9780803973244

Culture's Consequences : Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780803973244

  • ISBN10:

    0803973241

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-02-08
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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Summary

Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation.

Table of Contents

From the Preface to the First Edition (1980) xv
Preface to the Second Edition xvii
Summary of the Book xix
1. Values and Culture 1(35)
Summary of This Chapter
1(1)
Definitions and Distinctions
1(14)
Mental Programs
1(3)
Describing Mental Programs in Measurable Terms
4(1)
Values
5(2)
Measuring Values
7(2)
Culture
9(2)
National Cultures and Their Stability
11(2)
National Character and National Stereotypes
13(2)
Cultural Relativism
15(1)
Studying Culture
15(9)
Comparing Cultures: Changing the Level of Analysis
15(2)
Avoiding Ethnocentrism
17(2)
The Need for a Multidisciplinary Approach
19(2)
Language and Translation
21(2)
Matching Samples: Functional Equivalence
23(1)
Modal and Marginal Phenomena
24(1)
Dimensions of Culture
24(10)
The Specific and the General
24(2)
Searching for Dimensions of Culture
26(2)
Dimensions Versus Typologies
28(1)
Five Basic Problems of National Societies
28(1)
Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature: Theory Based
29(2)
Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature: Empirical
31(3)
Culture Change
34(7)
The Process of Culture Change
34(1)
Culture Change and the IBM Data
34(7)
Notes 36(37)
2. Data Collection, Treatment, and Validation 41(32)
Summary of This Chapter
41(1)
The Research Settings
41(8)
The IBM Corporation
41(2)
The Use of Attitude Surveys in IBM
43(3)
Questionnaire Translation and Survey Administration
46(2)
The IBM Survey Database
48(1)
A Second Research Setting: IMEDE Business School
49(1)
Data Treatment
49(16)
Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency Within Groups
49(1)
ANOVA: Country, Occupation, Gender, and Age
50(1)
Comparing 40 Countries: Matching Occupations
51(1)
Extension to 50 Countries Plus Three Regions
52(1)
Selecting Stable Questions
52(1)
Eclectic Analysis: Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance
53(3)
Work Goal Importance Data: Eliminating Acquiescence
56(2)
Work Goal Importance: Ecological Factor Analysis
58(1)
Putting the Four Dimensions Together
58(2)
Value Shifts in IBM Between 1967-69 and 1971-73
60(1)
Correlations Between Index Scores
60(2)
Country Clusters
62(1)
Multilingual Countries: Belgium, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia
63(2)
Validation
65(14)
The Reliability of Country Dimension Scores
65(1)
Replicating the IBM Research
66(1)
Comparing With Data From Other Sources
67(1)
Economic, Geographic, and Demographic Indicators
68(1)
Adding a Fifth Dimension
69(2)
Studying Organizational Cultures
71(2)
Support and Criticisms of the Approach Followed
73(6)
Notes 73(64)
3. Power Distance 79(58)
Summary of This Chapter
79(1)
Inequality and Power Distance
79(5)
On Animal and Human Inequality
79(1)
Inequality in Society
80(2)
Inequality in Organizations
82(1)
The Concept of Power Distance
83(1)
Power Distance and Human Inequality
84(1)
Measuring National Differences in Power Distance in IBM
84(7)
Organization of Chapters 3 Through 7
84(1)
A Power Distance Index for IBM Countries
85(3)
Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation
88(2)
Gender Differences in Power Distance
90(1)
Country Power Distance Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
90(1)
Validating PDI Against Data From Other Sources
91(6)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
91(1)
PDI Versus Studies of General Values in Society
92(4)
Summary of General Connotations of the Power Distance Index Found in Survey Material
96(1)
Origins and Implications of Country Power Distance Differences
97(26)
The Power Distance Societal Norm
97(1)
Power Distance in the Family
98(2)
Power Distance, Schools, and Educational Systems
100(2)
Power Distance in Work and Organization
102(4)
Power Distance, Worker Participation, and "Industrial Democracy"
106(4)
Power Distance and Political Systems
110(3)
Power Distance and Religion, Ideology, and Theories of Power
113(2)
Power Distance and Aviation Safety
115(1)
Predictors of PDI: Latitude, Population Size, and Wealth
115(2)
Power Distance and Historical Factors: D'Iribarne's Contribution
117(2)
Power Distance and Historical Factors: The Roman Empire and Colonialism
119(2)
The Future of Power Distance Differences
121(2)
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
123(22)
Calculating the Power Distance Index by Country
123(2)
Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation
125(1)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
126(1)
Results of Other Survey Studies Significantly Correlated With PDI
126(2)
Indexes at the National Level Significantly Correlated With PDI
128(4)
PDI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
132(3)
Trends in PDI
135(2)
Notes 137(62)
4. Uncertainty Avoidance 145(1)
Summary of This Chapter 145(1)
The Concept of Uncertainty Avoidance 145(3)
Time, Future, Uncertainty, and Anxiety
145(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance in Organizations
146(2)
Uncertainty Avoidance Is Not the Same as Risk Avoidance
148(1)
Measuring National Differences in Uncertainty Avoidance in IBM 148(6)
An Uncertainty Avoidance Index for IBM Countries
148(2)
Uncertainty Avoidance Versus Power Distance
150(1)
Occupation and Gender Differences in the Scores on the Uncertainty Avoidance Items
151(2)
Country UAI Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
153(1)
Validating UAI Against Data From Other Sources 154(5)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
154(1)
UAI, Anxiety, and Emotions: Studies by Lynn and Others
155(2)
UAI and Subjective Well-Being
157(1)
UAI Versus Studies of General Values in Society
158(1)
Summary of General Connotations of the Uncertainty Avoidance Index Found in Survey Material
159(1)
Origins and Implications of Country Uncertainty Avoidance Differences 159(24)
The Uncertainty Avoidance Societal Norm
159(2)
Uncertainty Avoidance in the Family
161(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance, Schools, and Educational Systems
162(1)
UAI and Achievement Motivation: McClelland's Data
163(2)
Uncertainty Avoidance in the Work Situation
165(5)
Uncertainty Avoidance and Consumer Behavior
170(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance and Political Systems
171(3)
Uncertainty Avoidance and Legislation
174(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance, Nationalism, and Xenophobia
175(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance and Religions
176(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance, Theories, and Games
177(2)
Predictors of UAI
179(1)
Uncertainty Avoidance and Historical Factors
179(2)
The Future of Uncertainty Avoidance Differences
181(2)
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter 183(16)
Calculating the Uncertainty Avoidance Index by Country
183(1)
Calculating Differences in Item Scores by Occupation
183(1)
Country UAI, Average Age of Respondents, and Other IBM Survey Questions
184(2)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
186(2)
Studies of Stress and Well-Being
188(2)
McClelland's Study of Motivation
190(1)
Results of Other Surveys Correlated With UAI
190(7)
Indexes at the National Level Correlated With UAI
197(1)
UAI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
198(1)
Trends in UAI
198(11)
Notes 199(74)
5. Individualism and Collectivism 209(1)
Summary of This Chapter 209(1)
The Individual and the Collectivity 209(5)
Individualism in Society
209(3)
Individualism in Organizations and Organization Theories
212(2)
Measuring National Differences in Individualism in IBM 214(5)
An Individualism Index for Countries in the IBM Sample
214(1)
Societal Versus Individual Individualism and Collectivism, and Whether Ind and Col Are One or Two Dimensions
215(1)
Individualism Versus Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance
216(2)
Individualism and Occupation, Gender, and Age
218(1)
Country Individualism Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
218(1)
Validating IDV Against Data From Other Sources 219(6)
Distinguishing IDV From PDI and GNP/Capita
219(1)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
219(1)
IDV Versus Schwartz's Values Surveys of Teachers and Students
220(1)
IDV Versus Smith and Dugan's Analysis of Trompenaars's Data
221(2)
IDV Versus Inglehart's Analysis of the World Values Survey
223(1)
IDV Scores and Other Studies of General Values
224(1)
Summary of Value Connotations of the Individualism Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
225(1)
Origins and Implications of Country Individualism Differences 225(30)
The Individualism Societal Norm
225(1)
Individualism and Collectivism in the Family
225(6)
Individualism and Collectivism Versus Personality and Behavior
231(2)
Individualism and Collectivism in Language Use and Group Identity
233(1)
Individualism and Collectivism, Schools, and Educational Systems
234(1)
Individualism and Collectivism in the Work Situation
235(5)
Collectivism and the Applicability of Management Methods
240(1)
Individualism and Consumer Behavior
241(1)
Health and Disability in Individualist and Collectivist Societies
242(1)
Individualism or Collectivism, Political Systems, and Legislation
243(6)
Individualism and Collectivism, Religions, and Ideas
249(1)
Predictors of IDV: Wealth and Latitude
250(3)
Individualism and Historical Factors
253(1)
The Future of Individualism Differences
254(1)
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter 255(18)
Calculating the Individualism Index by Country
255(2)
Work Goal Dimensions by Occupation
257(1)
Country IDV Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
258(1)
Earlier Studies of Work Goals in IBM
258(2)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
260(4)
Results of Other Surveys Correlated With IDV
264(4)
Indexes at the National Level Correlated With IDV
268(1)
IDV Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
269(3)
Trends in IDV
272(7)
Notes 273(68)
6. Masculinity and Femininity 279(1)
Summary of This Chapter 279(1)
Sexes, Genders, and Gender Roles 279(5)
Absolute, Statistical, and Social Sex Differences
279(2)
Gender Differences in Work Goals
281(3)
Measuring National Differences in Masculinity in IBM 284(10)
A Masculinity Index for Countries in the IBM Sample
284(1)
Masculinity and Occupation, Gender, and Age
285(5)
Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
290(1)
MAS and Work Centrality in IBM
291(1)
Societal Versus Individual Masculinity and Femininity, and Whether Mas and Fem Are One or Two Dimensions
292(1)
Masculinity Versus Individualism
293(1)
Validating MAS Against Data From Other Sources 294(3)
The Need to Control for Wealth Differences
294(1)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
295(1)
MAS Scores Versus Other Values Surveys
296(1)
Summary of Connotations of the Masculinity Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
297(1)
Origins and Implications of Country Masculinity Differences 297(38)
The Masculinity Societal Norm
297(1)
Masculinity and Femininity in the Family
298(5)
Masculinity, Schools, and Educational Systems
303(2)
Masculinity and Femininity in Gender Roles
305(5)
Masculinity and Consumer Behavior
310(1)
Masculinity and Femininity in the Workplace
311(6)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Priorities
317(4)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Mores
321(1)
Masculinity and Sexual Behavior
322(5)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Religion
327(4)
Masculinity and Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Factors
331(1)
Masculinity and (Pre)Historical Factors
331(2)
The Future of Masculinity/Femininity Differences
333(2)
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter 335(6)
Computing MAS for Old and New Cases
335(1)
Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
335(1)
Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
335(2)
Results of Other Studies Correlated With MAS
337(2)
MAS Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
339(1)
Trends in MAS
340(11)
Notes 341(29)
7. Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation 351(1)
Summary of This Chapter 351(1)
East Versus West 351(4)
Cultural Biases in the Researchers' Minds
351(1)
The Chinese Value Survey
352(1)
Long-Term Orientation as a Fifth Dimension
353(2)
Measuring and Validating National Differences in Long-Term Orientation 355(4)
A Long-Term Orientation Index for 23 Countries
355(1)
Replications of the Measurement of Long-Term Orientation
355(1)
Validating LTO Against Other Studies of Values
355(3)
LTO and Savings Rates: Read's Study
358(1)
Summary of Validations and Connotations of the Long-Term Orientation Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
359(1)
Implications of Country Long-Term Orientation Differences 359(11)
LTO and Family, Social Relationships, and Work
359(3)
LTO and Ways of Thinking
362(3)
LTO and Economic Growth
365(3)
Long- and Short-Term Orientation in the Hindu and Muslim Worlds
368(1)
African Values: A New Dimension?
369(1)
The Future of Long-Term Orientation
370(3)
Notes 370(45)
8. Cultures in Organizations 373(1)
Summary of This Chapter 373(1)
Organizations and National Cultures 373(18)
There Are No Universal Solutions to Organization and Management Problems
373(2)
The Functioning of Organizations
375(3)
Culture and Organization Theories: Nationality Constrains Rationality
378(3)
Planning, Control, and Accounting
381(3)
Corporate Governance
384(1)
Motivation and Compensation
385(3)
Leadership and Empowerment
388(2)
Management Development and Organization Development
390(1)
Performance Appraisal and Management by Objectives
391(1)
Organizational Cultures 391(24)
The "Organizational Culture" Construct
391(2)
Differences Between Organizational and National Cultures
393(2)
The IRIC Organizational Culture Research Project
395(2)
Dimensions of Organizational Cultures
397(3)
Validating the Practice Dimensions
400(5)
Organizational Subcultures
405(3)
The Usefulness of the Organizational Culture Construct
408(2)
How Universal Are the Six Organizational Culture Dimensions?
410(1)
Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures
411(2)
Implications of the Level of Analysis: Gardens, Bouquets, and Flowers
413(1)
Occupational Cultures
414(9)
Notes 415(39)
9. Intercultural Encounters 423(1)
Summary of This Chapter 423(1)
Intercultural Communication and Cooperation 423(6)
General Principles
423(2)
Language and Discourse
425(1)
Culture Shock and Expatriate Failure
425(2)
Training in Intercultural Competence
427(2)
Political Issues 429(11)
Minorities, Migrants, and Refugees
429(2)
International Politics and International Organizations
431(4)
Intercultural Negotiations
435(2)
Economic Development, Nondevelopment, and Development Cooperation
437(3)
Multinational Business 440(11)
The Functioning of Multinational Business Organizations
440(5)
International Acquisitions, Mergers, and Joint Ventures
445(3)
International Marketing, Advertising, and Consumer Behavior
448(3)
Schools, Tourism, and a Look Ahead 451(3)
Intercultural Encounters in Schools
451(1)
Intercultural Encounters in Tourism
452(1)
The Influence of New Technology
453(1)
Cultural Relativism, Convergence, and Divergence
453(8)
Notes 454(12)
10. Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research 461(1)
Summary of This Chapter 461(1)
Applications of the Dimensional Model 461(6)
The Fortunes of Continued Research in Six Areas
461(1)
Fields of Application
462(1)
Replications and Their Pitfalls
463(1)
Extensions to New Countries
464(1)
Using the Dimensional Model as a Paradigm
465(1)
Closing Remarks
466(1)
Notes 466(1)
Appendixes
Appendix 1 467(8)
Questions From the IBM Attitude Survey Questionnaire Referred to in This Book
Appendix 2 475(8)
Country Scores on A, B, and C Questions (except A5-A32 and C1-C8)
Appendix 3 483(8)
Standardized Country and Occupation Scores for Work Goals (questions A5-18 and C1-C8)
Appendix 4 491(8)
Replicating the IBM-Style Cross-National Survey
Appendix 5 499(4)
Summary of Country Index Scores (including additions)
Appendix 6 503(18)
Summary of Significant Correlations of Country Index Scores With Data From Other Sources
Appendix 7 521(2)
Two Case Studies From the IRIC Organizational Cultures Research Project
Appendix 8 523(2)
The Author's Values
References 525(44)
Name Index 569(16)
Subject Index 585(11)
About the Author 596

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