Communicating in Groups : Applications and Skills

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-02-07
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Communicating in Groupsoffers a concise, step-by-step introduction to the theory and practice of small group communication, and teaches students to develop and apply critical thinking in group problem solving. With the firm belief that group participation can be an uplifting and energizing experience, authors Kathy Adams and Gloria Galanes give students the tools they will need in order to achieve this outcome. Research and theory are presented with a focus on what is important to students--understanding their group experiences and making them effective communicators.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiv
Orientation to Small Group Systemsp. 1
Small Groups as the Heart of Societyp. 2
Groups in Your Lifep. 5
Groups as Problem Solversp. 6
Participating in Groupsp. 6
Groups versus Individuals as Problem Solversp. 8
When a Group Is a Good Choicep. 9
When a Group Is Not a Good Choicep. 9
Groups, Small Groups, Teams, and Small Group Communicationp. 11
Groupsp. 11
Small Groupsp. 12
Small Groups versus Teamsp. 13
Small Group Communicationp. 14
Groups and Technologyp. 15
Classifying Groups by Their Major Purposep. 16
Primary or Secondary Groupsp. 16
Types of Secondary Groupsp. 17
Being an Ethical Group Memberp. 21
The Participant-Observer Perspectivep. 24
Groups as Structured Open Systemsp. 28
What Is a Theory?p. 30
Overview of General Systems Theoryp. 30
The Small Group as a Systemp. 32
Definition of a Systemp. 32
Concepts Vital to Understanding Systemsp. 33
Characteristics of Systemsp. 40
Organizations as Systems of Groupsp. 46
Foundations of Small Group Communicatingp. 51
Communication Principles for Group Membersp. 52
Communication: What's That?p. 55
Communication Is Symbolicp. 55
Communication Is Personalp. 56
Communication Is a Transactional Processp. 56
Communication Is a Sender and Receiver Phenomenonp. 58
Communication Involves Content and Relationship Dimensionsp. 60
Implications for Small Group Communicationp. 61
Listening: Receiving, Interpreting, and Responding to Messages from Other Group Membersp. 63
Listening Definedp. 63
Listening Preferencesp. 64
Habits of Poor Listenersp. 65
Listening Activelyp. 69
Using Verbal and Nonverbal Messages in Small Group Communicationp. 74
Creating Messages in a Small Groupp. 76
How Communication Structures the Small Groupp. 77
Using Language to Help the Group Progressp. 78
Following the Rulesp. 79
Adjusting to the Symbolic Nature of Languagep. 80
Using Emotive Words Cautiouslyp. 82
Organizing Remarksp. 83
Making Sure the Discussion Question Is Clear and Appropriatep. 85
Using Language to Focus a Group's Discussion: An Applicationp. 86
Nonverbal Behaviors in Small Group Communicationp. 90
Principles of Nonverbal Communicationp. 90
Functions of Nonverbal Behaviorsp. 91
Categories of Nonverbal Behaviorsp. 94
Nonverbal Behavior in Computer-Mediated Groupsp. 100
From Individuals to Groupp. 103
Becoming a Groupp. 104
The Life Cycle of a Groupp. 106
Challenges in Group Developmentp. 107
A Group's Major Functionsp. 107
Social Tensions in Groupsp. 108
Phase Models in Group Developmentp. 112
Group Socialization of Membersp. 113
Stages of Group Socializationp. 115
Group Rolesp. 118
Types of Rolesp. 118
Role Functions in a Small Groupp. 119
The Emergence of Roles in a Groupp. 121
Managing Group Rolesp. 123
Rules and Normsp. 123
Development of Group Normsp. 125
Enforcement of Group Normsp. 126
Changing a Group Normp. 128
Development of a Group's Climatep. 129
Trustp. 130
Cohesivenessp. 132
Supportivenessp. 133
Ethical Behavior during Group Formationp. 135
Working with Diversity in the Small Groupp. 138
What Is Diversity?p. 140
Diverse Member Characteristicsp. 142
Differences in Motives for Joining a Groupp. 142
Diversity of Learning Stylesp. 143
Personality Differencesp. 146
Cultural Diversityp. 150
Dimensions of Culturep. 150
Racial and Ethnic Differencesp. 155
Gender Differencesp. 159
Generational Differencesp. 161
Working with Diversity/Bridging Differencesp. 167
Creating a Group Identity through Fantasyp. 168
Using SYMLOG to "Picture" Diversityp. 169
Understanding and Improving Group Throughput Processesp. 177
Creative and Critical Thinking in the Small Groupp. 178
What Is Creative Thinking?p. 180
Enhancing Group Creativityp. 183
Brainstormingp. 184
Synecticsp. 185
Mind Mappingp. 187
What Makes Thinking "Critical"?p. 189
Enhancing Critical Thinking in a Groupp. 189
Having the Right Attitudep. 191
Gathering Informationp. 193
Evaluating Informationp. 197
Checking for Errors in Reasoningp. 203
Avoiding Groupthinkp. 208
Group Problem-Solving Proceduresp. 216
A Systematic Procedure as the Basis for Problem Solvingp. 219
Capturing the Problem in Problem Solvingp. 220
How Do We Know a Problem When We See One?p. 220
Area of Freedomp. 221
Characteristics of Problemsp. 222
Identifying Problems with a Problem Censusp. 223
Effective Problem Solving and Decision Makingp. 227
The Procedural Model of Problem Solving (P-MOPS)p. 228
Applications of P-MOPSp. 244
Managing Conflicts Productivelyp. 250
What Is Conflict?p. 252
Myths about Conflictp. 252
Types of Conflictp. 256
Substantive Conflictp. 256
Affective Conflictp. 256
Procedural Conflictp. 257
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and Conflict Typesp. 258
Managing Conflict in the Groupp. 259
Conflict Management Stylesp. 259
Expressing Disagreement Ethicallyp. 265
Maximizing Your Chances to Influence the Groupp. 267
The Nominal Group Techniquep. 268
Steps in Principled Negotiationp. 270
Applying Leadership Principlesp. 276
Leadership and Leadersp. 278
What Is Leadership?p. 278
Sources of Power and Influencep. 278
What Is a Leader?p. 280
Myths about Leadershipp. 283
Current Ideas about Leadershipp. 286
The Functional Concept of Group Leadershipp. 286
The Contingency Concept of Group Leadershipp. 287
What Good Leaders Dop. 290
What Group Members Expect Leaders to Dop. 291
Performing Administrative Dutiesp. 292
Leading Group Discussionsp. 297
Developing the Groupp. 303
Encouraging Distributed Leadershipp. 306
Ethical Guidelines for Group Leadersp. 309
Small Group Public Presentationsp. 313
Planning, Organizing, and Presenting Small Group Oral Presentationsp. 314
The Planning Stagep. 316
Your Audiencep. 316
Your Occasionp. 317
Your Purposep. 317
Your Subject or Topicp. 318
Member Strengths and Fearsp. 318
Supplemental Logisticsp. 319
Types of Group Oral Presentationsp. 319
The Organizing Stagep. 322
Delegating Dutiesp. 323
Gathering Verbal and Visual Materialsp. 323
Organizing Materials and the Presentationp. 326
The Presenting Stagep. 330
Checking Your Languagep. 330
Practice Aloudp. 331
What Makes a Good Oral Presentation?p. 332
Techniques for Observing Problem-Solving Groupsp. A-1
Referencesp. R-1
Bibliographyp. B-1
Indexp. I-1
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