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Clinical Psychology A Scientific, Multicultural, and Life-Span Perspective

by ; ;
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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2022-07-28
  • Publisher: Worth Publishers

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Table of Contents

Part I          FOUNDATIONS

Chapter 1       Clinical Psychology in Context  

Professionals Working in the Fields of
Mental Health
Social Workers
Licensed Professional Counselor
Psychiatric Nurses
Marriage and Family Therapists
“Psychotherapist,” “Life Coach,” and Other Unregulated Terms
Counseling and School Psychologists
Counseling Psychology
School Psychologists
Clinical Psychology
Incorporating a Multicultural Perspective
In Historical Perspective: A Brief History
Activities of Clinical Psychologists
In Practice   Introductions to Shane and Kiara
Chapter Summary
Key Terms

Chapter 2       Who Is a Clinical Psychologist?  

Clinical Psychology Training Models
The Scientist-Practitioner Model (The Boulder Model)
The Practitioner-Scholar Model (The Vail Model)
Emergence of Professional Schools
A Closer Look    The Argosy Disaster and Professional Schools of Psychology
The Clinical Scientist Model
Components of Doctoral Training
Licensing and Credentialing
Specialties within Clinical Psychology
Clinical Child/Adolescent Psychology
Clinical Health Psychology and Pediatric Psychology
Clinical Adult Psychology
Board Certification
Chapter Summary
Key Terms

Chapter 3       Ethics in Clinical Psychology       

General Principles and Ethical
In Historical Perspective: Ethical Standards Reflect the Times
Privacy and Confidentiality
Harm to Others
Others Harming a Client
Clients’ Self-Harm
Working with Youth
Relating with Clients
Ethics and Clinical Psychology
Informed Consent
Fraudulent Data
Ethics and Diversity
Chapter Summary
Key Terms


Chapter 4       Psychological Assessment: Science and Practice

Psychological Assessment in Practice
The Referral and Presenting Problem
Choosing What to Assess
Selecting the Method of Assessment
In Historical Perspective: Psychological Assessment
Gathering Assessment Data
Drawing Conclusions
Communicating the Results
In Practice   A Case Illustration of a Clinical Report
Assessment and Diverse Populations
Clinical Judgment Versus Actuarial (Statistical) Prediction
Clinical Judgment
Actuarial Prediction
Which Approach Is Better (and Why)?
Psychological Assessment in Research
Epidemiology Research
Correlational Research
A Closer Look   False Causation Assumptions and the Dubious “Serotonin Imbalance” Theory
A Closer Look   Neuroimaging Research:
Hope or Hype?
Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Approaches
Experimental Research
Chapter Summary
Key Terms

Chapter 5       The Clinical Interview

General Characteristics of Clinical Interviews
Where to Conduct a Clinical Interview
How to Develop Rapport
How to Use Verbal and Nonverbal Language
The Use of Questions
Active Listening
Consideration of Client Strengths
Psychologists’ Stimulus Value
Psychologists’ Own Multicultural Lenses
Different Types of Clinical Interviews
Intake-Admission Interview
In Practice   Sample Intake Report, Kiara
The Social History Interview
The Mental Status Examination
In Practice   Excerpt from a Sample Mental Status Interview
The Diagnostic Interview
Chapter Summary

Chapter 6       Personality

Perspectives on the Concept of Personality
The Five-Factor Model
In Historical Perspective: Personality and ­Personality Testing
The Situational Perspective
The Middle Ground
Personality Tests
Types of Personality Tests
Projective Tests
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
Reliability and Validity
The Thematic Apperception Test
Scoring and Interpretation
Reliability and Validity
Objective Tests
Constructing Objective Tests
Content Validation
Empirical Criterion Keying
Factor Analysis
Construct Validity Approach
Description, Scoring, and Interpretation
Validity Scales
Reliability and Validity
The Revised NEO-Personality Inventory
Description and Administration
Scoring and Interpretation
Reliability and Validity Limitations
In Practice   The NEO-PI-R, Kiara
Discrimination and Bias in Personality Testing
Chapter Summary
Key Terms

Chapter 7       Behavioral Assessment                                            

How Does Behavioral Assessment Differ from Other Forms of Assessment?
Sample Versus Sign
Functional Analysis
In Historical Perspective: Behavioral Assessment
Behavioral Assessment as an Ongoing Process
Behavioral Interviews
In Practice   Excerpt from a Behavioral Interview with Kiara
Behavioral Observation
Observation Methods
Interval Coding
Event Recording
Observation Settings
Naturalistic Observation
In Practice   Naturalistic Observation, Shane
Controlled Observation
The Use of Technology: Ecological Momentary Assessment
Checklists and Inventories
Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment
A Closer Look    Assessing Cognitions about Private Experiences
Chapter Summary

Chapter 8       The Assessment of Intelligence

The Concept of Intelligence
Definitions of Intelligence
Theories of Intelligence
The IQ: Its Meaning and Its Correlates
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Ratio IQ
Deviation IQ
Correlates of IQ
School Success
Occupational Status and Success
Demographic Group Differences
Heredity and Stability of IQ Scores
Is Intelligence Heritable?
A Closer Look   Behavioral Genetics
Is Intelligence Fixed or Changeable?
Intelligence Tests
The Stanford-Binet Scales
In Historical Perspective: Intelligence Testing: Yesterday and Today
The Wechsler Scales
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V
In Practice   Intelligence Tests, Shane
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale for Intelligence-IV
IQ, Intelligence Tests, and Cultural Bias
Using Intelligence Tests in Clinical Practice
Estimating General Intelligence
Predicting Academic Success
The Appraisal of Style
Chapter Summary


Chapter 9       Diagnosis, Case Formulation, and Treatment Planning

Beyond Normal and Abnormal
Abnormal as Socially or Statistically Deviant
Abnormal as Distressing
Abnormal as Dysfunctional
Where Does This Leave Us?
Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification of Mental Disorders
In Historical Perspective: The DSM and ­Psychiatric Diagnosis
Advantages of the DSM-5-TR
Limitations of the DSM-5-TR
Reliability Issues
Use of Descriptive Criteria
Ambiguous Criteria
Sociocultural Context
Categories Versus Dimensions
Additional Concerns
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)
Case Formulation
Components of Case Formulation
Problem List
Hypotheses about Mechanisms
Predisposing Factors
Applying Case Formulation
In Practice   Sample Case Formulation
Multicultural Considerations
An Iterative Approach
Evaluation of the Case Formulation Approach
Developing and Communicating the Treatment Plan
Treatment Planning
In Practice   Treatment Planning
Communicating the Treatment Plan
In Practice   Communicating the Treatment Plan for Kiara
Monitoring Progress
Chapter Summary

Chapter 10    Psychological Treatment: Science and Practice               

Defining Psychotherapy and Psychological Treatment
A Closer Look   “Psychological Treatment” Versus “Psychotherapy”: What’s in a Name?
Do Psychological Treatments Work?
Whom Should We Ask?
How Should We Ask?
In Historical Perspective: The Study of ­Psychological Treatments
When Should We Ask?
Treatment Efficacy
Treatment Effectiveness
Multicultural Considerations
How Do Psychological Treatments Work?
Common Factors
Specific Factors
The Interactional Perspective
The Course of Psychological Treatment
Initial Contact
Informed Consent
Assessment, Conceptualization, and Treatment Planning
Implementing Treatment
Providing Psychoeducation
Managing Emotional Distress
Assigning Work and Practice between Sessions
Fostering Optimism and Self-Efficacy
Termination, Evaluation, and Follow-up
Evidence-Based Treatment, ­Evidence-Based Practice, and Dissemination
What Are Evidence-Based Treatment and Evidence-Based Practice?
A Closer Look    The Pros and Cons of Treatment Manuals
EBT and EBP Effectiveness
Resistance to EBTs and EBP
Dissemination of EBTs
A Closer Look    Technology and Dissemination of Psychological Treatments
Overcoming Complications with Dissemination
Chapter Summary

Chapter 11    Behavioral Interventions                                        

What Is Behavioral Treatment?
The Process of Behavioral Treatment
Stages of Behavioral Interventions
Target Definition and Baseline Assessment
In Historical Perspective: Behavioral Treatment
Functional Analysis and Treatment Planning
Outcome Assessment
Reformulation (as necessary)
In Practice   The Process of Behavioral Treatment, Shane
The Client–Practitioner Relationship
Multicultural Competence and Behavioral Interventions
Applications of Behavioral Interventions
Addressing Skill Deficits
Social Skills Training
Assertiveness Training
Modifying Behavior with Rewards and Consequences
Behavioral Modification/Parent Training
Token Economies
Reducing Clinical Anxiety and Fear
Exposure Therapy
A Closer Look   But What If the Feared Outcome Actually Happens?
In Practice   Exposure and Response Prevention, Kiara
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Improving Depressed Mood
Modifying Habit Behaviors
Habit Reversal Training
Cue Exposure
Aversive Conditioning
Improving Sexual Functioning
Evaluating the Behavioral Approach
Breadth of Application
Chapter Summary

Chapter 12    Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions        

What Is Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment?
Theoretical Basis of CBT
In Historical Perspective: The Evolution of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment
Treatment Implications
The Process of CBT
Defining the Target Problem
Explaining the ABC Model
Assessing A, B, and C
Outcome Assessment
Client–Practitioner Relationship
Multicultural Considerations
Applications of CBT
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
In Practice   Disputing Kiara’s Irrational Beliefs
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
A Closer Look    The Pie Graph Technique
Cognitive Bias Modification
Multicomponent CBT Programs
Evaluating the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
Scope of Use
Chapter Summary

Chapter 13    Acceptance and Dialectical Interventions            

In Historical Perspective: Acceptance and Dialectics in Psychological Treatment
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Theoretical Basis
A Closer Look   ?ACT and Relational Frame Theory
Implementing ACT
Cognitive Defusion
In Practice   Kiara’s Defusion Metaphor
Contact with the Present Moment
The Observing Self
In Practice   Shane’s Values
Committed Action
Client–Practitioner Relationship
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Theoretical Basis
Implementing DBT
Distress Tolerance
Emotion Regulation
Interpersonal Effectiveness
Client–Practitioner Relationship
Multicultural Considerations
Evaluating Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Dialectical Approaches
Scientific Support
Chapter Summary

Chapter 14    Early Approaches to ­Psychotherapy: Psychodynamic and Client-Centered Perspectives    

Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychic Determinism and the Unconscious
Personality Structures
In Historical Perspective: A Brief Biography of Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual Stages
Defense Mechanisms
The Process of Psychoanalysis
Free Association
Dream Analysis
Transference and Countertransference
Process Stages
Contemporary Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
Research Support
A Closer Look   Features of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
Client-Centered Therapy
In Historical Perspective: Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy
Theoretical Basis
Unconditional Positive Regard
The Process of Client-Centered Therapy
In Practice   Therapist–Client Interactions in Client-Centered Therapy
Research Support
Multicultural Considerations
Chapter Summary
Key Terms

Chapter 15    Group, Family, and Couple-Based Interventions      Group Interventions

Types of Groups
Directive Groups
In Historical Perspective: The Group Therapy Movement
A Closer Look    The Unified Protocol
Nondirective Groups
Group Composition
Efficacy and Effectiveness
The Future of Group Treatment
Family-Based Interventions
Emphasis on Communication
The Process of Family Therapy
In Historical Perspective: The Inauspicious Beginnings of Family Therapy
Types of Family Therapy
Conjoint Family Therapy
A Closer Look   Conjoint Family Therapy
Other Common Types
Ethical and Multicultural Considerations
Culture and Family Therapy
Efficacy and Effectiveness
Couple-Based Interventions
Types of Couples Therapy
In Historical Perspective: The Transformation of Couples Therapy
Cognitive-Behavioral Couples Therapy
A Closer Look   Emotional Expressiveness Training
Emotion-Focused Couples Therapy
Multicultural Considerations
Efficacy and Effectiveness
Chapter Summary
Key Terms


Chapter 16    Clinical Psychology and Medical Health

The Mind–Body Link
In Historical Perspective: The Evolution of Health Psychology
A Closer Look   COVID-19’s Disproportional Impact on Black Americans
Behavior and Cognition
Social Support
Intervention Methods
A Closer Look   Health Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease
Biofeedback and Relaxation
Behavioral Techniques
Cognitive-Behavioral Methods
Prevention Strategies
Reducing Cigarette Smoking
Decreasing Problem Drinking
Addressing Obesity
Health and Pediatric Psychology in Medical Settings
Coping with Medical Procedures
Increasing Compliance with Medical Instructions
In Practice   Consultation/Liaison Psychology
Multicultural Competence
Professional and Ethical Issues
Professional Issues
Verbal and Written Communication
Medical and Pharmacological
Informed Consent
Chapter Summary

Chapter 17    Clinical Psychology and the Law                                           \

What Is Forensic Psychology?
Activities of Forensic Psychologists
Providing Expert Testimony
In Historical Perspective: The Origins and Growth of Forensic Psychology
Testifying in Criminal Cases
The Insanity Plea
Competency to Stand Trial
Testifying in Civil Cases
Commitment to Mental Institutions
Domestic Issues
Predicting Dangerousness and Psychological Criminal Profiling
Predicting Dangerousness
Psychological Criminal Profiling
A Closer Look   ?Profiling the “Unabomber”
Conducting Psychological Autopsies
Consulting with Lawyers about Their Cases
Jury Selection
Jury Shadowing
Witness Preparation
Helping Attorneys Present Their Arguments
Research in Forensic Psychology
Eyewitness Identification and
Jury Behavior
Multicultural Considerations
Ethical Considerations
Chapter Summary
Key Terms



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