Conceptual Integrated Science

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-07-19
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
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This book will change the way you look at science. Written by best-selling author Paul Hewitt, Conceptual Integrated Science is more than a collection of facts-it's a guidebook for understanding the world around you. Using his successful "concepts first" method, accessible writing, and fun and informative illustrations, Hewitt and his team of science experts have crafted a text that focuses on unifying concepts and real-life examples across physics, chemistry, earth science, biology, and astronomy.

Table of Contents

The Conceptual Integrated Science Photo Albump. xiii
To the Studentp. xv
To the Instructorp. xvi
Acknowledgmentsp. xxiii
Reviewersp. xxv
About Sciencep. 1
A Brief History of Advances in Sciencep. 1
Mathematics and Conceptual Integrated Sciencep. 2
The Scientific Method-A Classic Toolp. 4
The Scientific Hypothesisp. 4
The Scientific Experimentp. 5
Facts, Theories, and Lawsp. 6
Science Has Limitationsp. 7
Science, Art, and Religionp. 7
Technology-The Practical Use of Sciencep. 9
The Natural Sciences: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science, and Astronomyp. 9
Integrated Sciencep. 10
Integrated Science-Chemistry and Biology: An Investigation of Sea Butterfliesp. 10
Physicsp. 15
Describing Motionp. 17
Aristotle on Motionp. 17
Galileo's Concept of Inertiap. 18
Mass-A Measure of Inertiap. 20
Net Forcep. 22
The Equilibrium Rulep. 22
The Support Forcep. 24
Equilibrium of Moving Thingsp. 26
The Force of Frictionp. 26
Integrated Science-Biology, Astronomy, Earth Science, and Chemistry: Friction Is Universalp. 27
Speed and Velocityp. 28
Accelerationp. 30
Integrated Science-Biology: Hang Timep. 32
Newton's Laws of Motionp. 36
Newton's First Law of Motionp. 36
Newton's Second Law of Motionp. 37
Integrated Science-Biology: Glidingp. 43
Forces and Interactionsp. 44
Newton's Third Law of Motionp. 45
Integrated Science-Biology: Animal Locomotionp. 49
Vectorsp. 50
Summary of Newton's Three Lawsp. 52
Momentum and Energyp. 57
Momentump. 57
Impulsep. 58
Impulse-Momentum Relationshipp. 58
Integrated Science-Biology: The Impulse-Momentum Relationship in Sportsp. 60
Conservation of Momentump. 61
Energyp. 63
Integrated Science-Biology and Chemistry: Glucose: Energy for Lifep. 64
Powerp. 65
Potential Energyp. 66
Kinetic Energyp. 67
The Work-Energy Theoremp. 68
Conservation of Energyp. 70
Machinesp. 71
Gravityp. 78
The Legend of the Falling Applep. 78
The Fact of the Falling Moonp. 78
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitationp. 79
Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Lawp. 80
The Universal Gravitational Constant, Gp. 81
Integrated Science-Biology: Your Biological Gravity Detectorp. 82
Weight and Weightlessnessp. 83
Integrated Science-Biology: Center of Gravity of Peoplep. 85
Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Forcep. 86
Projectile Motionp. 86
Projectile Altitude and Rangep. 88
The Effect of Air Drag on Projectilesp. 89
Fast-Moving Projectiles-Satellitesp. 89
Elliptical Orbitsp. 91
Integrated Science-Astronomy: Escape Speedp. 92
Heatp. 98
The Kinetic Theory of Matterp. 98
Temperaturep. 98
Absolute Zerop. 100
What Is Heat?p. 101
The Laws of Thermodynamicsp. 102
Integrated Science-Chemistry and Biology: Entropyp. 103
Specific Heat Capacityp. 105
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Specific Heat Capacity and Earth's Climatep. 106
Thermal Expansionp. 108
Heat Transfer: Conductionp. 111
Heat Transfer: Convectionp. 112
Heat Transfer: Radiationp. 113
Electricity and Magnetismp. 119
Electric Force and Chargep. 119
Coulomb's Lawp. 121
Electric Fieldp. 122
Electric Potentialp. 122
Conductors and Insulatorsp. 124
Voltage Sourcesp. 125
Electric Currentp. 125
Electrical Resistancep. 126
Ohm's Lawp. 127
Integrated Science-Biology: Electric Shockp. 127
Electric Circuitsp. 129
Electric Powerp. 130
The Magnetic Forcep. 131
Magnetic Fieldsp. 131
Integrated Science-Biology and Earth Science: Earth's Magnetic Field and the Ability of Organisms to Sense Itp. 133
Magnetic Forces on Moving Chargesp. 134
Electromagnetic Inductionp. 136
Waves-Sound and Lightp. 142
Vibrations and Wavesp. 142
Wave Motionp. 144
Transverse and Longitudinal Wavesp. 145
The Nature of Soundp. 145
Integrated Science-Biology: Sensing Pitchp. 146
Resonancep. 147
The Nature of Lightp. 148
Reflectionp. 150
Transparent and Opaque Materialsp. 151
Colorp. 153
Integrated Science-Biology: Mixing Colored Lightsp. 155
Refractionp. 156
Diffractionp. 158
Interferencep. 159
The Doppler Effectp. 160
Integrated Science-Astronomy: The Doppler Effect and the Expanding Universep. 161
The Wave-Particle Dualityp. 162
The Atomp. 167
The Elementsp. 167
Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Emptyp. 167
Protons and Neutronsp. 170
Isotopes and Atomic Massp. 172
Integrated Science-Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science: Physical and Conceptual Modelsp. 178
Atomic Spectrap. 175
The Quantum Hypothesisp. 177
Electron Wavesp. 180
Probability Clouds and Atomic Orbitalsp. 181
Integrated Science-Chemistry: The Shell Modelp. 184
Nuclear Physicsp. 190
Radioactivityp. 190
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Raysp. 191
Environmental Radiationp. 193
Integrated Science-Biology: Doses of Radiationp. 194
The Atomic Nucleus and the Strong Nuclear Forcep. 196
Half-Lifep. 198
Transmutation of Elementsp. 199
Integrated Science-Biology, Earth Science: Isotopic Datingp. 202
Nuclear Fissionp. 204
The Mass-Energy Relationship-E = mc[superscript 2]p. 205
Nuclear Fusionp. 209
Chemistryp. 215
Investigating Matterp. 217
Chemistry: Integral to Our Livesp. 217
Integrated Science-Astronomy: Origin of the Moonp. 217
The Submicroscopic Worldp. 220
Phases of Matterp. 220
Change of Phasep. 222
Integrated Science-Physics and Biology: Evaporation Cools You Off, Condensation Warms You Upp. 223
Physical and Chemical Properties of Matterp. 225
Elements and the Periodic Tablep. 228
Organization of the Periodic Tablep. 230
Elements to Compoundsp. 234
Naming Compoundsp. 235
The Nature of Chemical Bondsp. 241
Electron Shells and Chemical Bondingp. 241
The Ionic Bondp. 243
The Metallic Bondp. 246
The Covalent Bondp. 247
Polar Bonds and Polar Moleculesp. 250
Interparticle Attractionsp. 253
Integrated Science-Physics and Biology: How Geckos Walk on Walls-The Adhesive Forcep. 255
Integrated Science-Biology and Earth Science: Mixturesp. 256
Solutionsp. 257
Solubilityp. 259
Integrated Science-Biology: Fish Depend on Dissolved Oxygenp. 261
Chemical Reactionsp. 265
Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equationsp. 265
Acid-Base Reactionsp. 267
Saltsp. 270
Solutions: Acidic, Basic, or Neutralp. 271
The pH Scalep. 272
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Acid Rainp. 274
Oxidation-Reduction Reactionsp. 276
Integrated Science-Physics: Fuel Cellsp. 278
Corrosion and Combustionp. 280
The Rate of Chemical Reactionsp. 281
Integrated Science-Physics, Biology, and Earth Science: The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Ratep. 282
Endothermic Versus Exothermic Reactionsp. 285
Entropy and Chemical Reactionsp. 289
Organic Chemistryp. 294
Hydrocarbonsp. 294
Unsaturated Hydrocarbonsp. 297
Functional Groupsp. 298
Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Aminesp. 299
Integrated Science-Biology: Drug Action and Discoveryp. 301
Ketones, Aldehydes, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, and Estersp. 303
Polymersp. 306
Biologyp. 317
The Basic Unit of Life-The Cellp. 319
Characteristics of Lifep. 319
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Macromolecules Needed for Lifep. 321
Cell Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryoticp. 323
Integrated Science-Physics: The Microscopep. 325
Tour of a Eukaryotic Cellp. 327
Cell Membrane: Structure and Functionp. 329
Transport Mechanismsp. 330
Cellular Communicationp. 333
How Cells Reproducep. 334
How Cells Use Energyp. 336
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Chemical Reactions in Cellsp. 338
Photosynthesisp. 339
Cellular Respirationp. 341
The Life Spans of Cellsp. 343
Geneticsp. 348
What Is a Gene?p. 348
Chromosomes: Packages of Genetic Informationp. 348
Integrated Science-Chemistry: The Structure of DNAp. 349
DNA Replicationp. 351
Transcription and Translationp. 351
Meiosis: Genetic Diversityp. 355
Mendelian Geneticsp. 356
Inheritance: Beyond Mendelian Geneticsp. 359
The Human Genomep. 361
Genetic Mutationsp. 363
Integrated Science-Physics: How Radioactivity Causes Genetic Mutationsp. 366
Cancer: Genes Gone Awryp. 366
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Environmental Causes of Cancerp. 368
The Evolution of Lifep. 372
The Origin of Lifep. 372
Integrated Science-Astronomy: Did Life on Earth Originate on Mars?p. 374
Early Life on Earthp. 375
The First Eukaryotic Cellsp. 375
Charles Darwin and The Origin of Speciesp. 376
How Natural Selection Worksp. 379
Integrated Science-Physics: Animal Adaptations to Heat and Coldp. 382
How Species Formp. 387
Evidence of Evolutionp. 391
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Earth's Tangible Evidence of Evolutionp. 393
Does Evolution Occur Gradually or in Spurts?p. 395
The Evolution of Humansp. 396
Biological Diversityp. 401
Classifying Living Thingsp. 401
The Three Domains of Lifep. 405
Bacteriap. 406
Archaeap. 407
Protistsp. 408
Plantsp. 409
Fungip. 414
Animalsp. 415
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Coral Bleachingp. 416
Integrated Science-Physics: How Birds Flyp. 423
Viruses and Infectious Moleculesp. 424
Human Biology I-Control and Developmentp. 429
Organization of the Human Bodyp. 429
Homeostasisp. 430
The Brainp. 430
The Nervous Systemp. 432
How Neurons Workp. 434
Integrated Science-Physics: How Fast Can Action Potentials Travel?p. 438
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Endorphinsp. 438
The Sensesp. 439
Hormonesp. 443
Reproduction and Developmentp. 446
The Skeleton and Musclesp. 447
Human Biology II-Care and Maintenancep. 453
Integration of Body Systemsp. 453
The Circulatory Systemp. 453
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Hemoglobinp. 456
Respirationp. 457
Digestionp. 459
Nutrition, Exercise, and Healthp. 461
Integrated Science-Physics and Chemistry: Low-Carb Versus Low-Cal Dietsp. 462
Excretion and Water Balancep. 464
Keeping the Body Safe: Defense Systemsp. 466
Ecosystems and Environmentp. 475
Organisms and Their Environmentp. 475
Species Interactionsp. 477
Energy Flow in Ecosystemsp. 481
Integrated Science-Physics: Energy Leaks Where Trophic Levels Meetp. 483
Kinds of Ecosystemsp. 484
Integrated Science-Earth Science: Materials Cycling in Ecosystemsp. 489
Change in an Ecosystemp. 492
Population Studiesp. 494
Human Population Growthp. 497
Earth Sciencep. 503
Plate Tectonicsp. 505
Earth Science Before the Twentieth Centuryp. 505
Using Seismology to Look Inside the Earthp. 506
More About Earth's Layersp. 507
Integrated Science-Physics: Isostasyp. 508
Continental Drift-An Idea Before Its Timep. 511
A Mechanism for Continental Driftp. 513
Plate Tectonicsp. 515
Integrated Science-Physics: What Forces Drive the Plates?p. 516
Divergent Plate Boundariesp. 518
Convergent Plate Boundariesp. 519
Integrated Science-Biology: Life in the Trenchesp. 520
Transform Plate Boundariesp. 521
Earthquakesp. 523
Integrated Science-Physics: Anatomy of a Tsunamip. 524
Rocks and Mineralsp. 531
Materials of the Earthp. 531
What Is a Mineral?p. 532
Mineral Propertiesp. 534
The Formation of Mineralsp. 536
Classifying Mineralsp. 538
Integrated Science-Chemistry: The Silicate Tetrahedronp. 539
Rocksp. 541
Igneous Rocksp. 542
Integrated Science-Physics: The Texture of Igneous Rocksp. 544
Sedimentary Rocksp. 545
Integrated Science-Biology: Coalp. 548
Metamorphic Rocksp. 549
The Rock Cyclep. 551
Earth's Surface-Land and Waterp. 556
A Survey of the Earthp. 556
Crustal Deformation-Folds and Faultsp. 558
Mountainsp. 560
Earth's Watersp. 564
The Ocean Floorp. 565
Integrated Science-Physics: Ocean Wavesp. 566
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Ocean Waterp. 567
Fresh Waterp. 568
Integrated Science-Chemistry: Groundwater Contaminationp. 571
Surface Processes-Wearing Away Earth's Surface Layerp. 572
Weatherp. 579
Weather and Climatep. 579
Solar Radiationp. 580
Atmospheric Pressurep. 582
Structure and Composition of Earth's Atmospherep. 583
Integrated Science-Chemistry: The Atmospheric "Ozone Hole"p. 586
Circulation of the Atmosphere-Windp. 587
Integrated Science-Physics: The Coriolis Effectp. 591
Oceanic Circulation-Currentsp. 592
Humidityp. 594
Clouds and Precipitationp. 595
Changing Weather-Air Masses, Fronts, and Cyclonesp. 598
Stormsp. 601
Global Climate Changep. 602
Integrated Science-Physics: The Greenhouse Effectp. 603
Earth's Historyp. 608
A Model of Earth's Historyp. 608
The Rock Recordp. 610
Integrated Science-Physics: Radiometric Dating of Rockp. 611
Geologic Timep. 612
Precambrian Time (4500 to 542 Million Years Ago)p. 613
Integrated Science-Biology and Chemistry: The Great Transformation of Earth's Atmospherep. 614
The Paleozoic Era (542 to 248 Million Years Ago)p. 615
Integrated Science-Biology: The Permian Extinctionp. 618
The Mesozoic Era (248 to 65 Million Years Ago)p. 619
Integrated Science-Biology and Astronomy: The Cretaceous Extinctionp. 619
The Cenozoic Era (65 Million Years to the Present)p. 621
Astronomyp. 625
The Solar Systemp. 627
Overview of the Solar Systemp. 627
The Nebular Theoryp. 630
Integrated Science-Physics: The Solar Nebula Heats Up, Spins Faster, and Flattensp. 631
Integrated Science-Chemistry: The Chemical Composition of the Solar Systemp. 632
The Sunp. 633
The Inner Planetsp. 634
The Outer Planetsp. 637
Integrated Science-Biology: What Makes a Planet Suitable for Life?p. 640
Earth's Moonp. 641
Integrated Science-Physics: Why One Side of the Moon Always Faces Usp. 642
Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroidsp. 642
The Universep. 649
Observing the Night Skyp. 649
The Brightness and Colors of Starsp. 651
Integrated Science-Physics: Radiation Curves of Starsp. 652
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagramp. 653
The Life Cycles of Starsp. 655
Black Holesp. 658
Galaxiesp. 660
Integrated Science-Biology: The Search for Extraterrestrial Lifep. 662
The Big Bangp. 663
Quasarsp. 665
On Measurement and Unit Conversionp. A-1
United States Customary Systemp. A-1
Systeme Internationalp. A-1
Unit Conversionp. A-3
Linear and Rotational Motionp. B-1
Advanced Concepts of Motionp. B-1
Circular Motionp. B-3
Torquep. B-3
Angular Momentump. B-4
Conservation of Angular Momentump. B-5
Working with Vector Componentsp. C-1
Adding Vectorsp. C-1
Finding Components of Vectorsp. C-1
The Polarization of Light-An Application of Vector Componentsp. C-2
Exponential Growth and Doubling Timep. D-1
Physics of Fluidsp. E-1
Densityp. E-1
Pressurep. E-1
Buoyancyp. E-2
Pressure in a Gasp. E-4
Chemical Equilibriump. F-1
Suggested Websitesp. W-1
Glossaryp. GL-1
Indexp. IN-1
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