Concise Introduction to Linguistics, A

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This reader-friendly and well-balanced overview of the field of introductory linguistics pays special attention to linguistic anthropology, revealing the main contributions of linguistics to the study of human communication and how issues of culture are relevant. Well-constructed exercises in every chapter allow students to practice concepts. This new addition to the study of linguistics covers all topics integral to an understanding of introductory linguistics and is written with the generalist reader in mind but also provides the linguistics, English, and anthropology major with the resources needed to succeed in subsequent courses. The problem-centered approach includes well-constructed exercises and study questions integrated within each chapter. These short sections (usually 3-7 pages) in each chapter help students to understand each subject before moving on to the next. Numerous cross-cultural examples relevant to the topics covered are included, with specific chapters devoted to anthropological topics providing emphasis on fieldwork and the fronting of phonology. No previous knowledge on the part of the reader is assumed and all concepts are explained in a systematic way aided by numerous pedagogical aids including Introductory Questions that give the reader a summary of the content of the chapter and provide questions to keep in mind as the student reads the chapter; chapter summaries that provide a concise overview of the contents of each chapter; key terms that are defined on the page where introduced; and an end-of-book glossary that provides a tool for readers to review all key terms together. Suggested readings and Internet resourses at the end of each chapter provide more sources for further reading.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introduction: The Nature of Communicationp. 1
The Nature of Communicationp. 2
Nonhuman and Human Communication Comparedp. 4
Chimpanzees and Gorillas in Controlled Environmentsp. 10
Skepticism over Ape Language Studiesp. 15
Summaryp. 20
Suggested Readingp. 21
Suggested Websitesp. 21
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 22
End of Chapter Questionsp. 24
The Phonological Component: Phoneticsp. 28
Articulatory Phoneticsp. 29
Consonants and Vowelsp. 32
Syllables and Syllabic Consonantsp. 48
Suprasegmentalsp. 50
Connected Speechp. 53
Summaryp. 57
Suggested Readingp. 58
Suggested Websitesp. 58
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 59
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 61
The Phonological Component: Phonologyp. 64
The Phoneme and the Concept of Significant Differences in Soundsp. 64
Distinctive Feature Analysisp. 74
Phonological Processesp. 78
The Continuous and Complex Nature of Speech, Revisedp. 82
Summaryp. 84
Suggested Readingp. 85
Suggested Websitesp. 85
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 86
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 87
The Morphological Componentp. 89
The Morphemep. 89
Morphological Typologyp. 95
How New Words Are Coinedp. 97
Parts of Speechp. 106
Summaryp. 110
Suggested Readingp. 111
Suggested Websitesp. 111
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 111
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 113
Syntaxp. 114
Syntactic Constructionp. 115
Subconscious Knowledgep. 123
The Constituent Structure of Sentencesp. 131
Phrase Structure Rulesp. 134
Transformational Rulesp. 139
Optional and Obligatory Transformationsp. 142
Summaryp. 145
Suggested Readingp. 146
Suggested Websitesp. 146
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 146
Semantics and Pragmaticsp. 150
The Meaning of Words: Lexical Semanticsp. 150
The -Nymsp. 157
Other Kinds of Meaning: Structural Semanticsp. 162
Pragmaticsp. 166
Summaryp. 177
Suggested Readingp. 178
Suggested Websitesp. 179
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 179
Fieldwork Projectp. 181
Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropologyp. 182
Regional Dialectsp. 183
African American Englishp. 188
Hispanic Englishp. 194
Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creolesp. 197
Situational Dialects or Registersp. 198
Gender and Languagep. 206
Linguistic Anthropologyp. 211
Language and Nationalismp. 217
Summaryp. 218
Suggested Readingp. 219
Suggested Websitesp. 220
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 221
Language Acquisitionp. 225
Language and the Brainp. 225
Ideas about Language Acquisitionp. 226
How Do Children Acquire the Components of Language?p. 228
Language Socialization: Three Examplesp. 238
The Acquisition of Sign Languagep. 240
Bilingualismp. 242
Summaryp. 247
Suggested Readingp. 248
Suggested Websitesp. 248
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 249
Sign Languagep. 252
The Nature of Sign Languagep. 253
What Is ASL?p. 254
Nicaraguan Sign Language: The Birth of a New Languagep. 267
Social Dimensions of Sign Languagep. 268
Summaryp. 268
Suggested Readingp. 270
Suggested Websitesp. 270
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 271
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 272
Writing Systemsp. 275
Writing Is Secondary to Speech and Sign Languagep. 275
Types of Writing Systemsp. 276
The History of Writingp. 294
The Printing Pressp. 305
A Few Words about Computersp. 307
Summaryp. 307
Suggested Readingp. 308
Suggested Websitesp. 308
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 309
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 311
Nonverbal Communicationp. 314
What Does "Nonverbal" Mean?p. 315
Kinesic Behaviorp. 315
Affect Displaysp. 318
The Eyes Have Itp. 320
Physical Appearancep. 321
Touching (Tactile) Behaviorp. 323
Paralanguagep. 325
Proxemicsp. 326
The Physical Environmentp. 328
"How-To" Books: A Word of Cautionp. 330
Summaryp. 330
Suggested Readingp. 331
Suggested Websitesp. 331
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 332
End of Chapter Exercisesp. 333
Historical Linguisticsp. 336
The Relationships between Languagesp. 337
Types of Language Changep. 345
How Long Does It Take a Language to Change?p. 353
Disappearing, Reappearing, and Emerging Languagesp. 355
The Spread of Englishesp. 357
New Jargonsp. 358
Summaryp. 359
Suggested Readingp. 360
Suggested Websitesp. 360
Review of Terms and Conceptsp. 361
Answers to Reviews of Terms and Conceptsp. 365
Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 377
Fieldwork Exercisesp. 387
Indexp. 397
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