Critical Ethnography : Method, Ethics, and Performance

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-13
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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Critical Ethnography, Second Edition#xA0;presents a fresh new look at critical ethnography by emphasizing the significance of ethics and performance in the art and politics of fieldwork. The productive links between theory and method are celebrated in this text. Theoretical concepts range from queer theory, feminist theory, and critical race theory to Marxism and phenomenology. The methodological techniques range from designing and asking in-depth interview questions and developing rapport to coding and interpreting data. The various theories and methods culminate in three fictional ethnographic case studies that "enact" the interdependence between theory and method and the significance of social theory, ethics, and performance.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introduction to Critical Ethnography: Theory and Methodp. 1
Defining Terms: What Is the Critical in Critical Ethnography?p. 5
Dialogue and Othersp. 10
The Method and Theory Nexusp. 13
Summaryp. 15
Warm-Upsp. 17
Methods: "Do I Really Need a Method?" A Method ... or Deep Hanging Out?p. 19
"Who Am I?" Starting Where You Arep. 21
"Who Else Has Written About My Topic?" Being a Part of an Interpretive Communityp. 22
The Power of Purpose: Bracketing Your Subjectp. 22
Preparing for the Field: The Research Design and Lay Summaryp. 24
The Research Designp. 24
The Lay Summaryp. 25
Interviewing and Field Techniquesp. 27
Formulating Questionsp. 28
Two Classic Modelsp. 29
One: The Patton Modelp. 29
Two: The Spradley Modelp. 31
Extra Tips for Formulating Questionsp. 33
More Modelsp. 33
Initial Brainstorming and Puzzlementsp. 33
Memory and the Oral History Interviewp. 34
Langellier and Peterson's Four Entry Points of Analysisp. 37
Attributes of the Interviewer and Building Rapportp. 39
Mindful Rapportp. 39
Anticipationp. 39
Positive Na´venessp. 39
Active Thinking and Sympathetic Listeningp. 40
Status Differencep. 40
Patiently Probingp. 40
Classic "Threats"p. 41
Coding and Logging Datap. 43
An Alternative View: Amira De La Garza and the Four Seasons of Ethnographyp. 45
Summaryp. 49
Warm-Upsp. 49
Three Stories: Case Studies in Critical Ethnographyp. 51
Local Activism in West Africap. 52
Key Concepts in Postcolonial and Marxist Theoryp. 52
Key Concepts in Postcolonialismp. 55
Key Concepts in Marxist Thoughtp. 62
Secrets, Sexuality, and Oral Historyp. 67
Key Concepts in Phenomenologyp. 70
Subjectivity and Belongingp. 73
Biopolitics and Affectp. 75
Key Concepts in Sexualityp. 77
Community Theatre: Conflicts and Organizationp. 81
Key Concepts in Theories of Difference: Racep. 84
Key Concepts in Theories of Difference: Genderp. 89
Problems of Gender in the Field: "Women Like Us and Women Not Like Us"p. 91
Warm-Upsp. 93
Ethicsp. 95
Ethics Is ...p. 96
Advocacy and Ethicsp. 97
Religion and Ethicsp. 102
Interview With Desmond Tutup. 102
The Question of Freedomp. 107
Critical Ethnography and the Ethics of Reason, the Greater Good, and Othersp. 109
Reasonp. 109
The Greater Goodp. 111
Maria Lugones: Contemporary Ethics, Ethnography, and Loving Perceptionp. 118
World Traveling and Loving Perceptionp. 118
Summaryp. 123
Warm-Upsp. 125
Methods and Ethicsp. 127
Codes of Ethics for Fieldworkp. 128
Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Associationp. 128
Extending the Codesp. 137
Moral Dilemmasp. 137
Conceptual Errorsp. 140
Dialogical Performancep. 142
Warm-Upsp. 146
Methods and Application: Three Case Studies in Ethical Dilemmasp. 147
Local Activism in West Africap. 147
Advocacy, Representation, and Voicep. 147
Method and Advocacyp. 151
Secrets, Sexuality, and Oral Historyp. 155
Trust, Confidentiality, and Informed Consentp. 155
Method and Confidentialityp. 158
Community Theatre: Conflicts and Organizationp. 160
Fairness, Critical Judgment, and Policy Implicationsp. 160
Method and Criticismp. 161
Warm-Upsp. 163
Performance Ethnographyp. 165
Foundational Concepts in Performance and Social Theoryp. 166
Performance as Experiencep. 166
Performance as Social Behaviorp. 168
Performance as Language and Identityp. 177
Performativityp. 179
Utopian Performativesp. 182
The Performance Interventions of Dwight Conquergoodp. 184
Process and Performancep. 184
The Body and Scriptocentrismp. 185
Dialogical Performancep. 186
Cultural Politicsp. 187
Staging Ethnography and the Performance of Possibilitiesp. 190
The Subjectsp. 191
The Audiencep. 193
The Performersp. 195
Autoethnography and/or Reflexive Ethnographyp. 197
Three Examples of Critical Reflexivity in Autoethnographyp. 199
Warm-Upsp. 208
It's Time to Write: Writing as Performancep. 209
Getting Started: In Search of the Musep. 210
Research Questions and Statement of Purposep. 211
The Muse Map and the Road Mapp. 211
Schedules and Time Managementp. 213
First Draft and Free Writingp. 216
The Anxiety of Writing: Wild Mind and Monkey Mindp. 217
Continents, Islands, and the Editorp. 218
Writing as Performance and Performance as Writingp. 220
Performative Writing Is to Embracep. 220
Performative Writing Is to Enactp. 223
Performative Writing Is to Embodyp. 227
Performative Writing Is to Effectp. 230
Warm-Upsp. 232
The Case Studiesp. 233
Staging Cultural Performancep. 233
Why Did Joan Choose to Adopt and Direct a Cultural Performance From Her Fieldwork?p. 234
How Did Joan Translate Her Fieldwork to the Stage? What Was Her Process?p. 234
What Stage Techniques Did Joan Adapt?p. 235
Did Joan Encourage a Collaborative Process in Directing the Performance?p. 237
Could Joan Have Employed a More Collaborative Approach?p. 238
Oral History and Performancep. 238
What Is Poetic Transcription?p. 239
Did Robert's Theoretical Analysis Threaten to Diminish the Living Voices and Perspectives of His Narrators?p. 242
The Fieldwork of Social Drama and Communitasp. 243
When Did the Breach Occur?p. 244
How Did the Crisis Evolve?p. 244
What Form Did Redressive Action Take?p. 245
How Did Communitas Invoke Reintegration?p. 246
Warm-Upsp. 248
Referencesp. 249
Indexp. 271
About the Authorp. 285
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