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Collaboration, Consultation, and Teamwork for Students with Special Needs

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-05-06
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

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The seventh edition of Collaboration, Consultation, and Teamwork for Students with Special Needs,focuses on collaboration in a variety of environments and emphasizes constructive ways to use educator differences to serve students with special needs. This text's broad perspective ensures coverage of the history of collaboration, ways to structure and implement collaborative teams, important processes and practices that ensure effective co-educator partnerships, and the external support that makes collaborative school consultation successful. The seventh edition features new chapters devoted to professional perspectives, personal preferences, paraeducators and evaluation techniques. With expanded Technology Toolssections, coverage of the latest educational reforms, and updated activities, this edition prepares educators, school personnel, families, and community leaders with a strong knowledge base that celebrates the strengths in personal differences.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xviii

PART I  Contexts for Working Together as Co-Educators 1

1 Working Together in Collaboration, Consultation, and Teams 3

Teacher Isolation in the Past 5

Why Work Together as Educators? 7

Describing Consultation, Collaboration, and Teamwork 8

Why Work Together for Special Needs? 11

What Collaborative School Consultation Is and What It Is Not 12

Motivation for Working Collaboratively 14

Co-Educator Responsibilities in Collaborative Endeavors 15

Interchangeable Roles and Responsibilities 16

The Case Study as a Way to Explore Educational Issues 17

A Little History of Educational Reform Movements 19

The No Child Left Behind Legislation 22

Collaborative School Consultation as Change Agent in Special Education 23

Common Core Standards 25

Technology for Working Together Effectively 26

Information Gathering and Sharing 27

Communicating with Co-Educators 28

Ethics for Working Together as Co-Educators 28

Tips for Working Together in Schools 29

2 Working Together with Professional Perspectives That Differ 30

Professional Differences Among Co-Educators in Educational Environments 32

Factors of Tradition, Time, Territory, Talent, and Trust in Schools 32

Tradition in Schools 32

Time in Schools 33

 Territory in Schools 35

Talent in Schools 36

Trust in School 37

Recognizing Individual Differences in Professional Perspectives 38

General Education and Special

Education Collaborators 39

Grade-Level and Curriculum-Area Collaborators 41

Instructional Differences in Perspectives among Collaborators 42

Principles of Learning and Teaching for Collaborators 42

Taxonomies of Learning and Doing 43

Thinking and Doing Together, but Often in Different Ways 56

Case Study for Addressing Differences in Professional Perspectives 57

Technology for General Education and Special Education in Collaboration 58

Ethical Issues Concerning Professional Perspectives 58

Tips for Using Adult Differences Constructively 59

3 Working Together with Personal Preferences That Differ 60

Thinking Together in Different Ways 61

Cultivating Awareness of Individual Preferences 63

Self-Study of Own Preferred Styles and Functions 64

Respecting Different Viewpoints and Inclinations 67

Using Adult Differences Constructively in Schools 69

Differences When Communicating 70

Differences When Problem Finding and Problem Solving 71

Differences When Evaluating and Reporting 71

Facilitating Team Interactions 72

Cautions to Note When Addressing Individual Differences 73

A Preview of Competencies for Collaborators 75

Case Study for Addressing Personal Preference Differences 76

Technology to Strengthen Collaborative School Consultation and Teamwork 79

Ethics of Collaboration When Personal Preferences Differ 81

Tips for Using Adult Differences Constructively 81


Part II  Content for Working Together as Co-Educators 83

4 Components, Structures, and Methods for Collaboration, Consultation,

and Teamwork 85

Preparation for Collaborative School Consultation 87

Preservice Teacher Preparation Programs 88

Advanced Teacher Education Programs 91

Professional Development Programs 92

Role Responsibilities for Collaborative School Consultation 92

Role Delineation 93

Role Clarification 93

Role Parity 94

Role Expectations 95

Structures for Collaborative School Consultation 96

Time 96

Resources 97

Organization 97

Management 98

Support for Collaborative School Consultation 99

Assessment 99

Evaluation 100

Acceptance 100

Commitment 100

Theory Base of Collaborative School Consultation 101

Facets of Methods for Collaborative School Consultation 101

Systems 102

Perspectives 103

Approaches 104

Prototypes 105

Modes 106

Models 107

Development of Plans for Collaborative School Consultation 110

Case Situations for Formulating Methods 112

Technology’s Tools for Strengthening Collaborative Services 113

An Ethical Climate for Developing Collaborative

School Consultation 114

Tips for Structuring Collaborative School Consultation 115


5 Problem-Solving Strategies for Collaborative School Consultation

and Teamwork 117

The Problem-Solving Process 119

Delineating the Problem 120

Generating Possibilities 122

Implementing Plans Agreed On 123

Following Through and Following Up 124

Problem-Solving Roles 124

Problem Solving with Consultation 124

Problem Solving with Collaboration 125

Problem Solving with Teamwork 125

A Ten-Step Process for Collaborative Problem Solving 126

Step 1: Preparing for the Collaborative Consultation 127

Step 2: Initiating the Collaborative Interaction 127

Step 3: Collecting and Organizing Information 127

Step 4: Isolating the Problem 128

Step 5: Identifying Concerns and Stating RealitiesRelevant to the Problem 128

Step 6: Generating Options 128

Step 7: Formulating the Plan 129

Step 8: Evaluating Progress and Process 130

Step 9: Following Through and Following Up 130

Step 10: Repeating Collaborative Consultation, if Needed 130

Case Study in Using the Ten-Step Problem Solving Process 131

What to Say During a Collaborative Consultation 133

What to Consider if Group Problem Solving Is Not Successful 136

Tools for Collaborative Problem Solving 137

Brainstorming 138

Concept Mapping 140

Synectics, Metaphors, and Janusian Thinking 140

More Techniques for Collaborative Problem Solving 143

Interferences and Hurdles to Overcome 144

Positive and Not-So-Positive Interactions 145

Technology for Collaborative Problem Solving 146

Ethics for Collaborative and Consultative Problem Solving 147

Tips for Problem Solving Through Collaborative Consultation 148


6 Organization and Management of Collaborative School Consultation 150

Teacher Attrition, Satisfaction, and Efficacy 152

Reducing Teacher Stress and Teacher Burnout 153

Strategies for Reducing Stress 154

Managing Time and Turf 156

Accountability for Collaborative Consultation Time 157

Finding Time for Collaboration and Teaming 159

Techniques for Meetings, Interviews, and Observations 161

Conducting Efficient Meetings 162

Conducting Effective Interviews 167

Making Prudent Observations 167

Managing Consultation Records and Resources 170

Using a Consultation Journal or Log 171

Developing Memos and Professional Cards 171

Organizing a Consultation Notebook 173

Managing Consultation Schedules 175

Organizing and Distributing Materials 176

Teacher Portfolios for Data Keeping and Accountability 177

Case Study for Accountability in Co-Taught, Blended Classes 179

Technology for Working Smarter, Not Harder, as Co-Educators 179

Ethics in Organizing and Managing Collaborative School Consultation 181

Tips for Managing and Evaluating Collaborative School Consultation 182


Part III Processes for Working Together as Co-Educators 183

7 Communicating as Collaborators, Consultants, and Team Members 185

Communication for Effective School Relationships 186

Challenges in Communicating Effectively 187

Verbal Aspects of Communication 188

Nonverbal Aspects of Communication 189

Ethnic and Gender Differences in Communication 189

Building Skills for Communicating 190

Rapport-Building Skills 191

Responsive-Listening Skills 192

Assertiveness 197

The Art of Apologizing 199

Roadblocks to Communication 200

Nonverbal Roadblocks 200

Verbal Roadblocks 200

Terms, Labels, and Phrases as Roadblocks 202

Managing Resistance, Negativity, Anger, and Conflict 202

Why Collaborative Partners Resist 203

How to Deal with Resistance and Negativity 204

Why People Get Angry 206

Why Conflict Occurs in School Contexts 207

How to Resolve School-Related Conflicts 208

Mini-Case Study: Assumptions about Communication 211

Technology to Facilitate Communication among Collaborators 212

Communicating Ethically in Collaborative Ways 213

Tips for Communicating Effectively 213

8 Cultivating Home-School Collaborations and Partnerships 215

Rationale for Collaborative Family-School Partnerships 217

Broadened Concept of Family 217

Legal Mandates for Family Involvement 217

Benefits of Family and School Partnership 218

Moving from Parent Involvement to Partnerships with Families 220

The Equal Partnership Model 221

Potential Barriers to Collaboration with Families 226

Family Structures and Characteristics 226

Attitudes and Understandings of Home-School Collaborators 227

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity among Families 228

Developing Home-School Partnerships: A Five-Step Process 230

Step 1: Examining Personal Values 230

Step 2: Building Collaborative Relationships 232

Step 3: Initiating Home-School Interactions 235

Step 4: Individualizing for Families 235

Step 5: Evaluating Home-School Collaboration 236

Case Study: Carlotta’s Feuding Family 237

Collaborating in Planning and Conferencing 237

Family Partners in IEP, ITP, and IFSP Planning 237

Student-Led Conferences 238

Maintaining Home-School Collaboration and Partnerships 241

Technology and Other Resources for School Educators and Home Educators 242

Ethics for Working Together with Families and Communities 243

Tips for Home-School Collaboration 244

9 Working Together for Students in Diverse Populations 246

Diversity and Educational Collaboration and Consultation 248

What Is Diversity? 248

What Is Culture? 249

What Is Multicultural Education? 250

Is There Diversity in the Teacher Population? 250

Diversity-Related Terminology for Educational Collaborators 250

Cultural Awareness by Collaborative Consultants 251

Developing Cultural Competencies 252

Increase Awareness of Diversity 252

Cultivate Appreciation for Diversity 254

Increasing Knowledge and Understanding of Diverse Cultures 255

Communication and Culture 255

Monitoring Language and Colloquialisms 256

Promoting Multicultural Education 257

Collaboration and Consultation in Diverse Cultural Settings

with Diverse Team Members 258

Collaboration with Partners for CLDE Students 258

Collaboration and Consultation in Rural and Isolated Schools 259

Collaborating with Families Who Move Frequently 260

Collaborating with Gay and Lesbian Home and School Co-Educators 261

Collaborating in Educating Military-Dependent Students 264

Collaborating on Behalf of Students Schooled at Home 266

Collaborating on Behalf of Students with Disabilities Who Are Abused 267

Working with Educators Who Have Disabilities 268

Technology for Collaboration with Diverse Individuals 270

Culturally Responsive, Ethical Collaborative Consultation 271

Tips for Working with Diverse Populations 272


Part IV Practices for Working Together as Co-Educators 273

10 Collaborating and Co-Teaching for Students with Special Needs 275

Universal Design for Learning 277

Aspects of Universal Learning Design 277

Common Core Standards 279

Planning and Delivering Differentiated Instruction 279

Typical Lesson Planning 280

Co-Planning Lessons 281

Delivering Differentiated Instruction 284

Preparation for Co-Teaching 285

Selecting the Best Co-Teaching Approach 285

Case Study Plan: Co-Teaching with UDL 287

Designing Curricular Adaptations Collaboratively 289

Making Text Accessible 290

National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) 290

Adapting Tests 291

Making Modifications 293

Using IEP Information Collaboratively 295

Response to Intervention 295

Monitoring Student Progress 296

Collaborating and Co-Teaching for Students with High

Abilities and Talents 297

Revisiting the Reality of Individual Differences 298

Checklist Tools for Recognizing Exceptional Ability and Talent 298

Needs of Learners with High Ability and Talents in School-Based Learning Programs 302

Differentiating the School-Based Curriculum 302

Should Differentiated Curriculum Be Accelerated or Enriched? 302

Co-Educating for Very Able and Talented Students’ Needs 303

Assessing What Highly Able Students Know and Can Do 304

Textbook Analysis 305

Examples of Curricular Strategies for Very Able Learners 306

Sample of Instructional Models for Differentiating Instruction 309

The Enrichment Triad Model 309

Resource Consultation Model 310

Differentiated Learning Options in the School Environment 310

Differentiated Learning Opportunities Beyond the School Setting 312

Mini-Case Study 313

Technology for Co-Teaching Students with Special Needs 314

Ethics for Co-Teaching Students with Exceptional Learning Needs 316

Tips for Collaborative Planning and Teaching 316

11 Supervising and Collaborating with Paraeducators 319

Paraeducators as Partners 320

Paraeducator Requirements 321

Delineating the Paraeducator Role 323

Paraeducator Responsibilities 324

Selection and Preparation of Paraeducators 332

Strategies for Ongoing Communication with Paraeducators 338

Need for Confidentiality by the Paraeducator 338

Framework for Working with Paraeducators 340

Evaluating the Paraeducator—Teacher Relationship 343

Case Study: Supervising Paraeducators 346

Technology for Supervising and Communicating with Paraeducators 347

Ethical Considerations When Utilizing Paraeducators 348

Tips for Collaboration with Paraprofessionals 348

12 Evaluation of Collaborative School Consultation 351

The Role of Evaluation in Collaborative School Consultation 353

What Is Evaluation? 353

Who Cares About Evaluation? 354

What Are the Purposes of Evaluation? 355

Case Study 1: Who Are Stakeholders and What Do They Want to Know? 355

What Types of Evaluations Are Used for Collaborative School Consultation? 356

Steps in Designing Collaborative School Consultation Evaluation 357

Describing the Purpose of Evaluation 357

Articulating Evaluation Questions of the Stakeholders 360

Articulating the Activities of the Program being Evaluated 360

Measuring Outputs and Expected Outcomes for Activities 361

Collecting and Analyzing Data 362

Reporting and Using Findings 363

Conducting Evaluation for Collaborative School Consultation 363

Case Study 2: Evaluation of a District-Wide Program for Mothers 365

Self-Evaluation of Collaborative Consultation Skills 366

A Framework for Self-Evaluation 366

Methods of Self-Assessment for Self-Improvement 367

Technology for Evaluation of Collaborative School Consultation 370

Ethical Issues in Evaluating Collaborative School Consultation 370

Tips for Evaluating Collaborative School Consultation 371


Part V Support for Working Together as Co-Educators 373

13 Developing and Utilizing Collaborations with Educational Personnel

and Community Organizations 375

Collaborations with Education, Community, and Agency Partners 377

Developing Collaborative Partnerships 378

Engaging Related Services Personnel 378

Engaging School and Community Support Personnel 379

Utilizing Resources for Assistance to Schools and Families 381

Developing Collaborative Community Relationships 383

Engaging in Interagency Partnerships 384

Special Needs Advocacy and Education Across Educational, Community, and Governmental Spectrums 386

Organizing Interagency Collaboration for Transition Services 389

Collaboration across Critical Educational Junctures 389

Collaborations in Early Childhood Education 389

Transition from Early Childhood to Kindergarten 391

Transition from Middle School to High School 392

Transition from Secondary School to Postsecondary Opportunities 393

Collaborating on Grant Proposals for External Funding 394

Case Study: Teamwork for a Proposal to Obtain External Funding 397

Technology That Facilitates Cross-Agency Collaboration 398

Ethics for Collaborating Across School Programs, Community Organizations, and Agencies 399

Tips for Intra-Agency and Interagency Collaboration 400

14 Leadership, Mentorships, and Professional Development for Collaborative

School Consultation 401

Leadership in Inclusive, Collaborative School Environments 402

Collaborative School Consultants as Mentors 403

The School Administrator’s Role in Inclusive, Collaborative Schools 406

Getting Off to the Right Start with School Administrators 407

School Board Members as Partners in Education 408

Professional Development for Co-Educators 410

Components of Effective Professional Development 411

Assessing Needs for Professional Development 412

Presenting Professional Development Activities 412

Formal and Informal Approaches to Professional Development 412

Steps in Providing Professional Development Activities 413

Finding Time for Professional Development Activities 414

Presenter and Participant Responsibilities 415

Outcomes of Professional Development 417

The Teachers’ Workroom as Forum for Collegial Interaction 417

Conferences and Conventions for Professional Growth 419

Case Study for Blending Collaborative School Consultation with Response to Intervention 419

Technology for Professional Development Activity 421

An Ethical Climate for Leadership and Professional Development 423

Tips for Providing Leadership and Professional Development 423

15 Synthesis and Support for Working Together as Co-Educators 425

Challenges in Working Together for the Future 426

Advocacy for Students with Special Needs 428

Student Self-Advocacy 428

Synergy of Contexts, Content, Processes, Practices, and Support 428

Positive Ripple Effects of Collaborative School Consultation 429

Levels of Service 429

Benefits of Collaborative School Consultation 431

Competencies of Effective Collaborative School Co-Educators 433

Technology for Positive Ripple Effects That Serve the Special Needs of All Students 436

Ethics of Collaborative School Consultation 437

Case Study: Planning Ahead for Collaborative School Consultation and

Teamwork 439

In Conclusion 440

Tips for Putting It All Together 440

Appendix: Website Resources 442

References 443

Name Index 455

Subject Index 458


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