What is included with this book?
Preface | p. ix |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Modelling in engineering | p. 1 |
CFD simulations | p. 1 |
Applications in engineering | p. 2 |
Flow | p. 2 |
Laminar flow | p. 3 |
Turbulent flow | p. 3 |
Single-phase flow | p. 4 |
Multiphase flow | p. 4 |
CFD programs | p. 4 |
Modelling | p. 8 |
Mass, heat and momentum balances | p. 9 |
Viscosity, diffusion and heat conduction | p. 9 |
The equation of continuity | p. 12 |
The equation of motion | p. 14 |
Energy transport | p. 16 |
The balance for kinetic energy | p. 16 |
The balance for thermal energy | p. 18 |
The balance for species | p. 18 |
Boundary conditions | p. 18 |
Inlet and outlet boundaries | p. 19 |
Wall boundaries | p. 19 |
Symmetry and axis boundary conditions | p. 20 |
Initial conditions | p. 20 |
Domain settings | p. 21 |
Physical properties | p. 21 |
The equation of state | p. 22 |
Viscosity | p. 22 |
Numerical aspects of CFD | p. 24 |
Introduction | p. 24 |
Numerical methods for CFD | p. 25 |
The finite-volume method | p. 25 |
Geometrical definitions | p. 26 |
Cell balancing | p. 26 |
The convective term | p. 27 |
The diffusion term | p. 28 |
The source term | p. 28 |
Example 1 - ID mass diffusion in a flowing gas | p. 29 |
Solution | p. 29 |
Concluding remarks | p. 33 |
The Gauss-Seidel algorithm | p. 33 |
Example 2 - Gauss-Seidel | p. 34 |
Measures of convergence | p. 37 |
Discretization schemes | p. 38 |
Example 3 - increased velocity | p. 39 |
Boundedness and transportiveness | p. 40 |
The upwind schemes | p. 40 |
Taylor expansions | p. 42 |
Accuracy | p. 43 |
The hybrid scheme | p. 44 |
The power-law scheme | p. 45 |
The Quick scheme | p. 46 |
More advanced discretization schemes | p. 46 |
Solving the velocity field | p. 47 |
Under-relaxation | p. 49 |
Multigrid | p. 50 |
Unsteady flows | p. 51 |
Example 4 - time-dependent simulation | p. 52 |
Conclusions on the different time discretization methods | p. 57 |
Meshing | p. 58 |
Mesh generation | p. 58 |
Adaptation | p. 60 |
Numerical diffusion | p. 60 |
Summary | p. 61 |
Turbulent-flow modelling | p. 62 |
The physics of fluid turbulence | p. 62 |
Characteristic features of turbulent flows | p. 63 |
Statistical methods | p. 66 |
Flow stability | p. 69 |
The Kolmogorov hypotheses | p. 70 |
The energy cascade | p. 72 |
Sources of turbulence | p. 74 |
The turbulent energy spectrum | p. 75 |
Turbulence modelling | p. 76 |
Direct numerical simulation | p. 79 |
Large-eddy simulation | p. 79 |
Reynolds decomposition | p. 81 |
Models based on the turbulent viscosity hypothesis | p. 86 |
Reynolds stress models (RSMs) | p. 96 |
Advanced turbulence modelling | p. 99 |
Comparisons of various turbulence models | p. 99 |
Near-wall modelling | p. 99 |
Turbulent boundary layers | p. 101 |
Wall functions | p. 104 |
Improved near-wall-modelling | p. 107 |
Comparison of three near-wall modelling approaches | p. 109 |
Inlet and outlet boundary conditions | p. 110 |
Summary | p. 112 |
Turbulent mixing and chemical reactions | p. 113 |
Introduction | p. 114 |
Problem description | p. 115 |
The nature of turbulent mixing | p. 117 |
Mixing of a conserved scalar | p. 119 |
Mixing timescales | p. 119 |
Probability density functions | p. 120 |
Modelling of turbulent mixing | p. 124 |
Modelling of chemical reactions | p. 130 |
Da“1 | p. 130 |
Da”1 | p. 131 |
Da1 | p. 138 |
Non-PDF models | p. 141 |
Summary | p. 142 |
Multiphase flow modelling | p. 143 |
Introduction | p. 144 |
Characterization of multiphase flows | p. 144 |
Coupling between a continuous phase and a dispersed phase | p. 146 |
Forces on dispersed particles | p. 147 |
Computational models | p. 149 |
Choosing a multiphase model | p. 150 |
Direct numerical simulations | p. 151 |
Lagrangian particle simulations, the point-particle approach | p. 152 |
Euler-Euler models | p. 155 |
The mixture model | p. 156 |
Models for stratified fluid-fluid flows | p. 158 |
Models for flows in porous media | p. 160 |
Closure models | p. 161 |
Interphase drag | p. 161 |
Particle interactions | p. 163 |
Heat and mass transfer | p. 168 |
Boundaries and boundary conditions | p. 169 |
Lagrangian dispersed phase | p. 169 |
Eulerian dispersed phase | p. 170 |
Summary | p. 171 |
Guidelines for selecting a multiphase model | p. 172 |
Best-practice guidelines | p. 174 |
Application uncertainty | p. 175 |
Geometry and grid design | p. 175 |
Numerical uncertainty | p. 175 |
Convergence | p. 175 |
Enhancing convergence | p. 176 |
Numerical errors | p. 176 |
Temporal discretization | p. 177 |
Turbulence modelling | p. 177 |
Boundary conditions | p. 177 |
Reactions | p. 178 |
Multiphase modelling | p. 178 |
Sensitivity analysis | p. 180 |
Verification, validation and calibration | p. 180 |
Appendix | p. 181 |
References | p. 185 |
Index | p. 186 |
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