that can be used to identify biomarkers and explicate the causal pathways of pediatric speech sound disorders. Recent emphasis has been on children with speech motor delay and children with apraxia of speech.

Raymond D. Kent, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Communicative Sciences and Disorders at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has authored or edited 19 books, including The Acoustic Analysis of Speech (with Charles Read), Reference Manual for Communicative Sciences and Disorders: Handbook of Voice Quality Measurement (with Martin J. Ball), The MIT Encyclopedia of Communication Disorders, and The Speech Sciences. He served as editor of the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, associate founding editor of Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, and associate editor of Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica. He currently conducts research on typical and atypical speech development with a clinical focus on children who have cerebral palsy or Down syndrome.

Tara McAllister, Ph.D, is Assistant Professor of Communicative Sciences and Disorders at New York University. She has published more than 30 peer-reviewed articles spanning the disciplines of linguistics and speech-language pathology. Her research aims to understand how articulatory and perceptual factors shape phonological development and disorders. She also directs the Biofeedback Intervention Technology for Speech (BITS) Lab at NYU, which develops and tests tools to provide visual biofeedback for persistent speech sound errors in children.

Jonathan L. Preston, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Syracuse University. He has coauthored more than 35 peer-reviewed publications, primarily focusing on phonetic, phonological, and neurobiological characteristics of children with speech sound disorders. In his current position, he teaches course-work on speech sound disorders, and he conducts research on assessment and treatment of speech sound disorders, including childhood apraxia of speech.

Table of Contents

About the Authors   v

Preface   xvii

Chapter 1 Overview of Clinical Phonetics  1 
Welcome   1 
Clinical Phonetics   1 
    The Knowledge Domain of Clinical Phonetics   1 
    The Skill-Based Domain of Clinical Phonetics   2 
    Conclusion   3 
Chapter Summary Exercises   3

Chapter 2 Linguistic Phonetics  5
Language, Speech, and Dialect   5 
The Morpheme   6 
The Phoneme   7 
Spelling versus Phonetic Transcription   7 
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)   8
Phonemes and Allophones   9 
Phonetics and Phonology   10 
The Syllable   10 
Positional and Contextual Terminology for Phonetic Descriptions   11 
Conclusion  11
Chapter Summary Exercises   11

Chapter 3 The Three Systems of Speech Production  15 
The Respiratory System   15 
The Laryngeal System   16 
The Supralaryngeal System   18
     Velopharynx: Velum and Pharyngeal Walls   19
    Jaw   20 
    Tongue   20 
    Lips   22 
Technologies for the Study of Phonetics   23
     X-ray Imaging   23 
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)   24
    Electromagnetic Articulography   25 
    Ultrasound   25 
    Electropalatography   26
     Fiberoptic Endoscopy   26 
    Aerodynamic Analysis   26 
    Acoustic Analysis   26 
Conclusion   28 
Chapter Summary Exercises   28

Chapter 4 Vowels: Monophthongs and Diphthongs  31 
Vowel Articulation   31 
    Tongue Height   32 
    Tongue Advancement (the Front–Back Dimension of Tongue  Position)   33 
    Tenseness or Length   34 
    Lip Configuration   35 
    Vowel Description: Tongue Height, Tongue Advancement, Tenseness,  and Lip Rounding   37 
The Front Vowels   37 
    Vowel /i/ (He)   38 
    Vowel /8/ (Hid)   38 
    Vowel /3/ (Chaotic—First Syllable)   39 
    Vowel /2/ (Head)   40 
    Vowel /q/ (Had)   40 
The Back Vowels   41 
    Vowel /u/ (Who)   41 
    Vowel /7/ (Hook)   42 
    Vowel /o/ (Hoe)   42 
    Vowel /9/ (Hall)   43 
    Vowel /e/ (Hot)   44 
The Central Vowels   44 
    Vowel /4/ (Hub)   45 
    Vowel /1/ (Above, Sometimes Called Schwa)   46 
    Vowel /6/ (Her)   46 
    Vowel /5/ (Mother, Sometimes Called Schwar)   47 
Diphthong Articulation   48
    Diphthong /e]/ (Bye)   49 
    Diphthong /9]/ (Boy)   51 
    Diphthong /e[/ (Bough)   51 
    Diphthong /3]/ (Bay)   52 
    Diphthong /o[/ (Bow)   52 
R-colored Vowels   53 
    R-colored Vowel /e r/ (Far)   53 
    R-colored Vowel /9 r/ (Four)   53 
    R-colored Vowel /8 r/ (Fear)   54 
    R-colored Vowel /2 r/ (Fair)   54
Special Notes on the Phonetic Properties of Vowels   55 
    Some Cautions about Vowel Terminology   55 
    Tongue and Jaw Interaction   55 
    Lip and Jaw Interaction   55 
Some Common Articulatory Modifications of English  Vowels   57 
    Nasalization   57 
    Reduction   57 
    Other Modifications   58 
Allographs of English Vowels   58 
Frequency of Occurrence for English Vowels   58 
Vowels around the World   59 
The Acoustic Properties of Vowels   60 
    The Vocal Tract as a Resonator   60 
    Primary Acoustic Properties of Vowels   64 
Conclusion   65 
Chapter Summary Exercises   65

Chapter 5 Consonants  67 
Manner of Articulation   68 
    Stops   68 
    Fricatives   69 
    Affricates   69 
    Nasals   70 
    Liquids   70
    Glides   71 
Place of Articulation   71 
    Bilabials   72 
    Labiodentals   73 
    Interdentals (or Dentals)   74 
    Alveolars   74 
    Palatals   77 
    Velars   79 
    Glottals   80 
The Voicing Contrast   80 
Summary of Manner, Place, and Voicing   82 
    Manner of Articulation   82 
    Place of Articulation and Voicing   83 
Allographs of the Consonant Phonemes of English   85 
Frequency of Occurrence and Place of Articulation   85 
Summary Classification of Consonants   86 
Consonant Acoustics   87 
    Acoustic Features of Consonant Classes   88 
    Sounds in Sequence   91 
Conclusion   92 
Chapter Summary Exercises   92

Chapter 6 Suprasegmentals and Prosody  95 
The Units of Prosody   95 
    Syllables   95 The Prosodic Foot   98 
    The Intonational Phrase   99 
    Intonation   99 
Stress   100 
    Lexical Stress   100 
    Stress beyond the Word Level   102 
Timing   103 
    Tempo   103 
    Pause (Juncture)   103 
    Boundary or Edge Effects   103 
Timing, Juncture, and Intonation Symbols   104 
    Lengthened [s iQ]   104 
    Shortened [w i W]   104  
    Close Juncture [e] d 8 d 8 t]   104 
    Open Juncture [1 n e] s + m q n] versus [1 n + e] s m q n]   104 
    Internal Open Juncture [l 2 t s h 2 l p R j 3] n]   104 
    Falling Terminal Juncture [t 7 d 3] T]   105 
    Rising Terminal Juncture [t 7 d 3] Y]   105 
    Checked or Held Juncture [t 7 d 3] U]   105 
    Selected Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet   105 
Paralinguistics   105 
Examples of Prosodic Variations   106 
    Motherese   106 
    Clear Speech   106 
    Other Prosodic Variations   106 
Role of Prosody in Typical and Atypical Development of Speech  and Language   106 
Clinical Assessment of Suprasegmentals   108 
    Prosody Profile (PROP)   108 
    Prosody-Voice Screening Profile (PVSP)   108 
Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems—Child Version (PEPS-C)   109 
Conclusion   109 
Chapter Summary Exercises   109

Chapter 7 Narrow Transcription  111 
Coarticulation   111 
Uses of Narrow Transcription   112 
Conventions for Diacritic Marks in This Text   114 
Onglide and Offglide Symbols   114 
Nasal Symbols   114 
    Nasalized [b q! d]   114 
    Nasal Emission [s@ m e] l]   116 
    Denasalized [r q# n]   116
Lip Symbols   116 
    Rounded (or Protruded) Vowel [s w i$ t]   116 
    Unrounded (or Unprotruded) Vowel [h u% ]   117 
    Labialized Consonant [k^ w i n]   117 
    Nonlabialized Consonant [w& i d]   117 
    Inverted Lip [b* i n]   117 
Tongue Symbols   117 
    Dentalized [w 8 dI ']   117 
    Palatalized [sO i l]   118 
    Lateralized [sP l i p]   118 
    Retroflex (or Rhotacized) [h e r c{ 5]   119 
    Velarized [f i l}]   119 
    Fronted or Advanced [p e E t]   120 
    Retracted [b qA t]   120 
    Raised [b 2F d]   121 
    Lowered [h 2G d]   121 
    Derhotacized [rK 2 d]   121 
Sound Source Symbols   122 
    Partially Voiced [q b sL 1 n t]   122 
    Partially Devoiced [d 9 g:]   123 
    Glottalized (or Creaky Voice) [b e" k s]   123 
    Breathy (or Murmured) [p l 3Z] 8 a]   123 
    Whistled (or Hissed) [sC i]   124 
    Trilled [th rV e]]   124
 Syllabic Symbol   124 
Stop Release Symbols   124 
    Aspirated [t( e p]   124 
    Unaspirated [s t) e p]   125 
    Unreleased [l q p_]   125 
    Frictionalized (or Spirantized) [s tX e p]   125 
Other Symbols   126 
    Synchronic Tie [d+z u]   126 
    Unintelligible Syllable [\]   126 
    Questionable Segment e or =   126 
Conclusion   126 
Chapter Summary Exercises   126

Chapter 8 Practicing Broad and Narrow Phonetic Transcription  of Children’s Speech  129 

Part A:  Transcription of Vowel Sound Changes   129 
Background Information   129 
Training Modules   130 
    Vowels Module 1: Vowel Substitutions   130 
    Vowels Module 2: Vowel Modifications   130 
    Vowels Module 3: Central Vowels   130
Vowels Module 4: Vowel Substitutions, Modifications,  and Central Vowels   131 
Vowels Module 5: Vowel Additions   131 
Vowels Module 6: Vowel Lengthening   132 
Vowels Module 7: Vowel Nasalization   132 
Vowels Module 8: Summary Quiz   133

Part B:  Transcription of Stop Sound Changes   133 
Background Information   133 
    Description of Stops   133 
Training Modules   134 
    Stops Module 1: Stop Substitutions   134 
    Stops Module 2: Voicing of Voiceless Stops   134 
    Stops Module 3: Devoicing of Voiced Stops   135 
    Stops Module 4: Glottal Stop Substitutions   135 
    Stops Module 5: Stop Deletions   135 
    Stops Module 6: Frictionalized Stops   136 
    Stops Module 7: Summary Quiz   136

Part C:  Transcription of Nasal Sound Changes   136 
Background Information   136 
    Description and Distribution of Nasals   136 
Training Modules   137 
    Nasals Module 1: Nasal Deletions   137 
    Nasals Module 2: Summary Quiz   137

 Part D:  Transcription of Fricative and Affricate Sound Changes   137 
Background Information   138 
    Description of Fricatives   138 
    Distribution and Frequency of Occurrence of Fricatives   138 
Training Modules   139 
    Overview   139 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 1: /f/ and /v/ Changes   139 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 2: /h/ Deletions   139 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 3: Voiceless and Voiced  Interdental Changes   140 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 4: Fricative and Affricate Voicing Changes   140
     Fricatives and Affricates Module 5: Fricative and Affricate Substitutions   140 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 6: Dentalized Sibilants   141 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 7: Lateralized Sibilants   141 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 8: Retroflexed and Palatalized Sibilants   142 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 9: Sibilants Quiz   142 
    Fricatives and Affricates Module 10: Summary Quiz   142

Part E:  Transcription of Glide and Liquid Sound Changes   142 
Background Information   142 
    Description of Glides and Liquids   142 
    Distribution and Frequency   143 
Training Modules   143 
    Glides and Liquids Module 1: Glide Changes   143 
    Glides and Liquids Module 2: /l/ Substitutions   143 
    Glides and Liquids Module 3: Velarized /l/   143 
    Glides and Liquids Module 4: Derhotacized /r/, /6/, /5/   144 
    Glides and Liquids Module 5: /r/ Quiz   144 
    Glides and Liquids Module 6: Velarized /r/   144 
    Glides and Liquids Module 7: Summary Quiz   145 
Grand Quiz   145

Chapter 9 Preparing to Collect and Transcribe Clinical Speech Samples  147 
Eliciting and Recording Speech Samples   147 
    Eliciting the Sample   147 
    The Recording Environment   148 
    Recording Equipment   148 
Factors that Influence Scoring and Transcription   149 
    Client Factors   149 
    Task Factors   150 
Approaches to Clinical Transcription and Scoring   151 
    Transcription and Scoring Systems   151 
    What Level of Detail Should Be Represented?   151 
The Process of Scoring or Transcription   152 
    Should I Use Video Recording?   152 
    Should I Use Headphones?   152 
    Should I Preview the Recording?   152 
    What if I’m Not Sure What I’m Hearing?   153 
    How Many Times Should I Listen?   153 
    What Are Some Strategies for Difficult Words?   153 
    Some Final Suggestions   154 
Conclusion   154

Chapter 10 Phonetics in the Clinical Setting  155 
Single-Word Tests of Articulation and Phonology   155 
Transcribing Nonwords   156 
Two-Way Scoring and Deep Testing   156 
Two-Way Scoring in Larger Speech Samples   157 
    Scoring /s/ in Continuous Speech   157 
    Scoring Rhotics in Continuous Speech   158 
Transcription in Larger Speech Samples   159 
    Transcribing Imitated Phrases   159 
    Transcribing Read Sentences   160 
    Transcribing All Sounds in Continuous Speech   160
Transcribing Children with Motor Speech Disorders   162 
Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Single Words   163 
    Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Words in Phrases   163 
    Motor Speech Disorders: Imitated Sentences   164 
    Motor Speech Disorders: Conversational Speech   166 
Conclusion   167

Chapter 11 Phonetic Variation  169 

Part A:  Phonetic Aspects of Dialect Variation   169
What is Phonetic Variation?   169 
Dialect as a Source of Phonetic Variation   170 
    Studying Dialect   170 
    Is There a Standard Dialect?   170 
    Why Do Dialects Differ?   171 
    Difference versus Disorder   172

Part B:  Regional Dialects of American English   172 
Southern Dialect Region   172 
    Location   172 
    Major Features   173 
Western Dialect Region   174
     Location   174 
    Major Features   174
 Midlands Dialect Region   175 
    Location   175 
    Major Feature   175 
Northern Dialect Regions   176 
    Location   176 
    Major Features   176 
Dialects of the Northeastern United States   177 
    Location   177 
    Major Features   177 
Practice Discriminating Regional Variation in Vowels   178 
Regional Variation in Consonants   178 
International Englishes   179

Part C:  Beyond Regional Dialects   180 
African American English   180 
    Origins of AAE   181 
    Features of AAE   182 
L1-Influenced English   184 
    Working with Speakers from Unfamiliar Language Backgrounds   184 
    Spanish-Influenced English   185 
    Features of Spanish-Influenced English   185
Conclusion   187 
Further Reading   188 
Other Resources   188
Transcription Exercises  189
Appendix A Phonetics Symbols and Terms  309
Appendix B  Distributional, Structural, and Proportional Occurrence Data for American English Sounds, Syllables, and Words  317
Glossary  325
Answers to Exercises  333
 References  345
 Index  353

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