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Crime Control in America What Works?

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-01-10
  • Publisher: Pearson
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For courses in crime prevention, introduction to criminal justice, and criminal justice policy.

Balanced, comprehensive introduction to crime control
Crime Control in America: What Works? provides comprehensive coverage of what works in policing, prosecution, courts, and legislative methods of crime control. It also moves beyond the justice system and examines the effectiveness of crime control at the individual, family, school, and community levels. Finally, it covers environmental criminology and explanations of large-scale crime trends. The 4th edition includes new sections covering the most current and controversial topics in crime control, including the alleged Ferguson effect, immigration enforcement, raising the age of majority, and mass shootings.

Author Biography

John L. Worrall is Professor of Criminology and Director of the M.S. Program in Justice Administration and Leadership (JAL) at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). Both his M.A. (criminal justice) and Ph.D. (political science) were received from Washington State University, where he graduated in 1999. Dr. Worrall has published articles and book chapters on a variety of topics ranging from legal issues in policing to crime measurement, having been ranked one of the most prolific sole and lead authors in the discipline. He has also authored a number of other popular books, including Introduction to Criminal Justice (with Larry Siegel) and Criminal Procedure: From First Contact to Appeal. Dr. Worrall is Executive Director of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and continues to serve as editor of the journal Police Quarterly, a position he has held since 2008.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Identifying and Evaluating Crime Control
Crime Control and Prevention
The Crime Problem in America
    Types of Crimes
    The Ever-Expanding Criminal Law
    Incidence of Crime
    Costs of Crime and Criminals
    Is Fear of Crime Worse Than Crime Itself?
Approaches, Not Just Policies
    Official Policies, Written and Unwritten
    Unofficial Approaches
On the Importance of Definitions
    Defining the Crime Problem
    Defining the Solution
    Defining the Desired Outcome
Evaluating Success: An Impossible Task?
    The Hard and Soft Sciences
    The Elusive Criminal Justice Experiment
    You Can Prove Anything with Statistics
    Qualitative and Quantitative Research
    Macro- and Micro-Level Crime Control
Displacement and Diffusion
    Measuring Displacement and Diffusion
The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge
    The Measures Used
    When New Data Become Available
    Alternative Settings: The Generalization Problem
    Other Concerns
Funding and Political Priorities
    Academic Crusaders and Bandwagon Science
Evidence-Based Justice
    Effective Does Not Always Mean Best
A Preview of the Book
    Guns and Drugs: The Real Attention Getters

Chapter 2: Crime Control Perspectives
Operational Perspectives
    Due Process and Crime Control
         Due Process Values
         Crime Control Values
    System and Nonsystem
         A Well-Oiled Machine?
         A Disorganized Mess?
    The Funnel Model of Justice
    The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
Political Perspectives
    Liberals and Conservatives
         Causes of Crime
         Consequences of Crime for Society
         What Should Be Done About Crime?
    Consensus and Conflict
         Causes of Crime
         Consequences of Crime for Society
         What Should Be Done About Crime?
Other Perspectives
    Faith and Fact
    Crime Control and Revenue Generation
    Politics and Ivory Towers
Goals of Crime Control
         General and Specific Deterrence
         Absolute and Marginal Deterrence
         The Limitations of Deterrence
         The Limitations of Retribution
         The Limitations of Incapacitation
         The Limitations of Rehabilitation
    Goals of Crime Control Compared


Chapter 3: Traditional Policing
The Theory of Traditional Policing
Does Hiring More Cops Reduce Crime?
    Reasons Why Hiring More Cops Might Not Reduce Crime
    Lessons from Kansas City
    The Post–Kansas City Intellectual Debate
    The Violent Crime Control Act of 1994
    What Happens When the Police Go on Strike?
    De-Policing and the Alleged “Ferguson Effect”
    A Very Thin Blue Line: Is There Really a Police Presence?
    What Are They Doing on the Job?
    Does It Work?
Freeing up Resources
    One- versus Two-Officer Patrols
    Patrol Downtime Studies
    Does It Work?
Reactive Policing and Random Patrol
    Reactive Policing
         Domestic Violence Arrests
    Rapid Response
    Random Patrol
    Does It Work?
Detective Work and Crime
    The RAND Study
    Recent Developments
    Does It Work?
Private Policing
    Private Security versus Private Policing
    Controversies in Private Policing
    Does It Work?
College Degrees for Cops
    Does It Work?

Chapter 4: Proactive Policing, Directed Patrol, and Recent Advancements
Proactive Arrests
    Proactive Arrests for High-Risk Repeat Offenders
    Proactive Arrests for Specific Offenses
         Targeting Drug Offenders
         Targeting Drunk Drivers
         Targeting Immigrants
    Does It Work?
Directed Patrol
    Classic Studies
    Lawrence Sherman and the Hot Spots
         Directed Patrol of Drug Hot Spots
         Directed Patrol of Gun Violence Hot Spots
    Stop, Question, and Frisk
         Stop, Question, and Frisk: Effects on Crime
    Does It Work?
Broken Windows and Disorder Reduction
    Fear, Disorder, and Crime
    Quality-of-Life Policing
         Micro-Level Research
         Macro-Level Research
    Disorder Reduction
    Missing the Boat on Broken Windows
    Does It Work?
Focused Deterrence
    Group Violence Reduction
    Does It Work?
    Police–Corrections Partnerships
         What Does the Research Show?
    Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces
    Military Partnerships and Militarization
         The Police–Military Connection
         Police Paramilitary Units
    Does It Work?
Technology and Less-Lethal Weapons
    Safely Ending Pursuits
    Crime Detection Devices
    Less-Lethal Weapons
         Conducted Energy Devices
    Does It Work?
Using Data to Inform Decisions
    Fusion Centers and Intelligence-Led Policing
    Predictive Policing
    Does It Work?

Chapter 5: Community Involvement in Policing
Fixing Strained Police-Community Relations
    Procedural Justice
    The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing
Community Justice
    Problem-Oriented Policing
Community Policing: Some History
    Reasons for Community Policing
Community Policing: What Is It?
    The Definition Problem Rears Its Head
Community Policing: Is It Really Happening?
    Structural Change
    Attitudinal Change
Research on Community Policing Effectiveness
    Moving the Police into the Community
         Citizen Contact Patrol
         Improving the Police Image
         Organizing Neighborhood Watch Programs
         Hosting Community Meetings
         Disseminating Crime Control Newsletters
         Storefronts and Substations
         Specialized Patrols
         Operation Identification
         Police-Sponsored Television and Websites
         Police in Schools
    Does It Work?
    Integrated Community Policing
         The Seattle Approach
         The Hartford Approach
    Does It Work?
    Bringing the Community to the Police
         Citizen Patrol
         Citizen Police Academies
    Does It Work?
Third-Party Policing
    Beyond the Criminal Law
    Some Examples of Third-Party Policing
    Does It Work?

Chapter 6: Prosecutors and Crime Control
The Shift Toward Strategic Prosecution
The Harder Side of Prosecution
    No-Drop Prosecution Policies
    Juvenile Waiver
         Raising the Age of Majority: A Retreat from Waiver?
    Police–Prosecution Partnerships
         Partnering to Reduce Gun Violence
    Federal–State Partnerships
         Richmond’s, Virginia, Project Exile
         Texas Exile
    Project Safe Neighborhoods
    Does It Work?
The Softer Side of Prosecution
    Victim Assistance
    Community Prosecution
         The Structure of Community Prosecution
         Nontraditional Restraining Orders
         Code Enforcement
         Nuisance Abatement
         Community Prosecution Research
    Deferred Prosecution
    Deferred Sentencing
    Does It Work?
A Plea Bargaining Pandemic?
    Arguments for and Against Plea Bargaining
    Attempts to Limit Plea Bargaining
    Ad Hoc Plea Bargaining
    Does It Work?


Chapter 7: Crime Control Through Legislation
Legislative Bans
    Where There’s a Demand, There’s a Supply
    Historical Lessons
         Gambling and Prostitution
    Bans and Their Enforcement
    Gun Bans
         Ban Specific Guns and Gun Possession
    Drug Bans
         The Scope of America’s Drug Problem
         Drug Ban Problems
    Does It Work?
Legislative Gun Controls
    Altering Gun Designs
    Regulating Gun Transactions
    Denying Gun Ownership to Dangerous Persons
    The Right-to-Carry Controversy
    Concealed Carry Laws
    Does It Work?
Public Notification and Related Laws
    Megan’s Law
         Legal Issues
         Effects on Crime
    Punitive Sanctions for Sex Offenders
    Sex Offender Residency Restrictions
    Does It Work?
Other Legislative Approaches
    White-Collar Crime Laws
    Does It Work?
    Antiterrorism Laws
         The USA Patriot Act
         The USA Freedom Act
    Does It Work?

Chapter 8: Crime Control in the Courts and Beyond
Courts and Incapacitation
    Pretrial Incapacitation
         Preventive Detention
         Setting Bail at a High Level
Does It Work?
    Examples of Programmatic Diversion
    Diversion Evaluations
Does It Work?
    A Brief History of Shaming
    Examples of Shaming Penalties
         Public Exposure Penalties
         Debasement Penalties
         Apology Penalties
         Reverse Burglary?
    Criticisms of Shaming
    Braithwaite’s Reintegrative Shaming
    Shaming and Recidivism
Does It Work?
Restorative Justice
    Examples of Restorative Justice
    What the Research Shows
Does It Work?
Antigang Injunctions
Does It Work?
Problem-Solving Courts
    Drug Courts
         Possible Limitations of Drug Courts
         The Empirical Evidence
    Domestic Violence Courts
         Therapeutic Jurisprudence
         A Domestic Violence Court in Operation
         The Evidence
    Community Courts
         The Midtown Community Court
         The Research
    Teen Courts
    Other Specialized Courts
         Homeless Courts
         Mental Health Courts
         Reentry Courts
Does It Work?

Chapter 9: Sentencing
Nonprison Sentences
    Traditional Fines
    Day Fines
    Does It Work?
Types of Prison Sentences
Prison Strategies Without Regard to Sentence Length
    Selective Incapacitation
    Civil Commitment
    More Prisoners, Less Crime?
    Less Prisoners, More Crime?
Supermax Prisons
    Does It Work?
Does Sentence Length Matter?
    Thinking About Various Types of Offenders
    Can Incarceration Cause Crime?
    Sentence Length and Crime
    Does It Work?
Determinate Sentencing
    The Hydraulic Displacement of Discretion
    Impact on Prison Populations
    Impact on Crime 
    Does It Work?
Sentence Enhancements
    Sentence Enhancements for Guns
         More on Deterrence
         More on Incapacitation
         State-Specific Research
         Multisite Research
    Sentence Enhancements for Hate-Motivated Offenses
    Does It Work?
Mandatory Sentencing
    A Life of Their Own?
    Mandatory Sentences for Drug Offenders
    Mandatory Sentences for Drunk Driving
    Mandatory Sentences for Persistent Offenders
    Three-Strikes Legislation
         The Supporters
         The Critics
         Some Legislative Details
         To Deter or Not To Deter
         Deterrence and Incapacitation
         Variations in Enforcement
         The Research
    Mandatory Death Sentences?
    Does It Work?
Capital Punishment
    Our Stubborn Adherence to Capital Punishment
    Does the Death Penalty Deter Crime?
    Does It Work?
    Methods of Castration
    European Origins
    California’s Law
    Effects on Recidivism
    Does It Work?

Chapter 10: Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions
The Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole
    Common Probation and Parole Conditions
Probation and Parole Issues
    To Serve or To Supervise
    Caseload Concerns
         Probation and Recidivism
         Parole and Recidivism
         Caseloads and Crime
    Offender Characteristics Over Time
    Are Parolees Equipped to Reenter Society?
    Consequences to Society of Prisoner Reentry
    Improving Probation and Parole
    Reentry Initiatives
    Does It Work?
Intermediate Sanctions
    The Net Widening Problem
    A Typology of Intermediate Sanctions
    Community Restraints
         Intensive Supervision Probation
         Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
         GPS Monitoring
    Structure and Discipline
         Adult Boot Camps
         Juvenile Boot Camps
    Hybrid Intermediate Sanctions
         Shock Probation
         Halfway Houses
         Day Reporting Centers
         Foster and Group Homes
         Scared Straight
    Does It Work?

Chapter 11: Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Job Training
A Movement Toward the Left
    Some Definitions
Criminals Are Not Created Equal
    Targeting Cognitive Skills
         Morals Training
         Reasoning Training
    Anger Management

    Improving Victim Awareness
    Life Skills Training
    Does It Work?
    Treating Drug Addicts
         In Prison

         Out of Prison
         Drug Testing and Treatment

    Treating Sex Offenders
         In Prison
         Out of Prison
         The Big Picture
    Does It Work?
    Does It Work?
Job Training
    The Employment–Crime Connection
    Job Training for Convicts
         Education as Job Training
         Vocational Training
         Correctional Industries
         Work Release
    Job Training for the General Population
    Housing Dispersal and Mobility Programs
    Does It Work?
More Lessons from Meta-Analysis


Chapter 12: Individual, Family, and Household Crime Control
Government May Still Be Involved
Individual Crime Control
    Guns and Personal Defense
         Measuring Gun Prevalence
         How Often Are Guns Used in Self-Defense?
         Debunking the “Good Guy to the Rescue” Narrative
         Gun Prevalence and Crime
         Anecdotal Accounts
         Armed Resistance and Crime Completion
         Armed Resistance and Victim Injury
         Do Criminals Care?
         Compensating Risks and Offsetting Behavior
         Guns and Accidental Deaths
         Comparing the United States to Other Nations
         A Gun in Every Home?
    Risk-Avoidance Behaviors
         Characteristics of Victims
         Research Complications
    Risk-Management Behaviors
         Self-Defense Training
         Forceful Resistance
         Nonforceful Resistance
    Does It Work?
Household and Family Crime Control
    The Aim of Crime Control in Households and Families
    How Families Influence Delinquency and Youth Victimization
    Varieties of Crime Control in Households and Families
         Parent Training and Education
         Family Preservation Therapy
         Multisystemic Therapy
         Financial Assistance to Families
    Does It Work?

Chapter 13: Crime Control in the Community and in Schools
Community Crime Control
    What Is Community?
    The Social Ecology of Crime
         Mobility and Change
         Racial Composition
         Population Density
         More on Families
         Social Disorganization and Collective Efficacy
         Concentrated Disadvantage
         Communities and Crime: A Two-Way Relationship?
    Financial Assistance to Communities
         Enterprise Zones
         Community Development Block Grants
         Community Investment Programs
         Justice Reinvestment
    Other Methods of Community Crime Control
         Mobilizing Residents
         Antigang Initiatives
         Youth Mentoring
         After-School Programs
         Publicity Campaigns
    Does It Work?
School-Based Crime Control
    Crime in Schools
    The Role of Schools in Crime Control
    The Role of the Government in School-Based Crime Control
    Targeting the School Environment

         Building Administrative Capacity
         Normative Education
         Managing Classrooms and Education
         Separate Classrooms for At-Risk Youths
    Targeting Students
         Instructional Interventions
         Drug Abuse Resistance Education
         Gang Resistance Education
         Behavior Modification
         Other Methods of Crime Control in Schools
    Does It Work?

Chapter 14: Reducing Criminal Opportunities Through Environmental Manipulation
Some Perspective
A Quick Return to Theory
    Rational Offenders
    Crime Pattern Theory
    Territorial Functioning and Defensible Space
    The Return of the Broken Windows Theory
How Environmental Manipulation Occurs
    Access Control
    Activity Support
    Motivation Reinforcement
The Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulation
    Residential Areas
         Areas Surrounding Residences
         Comprehensive Approaches
    Life Behind the Wall: Gated Communities
    Does It Work?
         Bars and Taverns
    Does It Work?

         Public Transit
    Does It Work?
    Other Places
         Parking Garages
         Open Spaces
         Parking Meters and Public Phones
    Does It Work?


Chapter 15: Putting It All Together and Explaining Crime Trends
A Quick Review
    Effective Crime Control
Three Important Themes
    Beyond the Justice System
    Early Intervention Is Key to Success
    More Research Is Needed
Explaining Crime Trends
    Liberal Explanations
         Economic Conditions
         Demographic Shifts
         Citizen Attitudes
         Family Conditions
         Gun Control
    Conservative Explanations
         More and Better Policing
         More Prisoners
         Other Criminal Justice Policies
         More Concealed Weapons Permits
         More Capital Punishment
    Other Explanations
         Cultural Shifts
         Waning of the Crack Epidemic
         Legalization of Abortion

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