9780190652746

Communication Research Methods

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190652746

  • ISBN10:

    0190652748

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-01-25
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Ideal for research methods courses covering multiple methodologies, Communication Research Methods is the only text that uses a research-as-argument approach to help students not only become more effective researchers but also more insightful consumers of research. It expertly balances the interpretive, critical, and discovery paradigms. No other research methods book on the market better reflects actual research practice and provides methodological choices based not on ideological constraints but rather on the nature of the research question. Merrigan and Huston treat communication research comprehensively, discussing a broad range of traditional and contemporary methods and considering ethics in designing, conducting, and reporting research.

Author Biography


Gerianne Merrigan is Professor and former Chair of Communication Studies at San Francisco University.

Carol Huston is Professor of Communication Studies and Gender Studies and currently serves as Special Assistant in the Office of Institutional Effectiveness and Planning at the University of San Diego.

Table of Contents


Preface
Foreword

Part 1. The What and Why of Communication Research

1. Introduction to Communication Research
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
Academic and Proprietary Research and Creative Work
What is Communication Theory?
Relating Theories and Research Methods
--Everyday Ways of Knowing
--Research Methods as Argument
--Making Good Academic and Practical Arguments
Audiences for Communication Scholarship
--Professional Associations
--Scholarly Journals
--Trade Journals and Popular Press Publications
Making Sense of Scholarly Journal Articles
--Research Reports
--Critical Essays
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

2. Three Paradigms of Knowing
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Why Three Paradigms?
Methodological Ways of Knowing
--Knowing through Quantitative Social Science
--Knowing through Interpretation
--Knowing through Criticism
Paradigms: A Final Note
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

3. Ethics and Research
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
A Brief History of Communication Ethics
Codes of Conduct: Linking Values to Research Practices
The IRB Review Process
Ethical Choices in Communication Research
--Before Doing Research: Motives for Projects and Topics
--During Research Projects: Protecting the Rights of Research Participants
--Right to Freely Choose Research Participation
--Right to Privacy
--Right to Be Treated with Honesty and Respect
--Afterward: Reporting and Evaluating Research Ethically
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities


Part 2. How to Explain and Predict Communication

4. Making Arguments for Association and Causality
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Values of Quantitative Social Science Research
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning: Cycle of Inquiry
Claims in Quantitative Social Science Research
--Explanatory and Predictive Claims
--Research Questions and Hypotheses
--Associative and Causal Relationships
--Independent and Dependent Variables
Evidence for Causal and Associative Research Arguments
--Data Sources
--Data Settings: When Settings Count
--Selecting Data Samples: Preference for Random Sampling
Warranting Quantitative Social Science Research Arguments
--Validity as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
--Bias: A Threat to Valid Design and Measurement
--Types of Measurement Validity
--Errors that Threaten External Validity
--External Validity
--Reliability as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence
--Noise: A Threat to Consistent Measurement
--Types of Measurement Reliability
--The Relationship between Reliability and Validity
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

5. Measuring and Designing Quantitative Social Science Research
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Research Design as the Essential Framework
Measurement
--Conceptual and Operational Definitions
--Levels of Measurement
Building Arguments through Research Designs
--Designs in Content Analysis and Survey Research
--Cross-sectional
--Longitudinal
--Experimental Research Design
--Design Elements
--Types of Designs
Warranting Quantitative Research through Design Elements
--Threats to Validity: Time Progression Effects
--Threats to Validity: Reactivity Effects
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

6. Experimental Research: Predicting Causes and Effects
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Experimental Research Claims
--Emphasis on Deductive Reasoning
--Constructing Causal Arguments
--Research Designs
Experimental Research Data
--Data Sources and Variable Types
--Data Settings
--Data Collection and Analysis
--Data Collection Strategies
--Analysis of Variance Effects
Experimental Research Warrants
--Internal Validity Threats
--External Validity Threats
Ethics in Experimental Research
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussions Questions
"Try It!" Activities

7. Survey Research: Explaining and Predicting Attitudes and Behaviors
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Survey Research Claims
--Claims in Exploratory Surveys
--Explanatory and Predictive Claims
--Claims in Network Analysis
Survey Research Data
--Sources and Modes of Data Collection
--Primary and Secondary (Archived) Sources
--Collection Modes
--Survey Research Design
--Survey Construction and Measurement
Survey Format
--Survey Structure
--Question Format and Function
Warranting in Survey Research
--Survey Coverage
--Survey Sampling Strategies
--Random Selection Methods
--Nonrandom or Purposive Selection Methods
--Measurement Errors
--Response Rate
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
Survey Research Summary
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

8. Content Analysis: Explaining and Interpreting Message Categories
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Content Analytic Claims: Explaining and Predicting Message Characteristics
Content Analytic Data
--Message Populations and Data Samples
--Unitizing and Categorizing Textual Data
--Frame Analysis
--Operationalizing Social Media Engagement
--Computers and Content Analysis
--Content Analytic Results
Warrants for Content Analysis
--Valid Coding Schemes
--Reliable Coding Decisions
--Generalizable Findings
Ethical Issues in Content Analysis
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

9. Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
How to Describe Sample Data
--Visual Representations of Variables
Nominal and Ordinal Data
Interval and Ratio Data
--Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Shape
Measures of Dispersion
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
--Three Types of Distributions
--Estimation and Inference
--Central Limits Theorem and the Normal Curve
--Steps to Testing Hypotheses
Tests of Differences
--Nonparametric Tests
Interpreting Chi-square
--Parametric Tests of Difference
Tests of Relationship
--Parametric Tests of Relationship
Interpreting Correlation
Bivariate and Multivariate Tests
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

10. Conversation Analysis: Explaining Talk's Structure and Function
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Conversation Analytic Claims
--Turn Taking
--Adjacency Pairs
--Preference
--Repair
--Action Sequences
Conversation Analytic Data
--Collecting Ordinary Conversations
--Recording Techniques
--Ethical Issues in CA
--Transcribing Conversations
--Formatting Transcripts
--Transcription Programs
--Analytic Induction
Conversation Analytic Warrants
--Accuracy and Detail Level
--Transcription Veracity
--Sample Representativeness
Key Terms
"Try It!" Activities


Part 3. How to Interpret, Evaluate and Reform Communication

11. Making Arguments for Multiple Plausible Realities
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Humanistic Values
Inductive Reasoning as a Form of Argument
Interpretive Research Claims
Critical Research Claims
Evidence for Interpretive and Critical Research Arguments
--Preferred Sources of Evidence
--Preference for Non-Random Selection of Evidence
--A Note about Research Settings
--Using Triangulation to Enhance Rich Descriptions
Basic Analytic Strategies for Interpretive and Critical Researchers
Warranting Interpretive and Critical Research Arguments
--Researcher Credibility as a Standard
--Researcher Training and Experience
--Degree of Membership
--Faithfulness
--Plausible Interpretations as a Standard
--Adequate Evidence
--Coherence
--Negative Case Analysis
--Impact as a Standard
Two Views of Truth
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

12. Interviews and Focus Groups: Interpreting Guided Responses
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Interview and Focus Group Claims
Interview Evidence
--Should I Interview Individuals, Groups, or Both?
--Selecting/Recruiting Participants
--Creating the Interview Protocol(s)
--Moderating the Interviews
--Coding Interview Evidence
--Presenting Interview Evidence in a Research Report
Warranting Interview Studies
--Researcher Credibility
--Plausible Interpretations
Key Terms
"Try It!" Activities

13. Ethnography: Interpreting and Evaluating Cultural Communication
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Ethnomethodology
Ethnographic Claims
--Interpretive Claims
--Evaluative and Reformist Claims
Ethnographic Evidence
--Sources
--Participant Observation
--Interviews with Key Informants
--Archival Documents
--Artifacts
--Triangulation in Ethnographic Research
--Collecting Ethnographic Evidence
--Gaining Access to the Setting
--Selecting Key Informants
--Taking Field Notes
--Exiting the Field
--Analyzing Ethnographic Evidence
--Transcribing Interviews
--Coding and Reducing Field Notes
--Writing Case Studies
Ethical Issues for Ethnographers
Ethnographic Warrants
--Valuing Subjectivity and Rich Description
--Researcher Credibility
--Plausible Interpretations
--Impact
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

14. Discourse Analysis: Interpreting & Evaluating Language-in-Use
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Discourse Analytic Claims
--Types of Texts (Also Known as Discourse Genres)
--Interpreting Interactional Accomplishments
--Social Practices
--Roles and Identity Performances
--Entities
--Interpreting and Evaluating Ideologies
Discourse Analytic Evidence
--Collecting Samples of Language in Use
--Choosing a Unit of Analysis
--Coding Units and Developing Thematic Analysis
Discourse Analytic Warrants
--Researcher Credibility
--Plausible Interpretations
Ethical Issues for Discourse Analysis
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activity

15. Rhetorical Criticism: How to Interpret Persuasive Texts and Artifacts
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Rhetorical Theory and Rhetorical Criticism
Neoclassical and Genre Rhetorical Criticism
--Neoclassical Criticism
--Claims and Data
--Warrants: Standards for Evaluating Rhetorical Effectiveness
New Directions in Neoclassical Criticism
--Genre Criticism
--Traditional Aristotelian Forms
--Claims and Data
--New Approaches to Genre Studies
--Warrants
Interpretive Rhetorical Criticism
--Metaphoric Criticism
--Claims and Data
--Warrants
--Dramatism
--Claims and Data
--Warrants
--Narrative Analysis
--Claims and Data
--Warrants
Shifting Directions for Rhetorical Criticism
--Reconsidering Rhetorical Symbols and Contexts
Ethical Concerns in Rhetorical Criticism
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

16. Critical Studies: Evaluating and Reforming Ideologies
Introduction
What Will You Get from this Chapter?
Outline
Claims in Critical Studies
--Evaluating and Reforming Social Structures
--Marxist Criticism
--Gender and Feminist Criticism
--Evaluating and Reinventing Discourse Processes
--Postmodern Criticism
--Cultural Criticism
--Semiotic Criticism
Evidence in Critical Studies
--Actions and Events
--Texts
--Researchers' Experiences and Beliefs
Analytic Moves in Critical Studies
--Deconstruction
--Narrative Analysis
--Frame Analysis
Warrants for Critical Studies
--Researcher Positionality
--Plausible Evaluations and Reforms
--Impact: Changes in Awareness and Praxis
Ethical Issues for Critical Scholars
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
"Try It!" Activities

Glossary
References
Index

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