Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-02-27
  • Publisher: Cambridge Univ Pr
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Computational fluid dynamics, CFD, has become an indispensable tool for many engineers. This book gives an introduction to CFD simulations of turbulence, mixing, reaction, combustion and multiphase flows. The emphasis on understanding the physics of these flows helps the engineer to select appropriate models to obtain reliable simulations. Besides presenting the equations involved, the basics and limitations of the models are explained and discussed. The book combined with tutorials, project and power-point lecture notes (all available for download) forms a complete course. The reader is given hands-on experience of drawing, meshing and simulation. The tutorials cover flow and reactions inside a porous catalyst, combustion in turbulent non-premixed flow, and multiphase simulation of evaporation spray respectively. The project deals with design of an industrial-scale selective catalytic reduction process and allows the reader to explore various design improvements and apply best practice guidelines in the CFD simulations.

Author Biography

Bengt Andersson is a Professor in Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University, Sweden. Ronnie Andersson is an Assistant Professor in Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University, Sweden. Love Hkansson works as Consultant at Engineering Data Resources - EDR in Oslo, Norway. Mikael Mortensen is working with fluid dynamics at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment in Lillehammer, Norway. Rahman Sudiyo is a Lecturer at the University of Gadjah Mada in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Berend van Wachem is a Reader at Imperial College London in the UK.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introductionp. 1
Modelling in engineeringp. 1
CFD simulationsp. 1
Applications in engineeringp. 2
Flowp. 2
Laminar flowp. 3
Turbulent flowp. 3
Single-phase flowp. 4
Multiphase flowp. 4
CFD programsp. 4
Modellingp. 8
Mass, heat and momentum balancesp. 9
Viscosity, diffusion and heat conductionp. 9
The equation of continuityp. 12
The equation of motionp. 14
Energy transportp. 16
The balance for kinetic energyp. 16
The balance for thermal energyp. 18
The balance for speciesp. 18
Boundary conditionsp. 18
Inlet and outlet boundariesp. 19
Wall boundariesp. 19
Symmetry and axis boundary conditionsp. 20
Initial conditionsp. 20
Domain settingsp. 21
Physical propertiesp. 21
The equation of statep. 22
Viscosityp. 22
Numerical aspects of CFDp. 24
Introductionp. 24
Numerical methods for CFDp. 25
The finite-volume methodp. 25
Geometrical definitionsp. 26
Cell balancingp. 26
The convective termp. 27
The diffusion termp. 28
The source termp. 28
Example 1 - ID mass diffusion in a flowing gasp. 29
Solutionp. 29
Concluding remarksp. 33
The Gauss-Seidel algorithmp. 33
Example 2 - Gauss-Seidelp. 34
Measures of convergencep. 37
Discretization schemesp. 38
Example 3 - increased velocityp. 39
Boundedness and transportivenessp. 40
The upwind schemesp. 40
Taylor expansionsp. 42
Accuracyp. 43
The hybrid schemep. 44
The power-law schemep. 45
The Quick schemep. 46
More advanced discretization schemesp. 46
Solving the velocity fieldp. 47
Under-relaxationp. 49
Multigridp. 50
Unsteady flowsp. 51
Example 4 - time-dependent simulationp. 52
Conclusions on the different time discretization methodsp. 57
Meshingp. 58
Mesh generationp. 58
Adaptationp. 60
Numerical diffusionp. 60
Summaryp. 61
Turbulent-flow modellingp. 62
The physics of fluid turbulencep. 62
Characteristic features of turbulent flowsp. 63
Statistical methodsp. 66
Flow stabilityp. 69
The Kolmogorov hypothesesp. 70
The energy cascadep. 72
Sources of turbulencep. 74
The turbulent energy spectrump. 75
Turbulence modellingp. 76
Direct numerical simulationp. 79
Large-eddy simulationp. 79
Reynolds decompositionp. 81
Models based on the turbulent viscosity hypothesisp. 86
Reynolds stress models (RSMs)p. 96
Advanced turbulence modellingp. 99
Comparisons of various turbulence modelsp. 99
Near-wall modellingp. 99
Turbulent boundary layersp. 101
Wall functionsp. 104
Improved near-wall-modellingp. 107
Comparison of three near-wall modelling approachesp. 109
Inlet and outlet boundary conditionsp. 110
Summaryp. 112
Turbulent mixing and chemical reactionsp. 113
Introductionp. 114
Problem descriptionp. 115
The nature of turbulent mixingp. 117
Mixing of a conserved scalarp. 119
Mixing timescalesp. 119
Probability density functionsp. 120
Modelling of turbulent mixingp. 124
Modelling of chemical reactionsp. 130
Da“1p. 130
Da”1p. 131
Da1p. 138
Non-PDF modelsp. 141
Summaryp. 142
Multiphase flow modellingp. 143
Introductionp. 144
Characterization of multiphase flowsp. 144
Coupling between a continuous phase and a dispersed phasep. 146
Forces on dispersed particlesp. 147
Computational modelsp. 149
Choosing a multiphase modelp. 150
Direct numerical simulationsp. 151
Lagrangian particle simulations, the point-particle approachp. 152
Euler-Euler modelsp. 155
The mixture modelp. 156
Models for stratified fluid-fluid flowsp. 158
Models for flows in porous mediap. 160
Closure modelsp. 161
Interphase dragp. 161
Particle interactionsp. 163
Heat and mass transferp. 168
Boundaries and boundary conditionsp. 169
Lagrangian dispersed phasep. 169
Eulerian dispersed phasep. 170
Summaryp. 171
Guidelines for selecting a multiphase modelp. 172
Best-practice guidelinesp. 174
Application uncertaintyp. 175
Geometry and grid designp. 175
Numerical uncertaintyp. 175
Convergencep. 175
Enhancing convergencep. 176
Numerical errorsp. 176
Temporal discretizationp. 177
Turbulence modellingp. 177
Boundary conditionsp. 177
Reactionsp. 178
Multiphase modellingp. 178
Sensitivity analysisp. 180
Verification, validation and calibrationp. 180
Appendixp. 181
Referencesp. 185
Indexp. 186
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