Criminalistics : An Introduction to Forensic Science

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-01-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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Written by a very well-known authority in forensic science, this book introduces the non-scientific reader to the field of forensic science. Through applications to criminal investigations, clear explanations of the techniques, and the abilities and limitations of modern crime labs,Criminalisticscovers the comprehensive realm of forensics. The book strives to make the technology of the modern crime laboratory clear to the non-scientist. Combining case stories with applicable technology,Criminalisticscaptures the excitement of forensic science investigations.Familiarizes readers with the most current technologies in forensic analysis.KEYAims at making the subject of forensic science comprehensible to a wide variety of readers who are planning on being aligned with the forensic science profession.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
About the Authorp. xvi
Introductionp. 2
Definition and Scope of Forensic Sciencep. 4
History and Development of Forensic Sciencep. 5
Organization of a Crime Laboratoryp. 10
Services of the Crime Laboratoryp. 13
Functions of the Forensic Scientistp. 16
Other Forensic Science Servicesp. 21
Chapter Summaryp. 25
Review Questionsp. 26
Further Referencesp. 28
Case Study: Detection of Curare in the Jascalevich Murder Trialp. 29
The Crime Scenep. 36
Processing the Crime Scenep. 38
Legal Considerations at the Crime Scenep. 55
Chapter Summaryp. 56
Review Questionsp. 57
Further Referencesp. 58
Case Study: The Enrique Camarena Case: A Forensic Nightmarep. 59
Physical Evidencep. 68
Common Types of Physical Evidencep. 70
The Significance of Physical Evidencep. 72
Forensic Databasesp. 79
Crime Scene Reconstructionp. 83
Chapter Summaryp. 84
Review Questionsp. 86
Further Referencesp. 86
Case Study: Fiber Evidence and the Wayne William Trialp. 87
Physical Properties: Glass and Soilp. 98
The Metric Systemp. 100
Physical Propertiesp. 102
Comparing Glass Fragmentsp. 109
Glass Fracturesp. 116
Collection and Preservation of Glass Evidencep. 118
Forensic Characteristics of Soilp. 119
Collection and Preservation of Soil Evidencep. 122
Chapter Summaryp. 123
Review Questionsp. 124
Further Referencesp. 125
Organic Analysisp. 126
Elements and Compoundsp. 128
Selecting an Analytical Techniquep. 132
Chromatographyp. 133
Spectrophotometryp. 144
Mass Spectrometryp. 150
Chapter Summaryp. 154
Review Questionsp. 155
Further Referencesp. 157
Inorganic Analysisp. 158
Evidence in the Assassination of President Kennedyp. 162
The Emission Spectrum of Elementsp. 164
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometerp. 167
The Origin of Emission and Absorption Spectrap. 169
Neutron Activation Analysisp. 171
X-Ray Diffractionp. 174
Chapter Summaryp. 175
Review Questionsp. 176
Further Referencesp. 177
The Microscopep. 178
The Compound Microscopep. 182
The Comparison Microscopep. 184
The Stereoscopic Microscopep. 186
The Polarizing Microscopep. 188
The Microspectrophotometerp. 189
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)p. 192
Chapter Summaryp. 195
Review Questionsp. 196
Further Referencesp. 197
Case Study: Microscopic Trace Evidence-The Overlooked Cluep. 198
Hairs, Fibers, and Paintp. 206
Morphology of Hairp. 208
Identification and Comparison of Hairp. 212
Collection and Preservation of Hair Evidencep. 218
Types of Fibersp. 219
Identification and Comparison of Manufactured Fibersp. 224
Collection and Preservation of Fiber Evidencep. 231
Forensic Examination of Paintp. 232
Collection and Preservation of Paint Evidencep. 239
Chapter Summaryp. 242
Review Questionsp. 243
Further Referencesp. 245
Drugsp. 246
Drug Dependencep. 248
Narcotic Drugsp. 251
Hallucinogensp. 254
Depressantsp. 259
Stimulantsp. 260
Club Drugsp. 263
Anabolic Steroidsp. 264
Drug-Control Lawsp. 265
Drug Identificationp. 268
Collection and Preservation of Drug Evidencep. 273
Chapter Summaryp. 274
Review Questionsp. 275
Further Referencesp. 277
Forensic Toxicologyp. 278
Toxicology of Alcoholp. 281
The Role of the Toxicologistp. 297
Techniques Used in Toxicologyp. 298
The Significance of Toxicological Findingsp. 302
The Drug Recognition Expertp. 303
Chapter Summaryp. 306
Review Questionsp. 307
Further Referencesp. 309
Forensic Aspects of Arson and Explosion Investigationsp. 310
The Chemistry of Firep. 312
Searching the Fire Scenep. 318
Collection and Preservation of Arson Evidencep. 321
Analysis of Flammable Residuesp. 323
Types of Explosivesp. 327
Collection and Analysis of Explosivesp. 332
Chapter Summaryp. 340
Review Questionsp. 341
Further Referencesp. 342
Forensic Serologyp. 344
The Nature of Bloodp. 347
Immunoassay Techniquesp. 350
Forensic Characterization of Bloodstainsp. 352
Stain Patterns of Bloodp. 359
Principles of Heredityp. 364
Forensic Characterization of Semenp. 367
Collection of Rape Evidencep. 371
Chapter Summaryp. 376
Review Questionsp. 377
Further Referencesp. 379
DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Toolp. 380
What Is DNA?p. 382
DNA at Workp. 385
Replication of DNAp. 387
Recombinant DNA: Cutting and Splicing DNAp. 388
DNA Typingp. 390
Mitochondrial DNAp. 403
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)p. 410
Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Analysisp. 411
Chapter Summaryp. 417
Review Questionsp. 418
Further Referencesp. 420
Case Study: The Forensic Community's Response to September 11p. 421
Fingerprintsp. 426
History of Fingerprintingp. 428
Fundamental Principles of Fingerprintsp. 430
Classification of Fingerprintsp. 435
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systemsp. 436
Methods of Detecting Fingerprintsp. 440
Preservation of Developed Printsp. 451
Digital Imaging for Fingerprint Enhancementp. 452
Chapter Summaryp. 454
Review Questionsp. 455
Further Referencesp. 457
Firearms, Tool Marks, and Other Impressionsp. 458
Bullet Comparisonsp. 460
Cartridge Casesp. 467
Automated Firearms Search Systemsp. 468
Gunpowder Residuesp. 471
Primer Residues on the Handsp. 475
Serial Number Restorationp. 478
Collection and Preservation of Firearms Evidencep. 479
Tool Marksp. 481
Other Impressionsp. 484
Chapter Summaryp. 492
Review Questionsp. 493
Further Referencesp. 494
Document and Voice Examinationp. 496
Handwriting Comparisonsp. 498
Collection of Handwriting Exemplarsp. 501
Typescript Comparisonsp. 502
Photocopier, Printer, and Fax Examinationp. 504
Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterationsp. 505
Other Document Problemsp. 510
Voice Examinationp. 515
Chapter Summaryp. 519
Review Questionsp. 520
Further Referencesp. 521
Computer Forensicsp. 522
From Input to Output: How Does the Computer Work?p. 525
Putting It All Togetherp. 529
How Data Is Storedp. 530
Processing the Electronic Crime Scenep. 532
Evidentiary Datap. 536
Chapter Summaryp. 544
Review Questionsp. 544
Further Referencesp. 545
Computer Forensic Analysis Answers the Question "Arson or Accident?"p. 546
Counterfeiting and Fraud: A Forensic Computer Investigationp. 548
Forensic Science and the Internetp. 550
What Is the Internet?p. 552
Where to Go on the Internetp. 555
Exploring Forensic Science on the World Wide Webp. 561
Websites You May Wish to Explorep. 563
Forensic Analysis of Internet Datap. 564
Forensic Investigation of Internet Communicationsp. 566
Hackingp. 569
Chapter Summaryp. 570
Review Questionsp. 571
Further Referencesp. 571
The Futurep. 572
Case Readingsp. 581
Guides to the Collection of Physical Evidence-FBIp. 611
Instructions for Collecting Gunshot Residue (GSR)p. 627
Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Parameters for Figures Contained in the Textp. 627
Chemical Formulas for Latent Fingerprint Developmentp. 630
Chemical Formulas for Development of Footwear Impressions in Bloodp. 635
Answersp. 639
Indexp. 643
Photo Creditsp. 653
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