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Beginning with music fundamentals, this text covers all the topics necessary for a thorough understanding of undergraduate music theory by focusing on music in context. The text links each of the tasks that comprise a tonal theory curriculum, explicitly connecting written theory (writing and analysis), skills (singing, playing, and dictation), and music-making outside the theory class. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES * Presents an outstanding quality, quantity, and diversity ofexercisesgeared toward real music and real music situations *Explores not only standard four-voice harmony, but also other musical domainsincluding melody, counterpoint, and a multitude of textures;the result is a text with applicability and relevance to all musicians * Includesalmost 4,000 musical examplesfrom the common-practice repertoire in the text and workbooks, more than 90 percent of which areon the MP3 files included on the CDs with text and workbooks(all music is performed, recorded, and engineered at Eastman) NEW TO THIS EDITION * Revised with beginning students in mind, this edition contains more basic exercises as well as solutions to selected exercises in the text. Longer and more difficult exercises have been moved to the workbooks. *Streamlined and reorganized with fewer chapters(31, down from 37), the text presents the most commonly taught topics in sequence and moves less-common topics--such as invertible counterpoint, compound melody, and motive (covered in chapters 15, 16, and 23 of the previous edition)--to the appendices, where instructors may access them when their curricula permits, or omit them altogether. * This edition offersa new presentation of fundamentals:the first three chapters provide a review and synthesis for students with experience in music fundamentals, and a 100-page appendix introduces key concepts for students with little or no experience. This allows instructors to choose the pacing that best suits their class and individual students. * New "how-to" sectionsinclude introductions to conducting patterns, sight singing, and dictation. * This edition presentsmore than 250 new literature excerpts and complete worksfor analysis and dictation, including new instrumental combinations. *New theoretical topicsof discussion include sonata-rondo. *New appendicesoffer further support: Appendix 5 coversterms and abbreviationsused in the textand Appendix 6 includesselected answers to exercisesin the text. SUPPORT PACKAGE * The new Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/laitz) provides instructor and student resources that include supplementary drill exercises. * TheInstructor's Manualprovides solutions to all of the dictation exercises, sample solutions for more than 250 writing (e.g., figured bass and melody harmonization) and analytical exercises, supplementary examples, exercises, and teaching guidelines that detail effective strategies for each chapter. * The two workbooks have been significantly reorganized:Workbook 1is now dedicated to written and analytical activities, including figured bass, melody harmonization, model composition, and analysis.Workbook 2covers musicianship skills. Exercises within each chapter of Workbook 2 are organized by activity type: singing arpeggiations of the chord being studied, then within a tune from the literature; two-part singing; dictation; keyboard; then instrumental application.
Steven G. Laitz is Professor of Music Theory at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester. He is also an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Chamber Music Department at Eastman. Dr. Laitz is the current editor of the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy.
Table of Contents
PART 1: THE FOUNDATION OF TONAL MUSIC CHAPTER 1: MUSICAL SPACE AND TIME Tonality in Context: Bach's Violin Partita no. 3, Prelude Specifics of the Pitch Realm Pitches and Pitch Classes Scales Keys Intervals Enharmonic Intervals Consonant and Dissonant Intervals The Metrical Realm Meter Signature Asymmetrical Meters Clarifying Meter More Rhythmic Procedures Accent in Music » Temporal Accents » Nontemporal Accents Metrical Disturbance » Syncopation » Hemiola CHAPTER 2: HARNESSING SPACE AND TIME: INTRODUCTION TO MELODY AND TWO-VOICE COUNTERPOINT Melody: Characteristics and Writing Controlling Consonance and Dissonance: Introduction to Two-Voice Counterpoint First-Species Counterpoint » Contrapuntal Motions » Beginning and Ending First-Species Counterpoint » Rules and Guidelines for First-Species (1:1) Counterpoint Second-Species Counterpoint » Weak-Beat Consonance » Weak-Beat Dissonance » More on Perfect Consonances » Beginning and Ending Second-Species Counterpoint » Rules and Guidelines for Second-Species Counterpoint CHAPTER 3: MUSICAL DENSITY: TRIADS, SEVENTH CHORDS, AND TEXTURE Adding Voices: Triads and Seventh Chords Triads » Figured Bass » Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis » Harmony and the Keyboard Seventh Chords Musical Texture Analytical Method PART 2: MERGING MELODY AND HARMONY CHAPTER 4: WHEN HARMONY, MELODY, AND RHYTHM CONVERGE Tonal Hierarchy in Music Embellishing Tones The Importance of Context in Analysis Analytical Interlude Melodic Fluency Melody as Harmony CHAPTER 5: TONIC AND DOMINANT AS TONAL PILLARS AND INTRODUCTION TO VOICE LEADING Characteristics and Effect of V and I The Cadence Introduction to Voice Leading Texture and Register Three Techniques to Create Voice Independence within a Four-Voice Texture » Technique 1: Smoothness » Technique 2: Registral Independence » Technique 3: Contrapuntal Independence Creating the Best Sound: Incomplete and Complete Chords, Doubling, and Spacing » Omitted Chord Tones » Doubled Chord Tones » Spacing and Voicing Summary of Voice-Leading Rules and Guidelines CHAPTER 6: THE IMPACT OF MELODY, RHYTHM, AND METER ON HARMONY; INTRODUCTION TO V7 The Interaction of Harmony, Melody, Meter, and Rhythm: Embellishment and Reduction Embellishment Reduction The Dominant Seventh and Chordal Dissonance Derivation and New Melodic Possibilities Part Writing with the Dominant Seventh Chords An Analytical Interlude Harmonizing Florid Melodies Summary CHAPTER 7: CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS OF TONIC AND DOMINANT: SIX-THREE CHORDS Chordal Leaps in the Bass: I6 and V6 Neighbor Tones in the Bass (V6) Second Level Analysis Passing Tones in the Bass: viio6 Tonic Expansion with an Arpeggiating Bass: IV6 Dominant Expansion with Passing Tones: IV6 Combining First-Inversion Chords Summary CHAPTER 8: MORE CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS: INVERSIONS OF V7, INTRODUCTION TO LEADING TONE SEVENTH CHORDS, AND REDUCTION AND ELABORATION V7 and Its Inversions V6/5 V4/3 V4/2 Voice-Leading Inversions of V7 Combining Inversions of V7 Compositional Impact of Contrapuntal Chords Leading Tone Seventh Chords: viio7 and viio7 Voice Leading for viio7 viio7 Summary of Contrapuntal Expansions Reduction and Elaboration: Compositional and Performance Implications » Reduction » Elaboration Summary of Part 2 PART 3: A NEW HARMONIC FUNCTION, THE PHRASE MODEL, AND ADDITIONAL MELODIC AND HARMONIC EMBELLISHMENTS CHAPTER 9: THE PRE-DOMINANT FUNCTION AND THE PHRASE MODEL The Pre-Dominant Function The Subdominant (IV in Major, iv in Minor) The Supertonic (ii in Major, iio in Minor) Pre-Dominants and the Stepwise Ascending Bass Part Writing for Pre-Dominants Extending the Pre-Dominant Introduction to the Phrase Model Analytical Interlude CHAPTER 10: ACCENTED AND CHROMATIC EMBELLISHING TONES The Accented Passing Tone (APT) The Chromatic Passing Tone (CPT) The Accented Neighbor Tone (AN) The Chromatic Neighbor Tone (CN) The Appoggiatura (APP) The Suspension (S) Labeling Suspensions Writing Suspensions Additional Suspension Techniques The Anticipation (ANT) The Pedal (PED) Summary of the Most Common Embellishing Tones CHAPTER 11: SIX-FOUR CHORDS, REVISITING THE SUBDOMINANT, AND SUMMARY OF CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS Unaccented Six-Four Chords Pedal Passing Arpeggiating Accented Six-Four Chords Cadential » Additional Uses of Cadential Six-Four Chord ---- As Part of Half Cadences and Authentic Cadences ---- Preceding V7 ---- Within a Phrase ---- Evaded Cadences: Elision and Extension ---- Triple Meter ---- Writing Six-Four Chords Revisiting the Subdominant Summary of Harmonic Paradigms Harmonizing Florid Melodies CHAPTER 12: THE PRE-DOMINANT REFINES THE PHRASE MODEL Nondominant Seventh Chords: IV7 (IV6/5) and ii7 (ii6/5) Analyzing Nondominant Seventh Chords Embedding the Phrase Model Contrapuntal Cadences Expanding the Pre-Dominant » Passing Chord between ii and ii6 (or between ii6 and ii) » Passing Chord between IV and IV6 (or between IV6 and IV) » Passing Chord Moving from IV6 (IV6/5) to ii6/5 » Restate Tonic Material Up a Step Subphrases Composite Phrases Summary of Part 3 PART 4: NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS CHAPTER 13: THE SUBMEDIANT: A NEW DIATONIC HARMONY, AND FURTHER EXTENSIONS OF THE PHRASE MODEL The Submediant The Submediant as Bridge in the Descending-Thirds Progression The Submediant in the Descending-Circle-of-Fifths Progressions The Submediant as Tonic Substitute in Ascending-Seconds Progressions Voice Leading for the Submediant » The Descending-Thirds Progression, I-vi-IV » The Descending-Fifths Progression, I-vi-ii (or I-vi-ii6) » The Ascending-Seconds Progression, V-vi Contextual Analysis Tonic and Dominant Embellish the Submediant Apparent Submediants The Step Descent in the Bass CHAPTER 14: THE MEDIANT, THE BACK-RELATING DOMINANT, AND A SYNTHESIS OF DIATONIC HARMONIC RELATIONSHIPS The Mediant (iii in Major; III in Minor) The Mediant in Arpeggiations A Special Case: Preparing the III Chord in Minor Voice Leading for the Mediant More Contextual Analysis: The Back-Relating Dominant and Synthesis: Root Motion Principles The Back-Relating Dominant Synthesis: Root Motion Principles » Compositional Application CHAPTER 15: THE PERIOD Aspects of Melody and Harmony in Periods Representing Form: The Formal Diagram Sample Analysis of Periods and Some Analytical Guidelines Summary for Analyzing Periods Composing Periods CHAPTER 16: OTHER SMALL MUSICAL STRUCTURES: SENTENCES, DOUBLE PERIODS, AND MODIFIED PERIODS The Sentence: An Alternative Musical Structure The Double Period Modified Periods Extensions Phrase Group Asymmetrical Periods CHAPTER 17: HARMONIC SEQUENCES Components and Types of Sequences The Descending-Second (D2) Sequence » The Descending-Second Sequence in Inversion The Descending-Third (D3) Sequence » The Descending-Third Sequence in Inversion The Ascending-Second (A2) Sequence Another Ascending-Second Sequence: A2 (-3/+4) Sequences with Diatonic Seventh Chords » Sequences with Inversions of Seventh Chords Writing Sequences Summary of Diatonic Sequences Summary of Part 4 PART 5: FUNCTIONAL CHROMATICISM CHAPTER 18: APPLIED CHORDS Applied Dominant Chords Applied Chords in Inversion Tonicized Half Cadences Recognizing Applied Chords Voice Leading for Applied Chords Applied Leading-Tone Chords Incorporating Applied Chords within Phrases An Example Composition Sequences with Applied Chords The D2 (-5/+4) Sequence The D3 (-4/+2) Sequence The A2 (-3/+4) Applied-Chord Sequence Writing Applied-Chord Sequences Summary of Diatonic and Applied-Chord Sequences CHAPTER 19: TONICIZATION AND MODULATION Extended Tonicization Modulation Closely Related Keys Analyzing Modulations Writing Modulations Modulation in the Larger Context The Sequence as a Tool in Modulation CHAPTER 20: BINARY FORM AND VARIATIONS Binary Form Simple Sectional Binary Simple Continuous Binary Rounded Sectional Binary Rounded Continuous Binary Balanced Binary Form Summary of Binary Form Types Variation Form Continuous Variations Sectional Variations Summary of Part 5 Answers to Exercise 20.1 PART 6: EXPRESSIVE CHROMATICISM CHAPTER 21: MODAL MIXTURE Altered Pre-Dominant Harmonies: iio and iv Application: Musical Effects of Melodic Mixture Altered Submediant Harmony: bVI Altered Tonic Harmony: i Altered Mediant Harmony: bIII Voice Leading for Mixture Harmonies Chromatic Stepwise Bass Descents Plagal Motions Modal Mixture, Applied Chords, and Other Chromatic Harmonies Summary CHAPTER 22: EXPANSION OF MODAL MIXTURE HARMONIES: CHROMATIC MODULATION AND THE GERMAN LIED Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulations An Analytical Interlude: Schubert's Waltz in F major Writing Chromatic Modulations Unprepared and Common-Tone Modulations Analytical Challenges Modal Mixture and the German Lied An Analytical Interlude: Schumann's "Waldesgesprach" Analytical Payoff: The Dramatic Role of bVI CHAPTER 23: THE NEAPOLITAN CHORD (bII): CHARACTERISTICS, EFFECTS, AND BEHAVIOR Writing the Neapolitan Chord Expanding bII The Neapolitan in Sequences The Neapolitan as a Pivot Chord CHAPTER 24: THE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORD: CHARACTERISTICS, DERIVATION, AND BEHAVIOR Types of Augmented Sixth Chords Writing Augmented Sixth Chords bVI and the Ger6/5 Chord Augmented Sixth Chords as Part of PD Expansions The Augmented Sixth Chord and Modulation: Reinforcement The Augmented Sixth Chord as Pivot in Modulation Summary of Part 6 PART 7: LARGE FORMS: TERNARY, RONDO, SONATA CHAPTER 25: TERNARY FORM Characteristics Transitions and Retransitions Da Capo Form: Compound Ternary Form Da Capo Aria Minuet-Trio Form Ternary Form in the Nineteenth Century CHAPTER 26: RONDO Context The Classical Rondo Five-Part Rondo Coda, Transitions, and Retransitions Compound Rondo Form Seven-Part Rondo » Distinguishing Seven-Part Rondo Form from Ternary Form Missing Double Bars and Repeats CHAPTER 27: SONATA FORM Historical Context and Tonal Background The Binary Model for Sonata Form Analytical Prelude: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in G minor, op. 49, no. 1 Transition Closing Section Development and Retransition Recapitulation and Coda Additional Characteristics and Elements of Sonata Form Monothematic Sonata Form The Slow Introduction Harmonic Anomalies Other Tonal Strategies Three-Key Exposition Extended Third-Related STAs Sonata Rondo Analytical Synthesis: Sonatas of Haydn and Mozart Haydn: Piano Sonata no. 48 in C major, Hob. XVI.35, Allegro con brio » Exposition » Development » Recapitulation Mozart, Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K. 333, Allegro » Exposition » Development Summary of Part 7 PART 8: INTRODUCTION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY HARMONY: THE SHIFT FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY CHAPTER 28: NEW HARMONIC TENDENCIES Tonal Ambiguity: The Plagal Relation and Reciprocal Process Tonal Ambiguity: Semitonal Voice Leading Semitonal Voice Leading and Remote Keys Analytical Interlude The Diminished Seventh Chord and Enharmonic Modulation Analysis Analytical Interlude Tonal Clarity Postponed: Off-Tonic Beginning Double Tonality CHAPTER 29: THE RISE OF SYMMETRICAL HARMONY IN TONAL MUSIC A Paradox: "Balanced" Music Based on Asymmetry Symmetry and Tonal Ambiguity The Augmented Triad Altered Dominant Seventh Chords The Common-Tone Diminished Seventh Chord Common-Tone Augmented Sixth Chords Analytical Interlude CHAPTER 30: MELODIC AND HARMONIC SYMMETRY COMBINE: CHROMATIC SEQUENCES Distinctions between Diatonic and Chromatic Sequences Chromatic Sequence Types The DM2 (-4/+3) Sequence The Chromatic Forms of the D2 (-5/+4) Sequence The Chromatic Forms of the A2 (-3/+4) Sequence Other Chromatic Step-Descent Basses Six-Three Chords Diminished Seventh Chords Augmented Sixth Chords Writing Chromatic Sequences Chromatic Contrary Motion The Omnibus A Final Equal Division of the Octave CHAPTER 31: AT TONALITY'S EDGE Sequential Progressions Nonsequential Progressions and Equal Divisions of the Octave The Intervallic Cell Analytical Interlude: Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, no. 2 Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, "Prelude" Scriabin, Prelude, op. 39, no. 2 » Intervallic Properties of Key Sonorities » Compositional Processes: ---- A Traditional View ---- A Radical View Summary of Part 8 APPENDICES 1: FUNDAMENTALS a. The Pitch Realm Charting Musical Sound: Staff and Clef Pitch and Pitch Class The Division of Musical Space: Intervals Accidentals Scales Enharmonicism Scale Degree Numbers and Names Specific Scale Types: Major and Minor Building Scales in the Major Mode Key Signatures and the Circle of Fifths Building Scales in the Minor Mode Key Signatures in Minor Relative Major and Minor Keys b. Pulse, Rhythm, and Meter Rhythm and Durational Symbols Dots and Ties Meter » Beat Division and Simple and Compound Meters » The Meter Signature c. Intervals Naming Generic Intervals Melodic and Harmonic Intervals; Simple and Compound Tips for Identifying Generic Intervals Naming Specific Intervals Transforming Intervals: Augmented and Diminished Intervals Interval Inversion Generating All Intervals » Method 1 » Method 2 d. Triads, Inversions, Figured Bass, and Harmonic Analysis Triads » Voicing Triads: Spacing and Doubling » Triad Inversion » Figured Bass ---- Analyzing and Composing Using Figured Bass ---- Additional Figured Bass Conventions: Abbreviations and Chromaticism » Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis » Roman Numerals » Introduction to Harmonic Analysis e. Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis Definitions and Type Musical Characteristics of Seventh Chords Inverted Seventh Chords Analytical Tips Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis 2: INVERTIBLE COUNTERPOINT, COMPOUND MELODY, AND IMPLIED HARMONIES Invertible Counterpoint Definitions and Effects Invertible Counterpoint below the Music's Surface Harmonic Implications of Single Melodic Lines: Compound Melody Definitions Implied Harmonies 3: THE MOTIVE Introduction Motive Types Motivic Repetition Strict Repetition Modified Repetition Additional Pitch Transformations Rhythmic Transformations Developmental Repetitions Inter-Section and Intermovement Motivic Repetitions Single-Interval Motives Hidden Motivic Repetitions Depth and Surface: Motivic Parallelism 4: ADDITIONAL HARMONIC SEQUENCE TOPICS Compound Melody and Implied Seventh Chord Sequences Parallel First-Inversion Triads Sequences versus Sequential Progressions Composing Sequences within the Phrase Model 5: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 6: SELECTED ANSWERS TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES INDEX OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS INDEX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES