Criminal Justice : The Essentials

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-08-09
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Criminal Justice: The Essentials is an innovative alternative to large, overwhelming texts that attempt to cover every conceivable issue, a goal that cannot realistically be accomplished in a single academic term. Ideal for introductory courses in criminal justice, this volume covers all the fundamental issues faced by law enforcement, the courts, corrections, and juvenile justice, but leaves detailed specifics and tangential topics to the discretion of instructors to cover in class. This approach provides instructors with a great deal of flexibility in orienting their courses, as they can use whatever supplementary materials they feel are most suitable. Each chapter covers the background, current issues and problems, and operational challenges of the subject area. All important materials are incorporated into the normal flow of the text, with abundant examples, but a minimum of sidebars and "highlights." Therefore, students are not forced to sift through encyclopedic amounts of material in order to determine what is the most significant, since only the essentials are presented. Timely data and current examples sustain student interest. The text is also supplemented by a Companion Website and an Instructor's Manual.

Author Biography

Steven P. Lab, Chair, Director, and Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice Marian R. Williams, Associate Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice Jefferson E. Holcomb, Assistant Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice Melissa W. Burek, Assistant Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice William R. King, Associate Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice Michael E. Buerger, Associate Professor in Bowling Green State University's Department of Criminal Justice

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Crime, Criminal Justice, and Policyp. 1
Key Wordsp. 1
What Is Crime?p. 1
Measuring Crimep. 3
Official Statisticsp. 4
Self-Report Statisticsp. 5
Victimization Studiesp. 6
Criminal Justice System Policyp. 7
What Is Policy?p. 8
Criminal Justice System Philosophyp. 9
The Classical Schoolp. 10
The Positivist Schoolp. 10
Retributionp. 11
Deterrencep. 11
Rehabilitationp. 13
Incapacitationp. 13
A System of Checks and Balancesp. 14
Individual Liberty Versus Societal Civilityp. 14
Crime Control Versus Due Processp. 15
Other Competing Ideologiesp. 15
A Loosely Coupled Systemp. 16
The Four Cs of the Criminal Justice System (Citizens, Cops, Courts, and Corrections)p. 17
Citizensp. 17
Copsp. 19
Courtsp. 20
Correctionsp. 20
Recent Trends in Criminal Justicep. 21
Conclusionp. 24
Issues of Lawp. 27
Key Wordsp. 27
History of Law in the United Statesp. 28
Sources of Law in the United Statesp. 29
Constitutionsp. 29
Legislativep. 30
Executivep. 30
Judicialp. 30
Substantive Lawp. 31
Types of Crimesp. 34
Crimes Against the Personp. 34
Crimes Against Propertyp. 34
Crimes Against Public Orderp. 37
Drug Offensesp. 38
White-Collar Offensesp. 38
Defenses to Criminal Liabilityp. 40
Justificationp. 40
Mental Capacityp. 41
Recent Trends in Substantive Criminal Lawp. 43
Fetal Protection Legislationp. 43
Cybercrimep. 44
Procedural Lawp. 45
U.S. Constitutionp. 45
Incorporationp. 52
Recent Trends in Procedural Criminal Lawp. 54
Conclusionp. 55
Policing and Law Enforcementp. 57
Key Wordsp. 57
Law Enforcementp. 59
Order Maintenancep. 60
Servicep. 61
Structurep. 62
Localp. 62
Sheriffp. 62
County Policep. 63
Constablesp. 63
Special Policep. 63
Statep. 64
Federalp. 64
Tribalp. 66
Private Policep. 67
Organizationp. 68
Sworn Versus Civilianp. 68
Specializationp. 68
Geographyp. 69
Timep. 70
Police Work and Career Pathsp. 71
The Hiring Processp. 72
Field Trainingp. 73
Promotionp. 73
Historical Backgroundp. 75
The American Experiencep. 79
Political Erap. 79
Professional Erap. 80
Community Policing Erap. 81
Enduring Elements and Issuesp. 87
Police Subculturep. 87
Police Corruptionp. 88
Harassmentp. 89
Improper Use of Force and Police Brutalityp. 90
The Blue Wall of Silencep. 92
Policing the Policep. 92
Special Constituenciesp. 93
Future Issuesp. 94
Conclusionp. 96
The Court Systemp. 97
Key Wordsp. 97
Basic Tenets of the Court Systemp. 98
History of the Courtsp. 100
History of Federal Courtsp. 101
History of State Courtsp. 106
Actors in the Court Systemp. 110
Judgesp. 110
Prosecutorsp. 114
Defense Attorneysp. 115
Other Court Actorsp. 118
Movement of Cases Through the Court Systemp. 119
Initial Stages to Formal Chargingp. 119
Trialp. 126
Sentencingp. 127
Appealsp. 131
Trends in the Court Systemp. 132
Specialized Courtsp. 132
Increased Victim Involvementp. 134
Conclusionp. 135
Institutional Correctionsp. 137
Key Wordsp. 137
History of Punishmentp. 138
Eras of Punishmentp. 139
The Era of the Penitentiaryp. 139
The Era of Reformp. 140
The Era of Industryp. 141
The Era of Rehabilitationp. 142
The Era of Retributionp. 144
Size and Costs of Imprisonmentp. 144
Jailsp. 147
Modern Prisonsp. 149
Prison Typesp. 149
Custody and Security Within Institutionsp. 153
Prison Violence and Prison Disciplinep. 154
Prison Lifep. 155
Special Offender Populationsp. 157
Inmates and HIV/AIDSp. 157
Inmates and Substance Usep. 159
Aging and Elderly Inmatesp. 160
Inmates and Mental Illnessp. 161
Problems, Rights, and Implications in Modern Prisonsp. 163
Inmate Rightsp. 164
Crowdingp. 165
Violencep. 166
Inmate Subculturesp. 167
Solutionsp. 168
Future Directions for Institutional Correctionsp. 169
Conclusionp. 171
Community Correctionsp. 173
Key Wordsp. 173
History of Community Correctionsp. 174
Contemporary Community Correctionsp. 178
Community Supervisionp. 184
Offender Responsibilitiesp. 184
Officer Responsibilitiesp. 185
Supervision Violationsp. 186
Probation and Intermediate Sanctionsp. 187
Probationp. 187
Intermediate Sanctionsp. 189
The Effectiveness of Probation and Intermediate Sanctionsp. 199
Postrelease Supervision and Reintegrationp. 202
Types of Releasep. 202
Prisoner Reentry and Reintegrationp. 203
Conclusionp. 206
The Juvenile Justice Systemp. 209
Key Wordsp. 209
The Development of Juvenile Justicep. 210
The Growth of Juvenile Institutionsp. 211
The Juvenile Courtp. 212
The Philosophy of the Systemp. 213
Defining Delinquencyp. 215
Measuring Delinquencyp. 219
Official Arrest Recordsp. 219
Self-Report Measuresp. 220
The Juvenile Court Processp. 221
Detentionp. 222
The Intake Decisionp. 225
The Transfer (or Waiver) Decisionp. 226
Adjudicationp. 229
Dispositionp. 230
Due Process for Juvenilesp. 231
Institutional Correctionsp. 235
Institutional and Residential Interventionsp. 236
Alternative Residential Interventionsp. 238
Deinstitutionalizationp. 240
Community Interventionsp. 241
Probationp. 241
Aftercarep. 242
Issues in Supervisionp. 242
Special Topicsp. 244
Gangsp. 244
Restorative Justicep. 247
Capital Punishment and Juvenilesp. 248
Calls to Eliminate the Juvenile Systemp. 249
Conclusionp. 250
Glossaryp. 251
Referencesp. 283
Indexp. 297
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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