A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-12-01
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc
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Highlighting the key events, ideas, and individuals that have shaped modern Europe, this fresh and lively book provides a succinct history of the continent from the Enlightenment to the present. Drawing on the enduring theme of revolution, David S. Mason explores the causes and consequences of revolution: political, economic, and scientific; the development of human rights; and issues of European identity and integration. He deliberately avoids a detailed chronology of every country and time period by emphasizing the most crucial events in shaping contemporary Europe. Fourteen focused chapters address such topical issues as the Enlightenment; the French Revolution and Napoleon; the Industrial Revolution; the theories and impact of Marx and Darwin; the revolutions of 1848, 1917, and 1989; the unifications of Germany and Italy; European imperialism; the two World Wars; the Cold War and decolonization; and the evolution and expansion of the European Union. Any reader needing a broad overview of the sweep of European history since 1789 will find this book, published in a first edition under the title Revolutionary Europe, an engaging and cohesive narrative.

Author Biography

David S. Mason is professor emeritus at Butler University.

Table of Contents

List of Boxes, Illustration, and Mapsp. xi
Preface to the Second Editionp. xv
Preface to and Acknowledgments for the First Editionp. xvii
Introduction: Change and Tradition in Europep. 1
Timeline of European Historyp. 7
The Old Regime and the Enlightenmentp. 13
The Old Regime in Francep. 13
The Enlightenmentp. 17
The Impact of the Enlightenmentp. 21
The French Revolution and Napoleonp. 23
1789: The Revolution Beginsp. 25
The Radical Republic and the Terrorp. 28
Napoleon and Europep. 29
The Industrial Revolution and the Birth of Capitalismp. 37
Causes of the Industrial Revolutionp. 38
Socioeconomic Consequences of Industrializationp. 42
The Impact of the Industrial Revolutionp. 44
1848: The People's Springp. 47
Europe after 1815: Reactionp. 48
Liberalism and Nationalism in the Early Nineteenth Centuryp. 49
Precursors to 1848: The 1830 Revolution in Francep. 51
The Revolutions of 1848p. 52
Revolt Spreads through Europep. 54
Repression and Reactionp. 55
Consequences and Legacy of 1848p. 56
Marx, Marxism, and Socialismp. 59
Karl Marxp. 60
The Communist Manifestop. 60
Marxist Theoryp. 64
The Idea of Communismp. 67
The Legacy of Marxismp. 68
Darwinism and Social Darwinismp. 71
Charles Darwinp. 72
The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selectionp. 73
Darwinism and Religionp. 75
Social Darwinismp. 77
Social Darwinism and European Historyp. 78
The Influence of Darwinismp. 80
The Unifications of Italy and Germanyp. 83
Nationalism and the Nation-Statep. 83
Prelude to Unification: The Crimean Warp. 85
Mazzini, Cavour, and the Unification of Italyp. 86
Bismarck and the Unification of Germanyp. 88
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungaryp. 91
Implications of Nationalism and Unificationp. 92
The Age of Imperialism and the Scramble for Africap. 93
European Expansionism before the Nineteenth Centuryp. 94
The Motivations for Imperialismp. 94
The Scramble for Africap. 96
The Colonization of Asiap. 98
Patterns of Colonial Rulep. 99
The Legacy and Consequences of European Imperialismp. 100
World War Ip. 103
Europe on the Eve of Warp. 103
The Tinderbox: Nationalism in the Balkansp. 105
The Spark: The Assassinationp. 106
The Escalationp. 107
The Warp. 107
Versailles, The Peace Settlements, and the League of Nationsp. 111
Consequences of the Warp. 113
The Russian Revolution and Communismp. 115
Tsarist Russiap. 116
Hints of Change and Reformp. 117
1905: Prelude to Revolutionp. 119
Marxism and Leninismp. 120
World War I and the Two Revolutionsp. 122
Civil War, NEP, and Consolidationp. 124
Stalin and Totalitarianismp. 126
The Legacy and Meaning of the Russian Revolutionp. 129
World War II and the Holocaustp. 131
Europe between the World Warsp. 132
The Rise of Militarism and Fascismp. 133
Hitler's Aggressionp. 136
The Warp. 138
The Holocaustp. 139
The Consequences of World War IIp. 140
Europe Divided, the Cold War, and Decolonizationp. 145
The Division of Europep. 146
The Onset of the Cold Warp. 148
Decolonizationp. 152
Postwar Western Europep. 155
Eastern Europe after the Warp. 157
Conclusions: From Cold War to Perestroikap. 159
1989: The Collapse of Communism and End of the Cold Warp. 161
Before 1989: Soviet Hegemony and the Brezhnev Doctrinep. 162
Gorbachev and Perestroikap. 165
The Revolutions of 1989p. 166
The Disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslaviap. 171
Transition from Communism to Market Democracyp. 174
Conclusions: The Impact of 1989p. 175
The European Union: Europe United and Free?p. 179
Origins of the Common Marketp. 179
From Common Market to EUp. 182
Expansion to Eastern Europep. 185
The European Superpower?p. 187
What Is Europe?p. 189
Conclusion: Europe in the Twenty-first Centuryp. 193
Notesp. 197
Glossaryp. 203
Suggestions for Additional Readingp. 213
Indexp. 219
About the Authorp. 229
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