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Computer Networks

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130661029

ISBN10:
0130661023
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/9/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $120.67

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Summary

The world's leading introduction to networking-fully updated for tomorrow's key technologies. Computer Networks, Fourth Edition is the ideal introduction to today's networks-and tomorrow's. This classic best seller has been thoroughly updated to reflect the newest and most important networking technologies with a special emphasis on wireless networking, including 802.11, Bluetooth, broadband wireless, ad hoc networks, i-mode, and WAP. But fixed networks have not been ignored either with coverage of ADSL, gigabit Ethernet, peer-to-peer networks, NAT, and MPLS. And there is lots of new material on applications, including over 60 pages on the Web, plus Internet radio, voice over IP, and video on demand.Finally, the coverage of network security has been revised and expanded to fill an entire chapter. Author, educator, and researcher Andrew S. Tanenbaum, winner of the ACM Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, carefully explains how networks work on the inside, from underlying hardware at the physical layer up through the top-level application layer. Tanenbaum covers all this and more: bull; Physical layer (e.g., copper, fiber, wireless, satellites, and Internet over cable) Data link layer (e.g., protocol principles, protocol verification, HDLC, and PPP) MAC Sublayer (e.g., gigabit Ethernet, 802.11, broadband wireless, and switching) Network layer (e.g., routing algorithms, congestion control, QoS, IPv4, and IPv6) Transport layer (e.g., socket programming, UDP, TCP, RTP, and network performance) Application layer (e.g., e-mail, the Web, PHP, wireless Web, MP3, and streaming audio) Network security (e.g., AES, RSA, quantum cryptography, IPsec, and Web security) The book gives detailed descriptions of the principles associated with each layer and presents many examples drawn from the Internet and wireless networks.

Author Biography

ANDREW S. TANENBAUM is Professor of Computer Science at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Scientific Director of ASCI, a Dutch graduate school established by leading universities throughout the Netherlands. He is also a Fellow of the IEEE and a Fellow of the ACM. Other books Tanenbaum has authored or co-authored include Structured Computer Organization, Fourth Edition; Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, Second Edition; Modern Operating Systems, Second Edition; and Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms (all from Prentice Hall).

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
1(84)
Uses Of Computer Networks
3(11)
Business Applications
3(3)
Home Applications
6(3)
Mobile Users
9(3)
Social Issues
12(2)
Network Hardware
14(12)
Local Area Networks
16(2)
Metropolitan Area Networks
18(1)
Wide Area Networks
19(2)
Wireless Networks
21(2)
Home Networks
23(2)
Internetworks
25(1)
Network Software
26(11)
Protocol Hierarchies
26(4)
Design Issues for the Layers
30(2)
Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services
32(2)
Service Primitives
34(2)
The Relationship of Services to Protocols
36(1)
Reference Models
37(12)
The OSI Reference Model
37(4)
The TCP/IP Reference Model
41(3)
A Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models
44(2)
A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols
46(2)
A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model
48(1)
Example Networks
49(22)
The Internet
50(9)
Connection-Oriented Networks: X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM
59(6)
Ethernet
65(3)
Wireless LANs: 802.11
68(3)
Network Standardization
71(6)
Who's Who in the Telecommunications World
71(3)
Who's Who in the International Standards World
74(1)
Who's Who in the Internet Standards World
75(2)
Metric Units
77(1)
Outline of the Rest of the Book
78(1)
Summary
79(6)
The Physical Layer
85(98)
The Theoretical Basis for Data Communication
85(5)
Fourier Analysis
86(1)
Bandwidth-Limited Signals
86(3)
The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel
89(1)
Guided Transmission Media
90(10)
Magnetic Media
90(1)
Twisted Pair
91(1)
Coaxial Cable
92(1)
Fiber Optics
93(7)
Wireless Transmission
100(9)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
100(3)
Radio Transmission
103(1)
Microwave Transmission
104(2)
Infrared and Millimeter Waves
106(1)
Lightwave Transmission
107(2)
Communication Satellites
109(9)
Geostationary Satellites
109(4)
Medium-Earth Orbit Satellites
113(1)
Low-Earth Orbit Satellites
114(3)
Satellites versus Fiber
117(1)
The Public Switched Telephone Network
118(34)
Structure of the Telephone System
119(3)
The Politics of Telephones
122(2)
The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL, and Wireless
124(13)
Trunks and Multiplexing
137(9)
Switching
146(6)
The Mobile Telephone System
152(17)
First-Generation Mobile Phones: Analog Voice
153(4)
Second-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice
157(9)
Third-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice and Data
166(3)
Cable Television
169(8)
Community Antenna Television
169(1)
Internet over Cable
170(2)
Spectrum Allocation
172(1)
Cable Modems
173(2)
ADSL versus Cable
175(2)
Summary
177(6)
The Data Link Layer
183(64)
Data Link Layer Design Issues
184(8)
Services Provided to the Network Layer
184(3)
Framing
187(4)
Error Control
191(1)
Flow Control
192(1)
Error Detection and Correction
192(8)
Error-Correcting Codes
193(3)
Error-Detecting Codes
196(4)
Elementary Data Link Protocols
200(11)
An Unrestricted Simplex Protocol
204(2)
A Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol
206(2)
A Simplex Protocol for a Noisy Channel
208(3)
Sliding Window Protocols
211(18)
A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol
214(2)
A Protocol Using Go Back N
216(7)
A Protocol Using Selective Repeat
223(6)
Protocol Verification
229(5)
Finite State Machine Models
229(3)
Petri Net Models
232(2)
Example Data Link Protocols
234(8)
HDLC---High-Level Data Link Control
234(3)
The Data Link Layer in the Internet
237(5)
Summary
242(5)
The Medium Access Control Sublayer
247(96)
The Channel Allocation Problem
248(3)
Static Channel Allocation in LANs and Mans
248(1)
Dynamic Channel Allocation in LANs and Mans
249(2)
Multiple Access Protocols
251(20)
Aloha
251(4)
Carrier Sense Multiple Access Protocols
255(4)
Collision-Free Protocols
259(2)
Limited-Contention Protocols
261(4)
Wavelength Division Multiple Access Protocols
265(2)
Wireless LAN Protocols
267(4)
Ethernet
271(21)
Ethernet Cabling
271(3)
Manchester Encoding
274(1)
The Ethernet MAC Sublayer Protocol
275(3)
The Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm
278(1)
Ethernet Performance
279(2)
Switched Ethernet
281(2)
Fast Ethernet
283(3)
Gigabit Ethernet
286(4)
IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control
290(1)
Retrospective on Ethernet
291(1)
Wireless Lans
292(10)
The 802.11 Protocol Stack
292(1)
The 802.11 Physical Layer
293(2)
The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol
295(4)
The 802.11 Frame Structure
299
Services
1(301)
Broadband Wireless
302(8)
Comparison of 802.11 with 8016
303(2)
The 802.16 Protocol Stack
305(1)
The 802.16 Physical Layer
306(1)
The 802.16 MAC Sublayer Protocol
307(2)
The 802.16 Frame Structure
309(1)
Bluetooth
310(8)
Bluetooth Architecture
311(1)
Bluetooth Applications
312(1)
The Bluetooth Protocol Stack
313(2)
The Bluetooth Radio Layer
315(1)
The Bluetooth Baseband Layer
315(1)
The Bluetooth L2CAP Layer
316(1)
The Bluetooth Frame Structure
316(2)
Data Link Layer Switching
318(19)
Bridges from 802.x to 802.y
320(2)
Local Internetworking
322(2)
Spanning Tree Bridges
324(1)
Remote Bridges
325(1)
Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, and Gateways
326(3)
Virtual LANs
329(8)
Summary
337(6)
The Network Layer
343(138)
Network Layer Design Issues
343(7)
Store-and-Forward Packet Switching
344(1)
Services Provided to the Transport Layer
344(1)
Implementation of Connectionless Service
345(2)
Implementation of Connection-Oriented Service
347(1)
Comparison of Virtual-Circuit and Datagram Subnets
348(2)
Routing Algorithms
350(34)
The Optimality Principle
352(1)
Shortest Path Routing
353(2)
Flooding
355(2)
Distance Vector Routing
357(3)
Link State Routing
360(6)
Hierarchical Routing
366(2)
Broadcast Routing
368(2)
Multicast Routing
370(2)
Routing for Mobile Hosts
372(1)
Routing in Ad Hoc Networks
373(7)
Node Lookup in Peer-to-Peer Networks
380(4)
Congestion Control Algorithms
384(13)
General Principles of Congestion Control
386(2)
Congestion Prevention Policies
388(1)
Congestion Control in Virtual-Circuit Subnets
389(2)
Congestion Control in Datagram Subnets
391(3)
Load Shedding
394(1)
Jitter Control
395(2)
Quality of Service
397(21)
Requirements
397(1)
Techniques for Achieving Good Quality of Service
398(11)
Integrated Services
409(3)
Differentiated Services
412(3)
Label Switching and MPLS
415(3)
Internetworking
418(13)
How Networks Differ
419(1)
How Networks Can Be Connected
420(2)
Concatenated Virtual Circuits
422(1)
Connectionless Internetworking
423(2)
Tunneling
425(1)
Internetwork Routing
426(1)
Fragmentation
427(4)
The Network Layer in the Internet
431(42)
The IP Protocol
433(3)
IP Addresses
436(13)
Internet Control Protocols
449(5)
OSPF---The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
454(5)
BGP---The Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol
459(2)
Internet Multicasting
461(1)
Mobile IP
462(2)
IPv6
464(9)
Summary
473(8)
The Transport Layer
481(98)
The Transport Service
481(11)
Services Provided to the Upper Layers
481(2)
Transport Service Primitives
483(4)
Berkeley Sockets
487(1)
An Example of Socket Programming: An Internet File Server
488(4)
Elements of Transport Protocols
492(21)
Addressing
493(3)
Connection Establishment
496(6)
Connection Release
502(4)
Flow Control and Buffering
506(4)
Multiplexing
510(1)
Crash Recovery
511(2)
A Simple Transport Protocol
513(11)
The Example Service Primitives
513(2)
The Example Transport Entity
515(7)
The Example as a Finite State Machine
522(2)
The Internet Transport Protocols: UDP
524(8)
Introduction to UDP
525(1)
Remote Procedure Call
526(3)
The Real-Time Transport Protocol
529(3)
The Internet Transport Protocols: TCP
532(25)
Introduction to TCP
532(1)
The TCP Service Model
533(2)
The TCP Protocol
535(1)
The TCP Segment Header
536(3)
TCP Connection Establishment
539(2)
TCP Connection Release
541(1)
Modeling TCP Connection Management
541(2)
TCP Transmission Policy
543(4)
TCP Congestion Control
547(3)
TCP Timer Management
550(3)
Wireless TCP and UDP
553(2)
Transactional TCP
555(2)
Performance Issues
557(16)
Performance Problems in Computer Networks
557(3)
Network Performance Measurement
560(2)
System Design for Better Performance
562(4)
Fast TPDU Processing
566(3)
Protocols for Gigabit Networks
569(4)
Summary
573(6)
The Application Layer
579(142)
DNS-The Domain Name System
579(9)
The DNS Name Space
580(2)
Resource Records
582(4)
Name Servers
586(2)
Electronic Mail
588(23)
Architecture and Services
590(1)
The User Agent
591(3)
Message Formats
594(8)
Message Transfer
602(3)
Final Delivery
605(6)
The World Wide Web
611(63)
Architectural Overview
612(17)
Static Web Documents
629(14)
Dynamic Web Documents
643(8)
HTTP---The HyperText Transfer Protocol
651(5)
Performance Enhancements
656(6)
The Wireless Web
662(12)
Multimedia
674(40)
Introduction to Digital Audio
674(2)
Audio Compression
676(3)
Streaming Audio
679(4)
Internet Radio
683(2)
Voice over IP
685(7)
Introduction to Video
692(4)
Video Compression
696(8)
Video on Demand
704(7)
The MBone---The Multicast Backbone
711(3)
Summary
714(7)
Network Security
721(114)
Cryptography
724(13)
Introduction to Cryptography
725(2)
Substitution Ciphers
727(2)
Transposition Ciphers
729(1)
One-Time Pads
730(5)
Two Fundamental Cryptographic Principles
735(2)
Symmetric-Key Algorithms
737(15)
DES---The Data Encryption Standard
738(3)
AES---The Advanced Encryption Standard
741(4)
Cipher Modes
745(5)
Other Ciphers
750(1)
Cryptanalysis
750(2)
Public-Key Algorithms
752(3)
RSA
753(2)
Other Public-Key Algorithms
755(1)
Digital Signatures
755(10)
Symmetric-Key Signatures
756(1)
Public-Key Signatures
757(2)
Message Digests
759(4)
The Birthday Attack
763(2)
Management of Public Keys
765(7)
Certificates
765(2)
X.509
767(1)
Public Key Infrastructures
768(4)
Communication Security
772(13)
IPsec
772(4)
Firewalls
776(3)
Virtual Private Networks
779(1)
Wireless Security
780(5)
Authentication Protocols
785(14)
Authentication Based on a Shared Secret Key
786(5)
Establishing a Shared Key: The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
791(2)
Authentication Using a Key Distribution Center
793(3)
Authentication Using Kerberos
796(2)
Authentication Using Public-Key Cryptography
798(1)
E-Mail Security
799(6)
PGP---Pretty Good Privacy
799(4)
PEM---Privacy Enhanced Mail
803(1)
S/Mime
804(1)
Web Security
805(14)
Threats
805(1)
Secure Naming
806(7)
SSL---The Secure Sockets Layer
813(3)
Mobile Code Security
816(3)
Social Issues
819(9)
Privacy
819(103)
Freedom of Speech
922
Copyright
826(2)
Summary
828(7)
Reading List and Bibliography
835(34)
Suggestions for Further Reading
835(13)
Introduction and General Works
836(2)
The Physical Layer
838(2)
The Data Link Layer
840(1)
The Medium Access Control Sublayer
840(2)
The Network Layer
842(2)
The Transport Layer
844(1)
The Application Layer
844(2)
Network Security
846(2)
Alphabetical Bibliography
848(21)
Index 869

Excerpts

Preface This book is now in its fourth edition. Each edition has corresponded to a different phase in the way computer networks were used. When the first edition appeared in 1980, networks were an academic curiosity. When the second edition appeared in 1988, networks were used by universities and large businesses. When the third edition appeared in 1996, computer networks, especially the Internet, had become a daily reality for millions of people. The new item in the fourth edition is the rapid growth of wireless networking in many forms. The networking picture has changed radically since the third edition. In the mid-1990s, numerous kinds of LANs and WANs existed, along with multiple protocol stacks. By 2003, the only wired LAN in widespread use was Ethernet, and virtually all WANs were on the Internet. Accordingly, a large amount of material about these older networks has been removed. However, new developments are also plentiful. The most important is the huge increase in wireless networks, including 802.11, wireless local loops, 2G and 3G cellular networks, Bluetooth, WAP, i-mode, and others. Accordingly, a large amount of material has been added on wireless networks. Another newly-important topic is security, so a whole chapter on it has been added. Although Chap. 1 has the same introductory function as it did in the third edition, the contents have been revised and brought up to date. For example, introductions to the Internet, Ethernet, and wireless LANs are given there, along with some history and background. Home networking is also discussed briefly. Chapter 2 has been reorganized somewhat. After a brief introduction to the principles of data communication, there are three major sections on transmission (guided media, wireless, and satellite), followed by three more on important examples (the public switched telephone system, the mobile telephone system, and cable television). Among the new topics covered in this chapter are ADSL, broadband wireless, wireless MANs, and Internet access over cable and DOCSIS. Chapter 3 has always dealt with the fundamental principles of point-to-point protocols. These ideas are essentially timeless and have not changed for decades. Accordingly, the series of detailed example protocols presented in this chapter is largely unchanged from the third edition. In contrast, the MAC sublayer has been an area of great activity in recent years, so many changes are present in Chap. 4. The section on Ethernet has been expanded to include gigabit Ethernet. Completely new are major sections on wireless LANs, broadband wireless, Bluetooth, and data link layer switching, including MPLS. Chapter 5 has also been updated, with the removal of all the ATM material and the addition of additional material on the Internet. Quality of service is now also a major topic, including discussions of integrated services and differentiated services. Wireless networks are also present here, with a discussion of routing in ad hoc networks. Other new topics include NAT and peer-to-peer networks. Chap. 6 is still about the transport layer, but here, too, some changes have occurred. Among these is an example of socket programming. A one-page client and a one-page server are given in C and discussed. These programs, available on the book''s Web site, can be compiled and run. Together they provide a primitive remote file or Web server available for experimentation. Other new topics include remote procedure call, RTP, and transaction/TCP. Chap. 7, on the application layer, has been more sharply focused. After a short introduction to DNS, the rest of the chapter deals with just three topics: e-mail, the Web, and multimedia. But each topic is treated in great detail. The discussion of how the Web works is now over 60 pages, covering a vast array of topics, including static and dynamic Web pages, HTTP, CGI scripts, content delivery networks, cookies, and Web caching. Material is also present on how modern Web pages are written, including brief introductions to XML, XSL, XHTML, PHP, and more, all with examples that can be tested. The wireless Web is also discussed, focusing on i-mode and WAP. The multimedia material now includes MP3, streaming audio, Internet radio, and voice over IP. Security has become so important that it has now been expanded to a complete chapter of over 100 pages. It covers both the principles of security (symmetric- and public-key algorithms, digital signatures, and X.509 certificates) and the applications of these principles (authentication, e-mail security, and Web security). The chapter is both broad (ranging from quantum cryptography to government censorship) and deep (e.g., how SHA-1 works in detail). Chapter 9 contains an all-new list of suggested readings and a comprehensive bibliography of over 350 citations to the current literature. Over 200 of these are to papers and books written in 2000 or later. Computer books are full of acronyms. This one is no exception. By the time you are finished reading this one, the following should ring a bell: ADSL, AES, AMPS, AODV, ARP, ATM, BGP, CDMA, CDN, CGI, CIDR, DCF, DES, DHCP, DMCA, FDM, FHSS, GPRS, GSM, HDLC, HFC, HTML, HTTP, ICMP, IMAP, ISP, ITU, LAN, LMDS, MAC, MACA, MIME, MPEG, MPLS, MTU, NAP, NAT, NSA, NTSC, OFDM, OSPF, PCF, PCM, PGP, PHP, PKI, POTS, PPP, PSTN, QAM, QPSK, RED, RFC, RPC, RSA, RSVP, RTP, SSL, TCP, TDM, UDP, URL, UTP, VLAN, VPN, VSAT, WAN, WAP, WDMA, WEP, WWW, and XML. But don''t worry. Each will be carefully defined before it is used. To help instructors using this book as a text for a course, the author has prepared various teaching aids, including A problem solutions manual. Files containing the figures in multiple formats. PowerPoint sheets for a course using the book. A simulator (written in C) for the example protocols of Chap. 3. A Web page with links to many tutorials, organizations, FAQs, etc. The solutions manual is available directly from Prentice Hall (but only to instructors, not to students). All the other material is on the book''s Web site: http://www.phptr.com/tanenbaumcn4/


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