Crime Victims : An Introduction to Victimology

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1995-11-02
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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CRIME VICTIMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO VICTIMOLOGY is a innovative and comprehensive guide that offers balanced coverage on this controversial subject. A must-have for anyone interested in this field!

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
The Rediscovery of Crime Victims and the Rise of Victimology
The Discovery, Decline, and Rediscovery of Crime Victimsp. 2
The Discovery of Crime Victimsp. 2
The Decline of Crime Victimsp. 2
The Rediscovery of Crime Victimsp. 4
Social Movements: Taking Up the Victims' Causep. 4
The News Media: Portraying the Victim's Plightp. 7
Businesses: Selling Products and Services to Victimsp. 7
The Rise of Victimologyp. 8
The Emergence of a New Focusp. 8
Highlights in the Brief History of Victimology and Victim Assistancep. 10
The Need for Objectivityp. 12
Victimology Compared to Criminologyp. 20
What Victimologists Dop. 23
Identify, Define, and Describe the Problemp. 24
Measure the True Dimensions of the Problemp. 24
Investigate How Victims Are Handledp. 25
Gather Evidence to Test Hypothesesp. 26
Victimology Contributes to the Process of Rediscovering Victimsp. 26
The Kinds of Studies Victimologists Undertakep. 27
Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problemp. 28
Winning Victories, Implementing Reformsp. 30
Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changesp. 31
Research and Temporary Resolution of the Disputep. 32
The Continuing Process of Rediscoveryp. 32
Groups of Victims That Have Been Recently Rediscoveredp. 34
Chapter Summaryp. 38
Discussion Questionsp. 39
Digging Up the Facts About Crime Victims
Crime in the Streets: The Big Picturep. 42
The Use and Abuse of Statisticsp. 42
A Closer Look at the Two Official Sources of Victimization Datap. 46
The Uniform Crime Reportp. 47
The National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 49
Comparing the UCR and the NCVSp. 52
Using Data to Bring the Big Picture Into Focusp. 53
Searching for Crime Waves: Detecting Victimization Trendsp. 57
Changes Over Time in Violent Crime Ratesp. 57
Checking Out Whether More Robberies Are Turning into Murdersp. 61
"Your Money or Your Life"p. 63
Using the UCR to Analyze Murdersp. 64
Murderers and Their Victimsp. 64
Using the NCVS to Analyze Robberiesp. 66
Robbers and Their Victimsp. 66
Findings From the NCVS That Shed Light on Robberiesp. 68
Making International Comparisonsp. 71
Comparing the Murder Rates in Different Societiesp. 72
Assessing Comparative Risksp. 73
Putting Crime Into Perspectivep. 73
Uncovering Victimization Patternsp. 76
Recognizing Differential Risksp. 76
Differential Risks of Being Murderedp. 77
Differential Risks of Being Robbedp. 79
Projecting Cumulative Risksp. 81
Estimating Lifetime Likelihoodsp. 81
Chapter Summaryp. 83
Discussion Questionsp. 84
The Victims' Contribution to the Crime Problem
The Search for Risk Factorsp. 87
The Determinants of Differential Risksp. 88
Reducing Risks: How Safe Is Safe Enough?p. 93
From Crime Prevention to Victimization Preventionp. 94
Ambivalence About Risk Takingp. 96
Deterrence Theory As Applied to Victimsp. 97
The Controversy Over Shared Responsibilityp. 98
Expressions of Support for Inquiries Into the Victim's Rolep. 99
Victim Facilitation, Precipitation, and Provocationp. 101
Victim Facilitationp. 101
Victim Precipitation and Provocationp. 104
The Frequency of Shared Responsibility in Violent Crimesp. 106
Recognizing Complete Innocence and Full Responsibilityp. 107
Typologies of Shared Responsibilityp. 107
A Typology of Auto Theft Victimsp. 108
Victim Blaming Versus Victim Defendingp. 110
Victim Facilitation and Auto Theft: Is It the Careless Who Wind Up Carless?p. 113
Criticisms of the Notion of Shared Responsibilityp. 114
Blaming the Victim for Facilitating the Crimep. 117
Examples of "Motorist Blaming"p. 118
Victim Precipitation and Rape: Was It Somehow Her Fault?p. 119
Victim-Blaming Viewsp. 122
Victim-Defending Perspectivesp. 124
Victim Provocation and Murder: When Is the Slaying of a Wife Beater Justified?p. 125
Arguments Stressing That the Brutal Men Did Not Deserve to Diep. 127
Arguments Emphasizing That the Brutal Men Provoked the Lethal Responsesp. 129
Transcending Victim Blaming and Victim Defendingp. 132
The Legal Importance of Determining Responsibilityp. 134
Prof Calls for Crackdown on Crime Victimsp. 135
Chapter Summaryp. 137
Discussion Questionsp. 138
Victims and the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation and Conflict
Victims Versus the Criminal Justice Systemp. 140
Criticisms of the Way the Criminal Justice System Handles Victimsp. 141
What Do Victims Want: Punishment? Treatment? or Restitution?p. 142
The System's Shortcomings From a Victim's Point of Viewp. 143
Victims and the Policep. 148
Reporting Incidentsp. 148
Responding Quicklyp. 151
Investigating Complaintsp. 152
Judging Complaints to Be Unfoundedp. 154
Arresting Suspectsp. 156
Recovering Stolen Propertyp. 160
Victims and Prosecutorsp. 161
Assisting Victims and Other Witnesses for the Statep. 162
Protecting Victims Serving as Witnesses for the Prosecutionp. 164
Dismissing Charges and Rejecting Casesp. 167
Negotiating Pleasp. 169
Victims and Defense Attorneysp. 171
Postponing Hearingsp. 171
Cross-examining Witnesses During Trialsp. 172
Victims and Judgesp. 174
Granting Bailp. 174
Sentencing Offendersp. 175
Appealing to the Supreme Courtp. 178
Supreme Court Decisions Directly Affecting Victimsp. 179
Victims and Corrections Officialsp. 180
Contacting Parole Boardsp. 181
And Justice for Allp. 183
Recognizing "Second-class" Treatmentp. 183
Which Victims Get Better Treatment?p. 185
Chapter Summaryp. 186
Discussion Questionsp. 186
Special Kinds of Victims: Problems and Solutions
Missing Childrenp. 189
Estimates of the Incidence and the Seriousness of the Problemp. 190
Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children Problemp. 191
How Often Are Children Kidnapped, and What Happens to Them?p. 194
Hunting for Children Who Have Vanishedp. 194
Victimization Prevention Measuresp. 197
Physically and Sexually Abused Childrenp. 198
The Rediscovery of Child Abusep. 198
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Child Abusep. 201
More Controversies Surrounding Childhood Sexual Abusep. 205
Accusations Made During Divorce Proceedings and Custody Battlesp. 205
The Furor Over Recalling Repressed Memories of Childhood Sexual Abusep. 206
Strange Allegations of Ritualistic Abuse by Satanic Cultsp. 210
Abused Children and Legal Proceedingsp. 211
Taking the Best Interests of the Child Into Accountp. 212
Handling Charges of Abusep. 212
Children as Witnessesp. 213
Proactive Versus Reactive Strategiesp. 217
More Casualties of Domestic Violencep. 218
Abuse of Adolescents by Parentsp. 218
Abuse of Parents by Adolescentsp. 219
Sibling Abusep. 219
Elder Abusep. 219
Violence Between Intimatesp. 221
The Rediscovery of Wife Beatingp. 221
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Spouse Abusep. 224
Aiding Victims Who Feel Trappedp. 229
Battered Women and the Criminal Justice System: Violence Is Violence, or Is It?p. 231
The Police Responsep. 233
The Prosecutorial Responsep. 234
The Judicial Responsep. 235
Preventing Batteringp. 236
The Rediscovery of Other Victims of Beatingsp. 237
Battering Within Same-Sex Relationshipsp. 237
The Controversy Surrounding Battered Husbandsp. 238
Victims of Sexual Assaultp. 239
The Rediscovery of the Plight of Rape Victimsp. 239
"Real Rapes" and "Date Rapes"p. 240
The Consequences of Being Sexually Assaultedp. 242
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Rapep. 243
The Controversy Over Date Rape on College Campusesp. 248
How the Criminal Justice System Handles Rape Victimsp. 250
The Controversy Over Unfounded Accusationsp. 251
The Accuser Versus the Accusedp. 254
Rape Shield Lawsp. 255
Force and Resistancep. 256
Corroborationp. 257
Arrest, Prosecution, and Adjudicationp. 258
Crisis Centers: Providing Emergency Assistancep. 259
Unwanted Publicity and Negative Media Portrayalsp. 260
Reducing the Threat of Rapep. 262
The Rediscovery of More Rape Victimsp. 263
Wives Raped by Their Husbandsp. 263
Sexually Assaulted Malesp. 263
Chapter Summaryp. 265
Discussion Questionsp. 265
Repaying Victims
Gaining Restitution From Offendersp. 268
Back to Basicsp. 268
The Rise, Fall, and Revival of Restitutionp. 269
Divergent Goals, Clashing Philosophiesp. 273
Restitution as a Means of Repaying Victimsp. 273
Restitution as a Means of Rehabilitating Offendersp. 274
Restitution as a Means of Reconciling Offenders and Their Victimsp. 274
Restitution as a Means of Punishing Offendersp. 275
Opportunities Versus Obstaclesp. 275
Evaluating Restitution Programsp. 280
Winning Judgments in Civil Courtp. 281
The Revival of Interest in Civil Lawsuitsp. 281
The Litigation Processp. 282
Possibilities and Pitfallsp. 283
Collecting Damages From Third Partiesp. 286
Suing Private Enterprisesp. 287
Suing Government Bodiesp. 288
Collecting Insurance Reimbursementsp. 290
Private Crime Insurancep. 290
Patterns of Loss, Recovery, and Reimbursementp. 291
Federal Crime Insurancep. 291
Recovering Losses by Turning to Compensation Programsp. 292
Reimbursement From Government Fundsp. 292
The History of Victim Compensation by Governmentsp. 293
The Debate Over Compensation in the United Statesp. 294
How Programs Operate: Similarities and Differencesp. 297
Monitoring and Evaluating Compensation Programsp. 299
Uncovering How Programs Workp. 299
Measuring the Effects of Programsp. 301
Confiscating Profits From Notorious Criminalsp. 303
Chapter Summaryp. 304
Discussion Questionsp. 305
Victims in the 21st Century: Alternative Directions
Toward Greater Formal Legal Rights Within the Criminal Justice Systemp. 308
Rights Gained at the Expense of Offendersp. 311
Rights Gained at the Expense of the Systemp. 313
Rights Gained at the Expense of Either Offenders or the System or Bothp. 313
Toward Restorative Justicep. 319
Peacemakingp. 319
How Reconciliation Programs Workp. 324
Evaluating Efforts at Reconciliationp. 326
Pros and Cons From the Victim's Point of Viewp. 327
Toward Retaliatory Justicep. 330
Vigilantism's Frontier Originsp. 331
Vigilantism Versus Legitimate Use of Force in Self-defensep. 333
Would Potential Victims Be Better Off If They Were Armed?p. 334
The Drift Back Toward Retaliatory Violencep. 338
Chapter Summaryp. 344
Discussion Questionsp. 345
Referencesp. 347
Appendixp. 389
Name Indexp. 393
Subject Indexp. 401
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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