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9781119723295

DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119723295

  • ISBN10:

    1119723299

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-07-21
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Guiding engineering and technology students for over five decades, DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing provides a comprehensive introduction to manufacturing materials, systems, and processes. Coverage of materials focuses on properties and behavior, favoring a practical approach over complex mathematics; analytical equations and mathematical models are only presented when they strengthen comprehension and provide clarity. Material production processes are examined in the context of practical application to promote efficient understanding of basic principles, and broad coverage of manufacturing processes illustrates the mechanisms of each while exploring their respective advantages and limitations.

Aiming for both accessibility and completeness, this text offers introductory students a comprehensive guide to material behavior and selection, measurement and inspection, machining, fabrication, molding, fastening, and other important processes using plastics, ceramics, composites, and ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys. This extensive overview of the field gives students a solid foundation for advanced study in any area of engineering, manufacturing, and technology.

Table of Contents

OC Content available in eBook

SS Student solution available in interactive e-text

Preface iii

Acronyms xiii

1 Introduction to DeGarmo’s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 1

1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standard of Living 1

1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems 2

2 Properties of Materials 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Static Properties 24

2.3 Dynamic Properties 34

2.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low) 39

2.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability 42

2.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach 42

2.7 Physical Properties 43

2.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns 43

3 Nature of Materials 45

3.1 Structure—Property—Processing—Performance Relationships 45

3.2 The Structure of Atoms 45

3.3 Atomic Bonding 46

3.4 Secondary Bonds 47

3.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials 48

3.6 Crystal Structures 48

3.7 Development of a Grain Structure 49

3.8 Elastic Deformation 50

3.9 Plastic Deformation 50

3.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage 52

3.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 53

3.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Material 53

3.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties 54

3.14 Fracture 54

3.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working 54

3.16 Grain Growth 55

3.17 Alloys and Alloy Types 55

3.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties 56

4 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron–Carbon System 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Phases 57

4.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 57

4.4 Iron–Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 63

4.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron–Carbon Diagram 64

4.6 Cast Irons 65

5 Heat Treatment 67

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Processing Heat Treatments 67

5.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength 69

5.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals 70

5.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel 72

5.6 Surface Hardening of Steel 83

5.7 Furnaces 84

5.8 Heat Treatment and Energy 86

6 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 87

6.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials 87

6.2 Ferrous Metals 87

6.3 Iron 88

6.4 Steel 88

6.5 Stainless Steels 98

6.6 Tool Steels 100

6.7 Cast Irons 102

6.8 Cast Steels 105

6.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties 105

7 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys 106

7.1 Introduction 106

7.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 106

7.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 111

7.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 115

7.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 118

7.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 119

7.7 Nickel-Based Alloys 120

7.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service 120

7.9 Lead and Tin and Their Alloys 123

7.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys 123

7.11 Metallic Glasses 123

7.12 Graphite 123

7.13 Materials for Specific Applications 124

7.14 High Entropy Alloys 124

8 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites 125

8.1 Introduction 125

8.2 Plastics 125

8.3 Elastomers 135

8.4 Ceramics 137

8.5 Composite Materials 145

9 Material Selection 153

9.1 Introduction 153

9.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes 155

9.3 The Design Process 155

9.4 Approaches to Material Selection 156

9.5 Additional Factors to Consider 158

9.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process 159

9.7 Ultimate Objective 159

9.8 Materials Substitution 161

9.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection 161

9.10 Aids to Material Selection 162

10 Measurement and Inspection 163

10.1 Introduction 163

10.2 Standards of Measurement 163

10.3 Allowance and Tolerance 166

10.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement 171

10.5 Measuring Instruments 172

10.6 Vision Systems 180

10.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines 180

10.8 Angle-Measuring Instruments 181

10.9 Gages for Attributes Measuring 182

11 Nondestructive Examination (NDE) /Nondestructive Testing (NDT) 186

11.1 Destructive vs. Nondestructive Testing 186

11.2 Visual Inspection 187

11.3 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 188

11.4 Magnetic Particle Inspection 189

11.5 Ultrasonic Inspection 190

11.6 Radiography 191

11.7 Eddy-Current Testing 192

11.8 Acoustic Emission Monitoring 194

11.9 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection 195

11.10 Dormant vs. Critical Flaws 196

11.11 Current and Future Trends 196

12 Process Capability and Quality Control 197

12.1 Introduction 197

12.2 Determining Process Capability 198

12.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control 204

12.4 Sampling Errors 207

12.5 Gage Capability 208

12.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control 209

12.7 Six Sigma 217

12.8 Summary 220

13 Fundamentals of Casting 221

13.1 Introduction to Materials Processing 221

13.2 Introduction to Casting 222

13.3 Casting Terminology 223

13.4 The Solidification Process 223

13.5 Patterns 231

13.6 Design Considerations in Castings 232

13.7 The Casting Industry 234

14 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 236

14.1 Introduction 236

14.2 Sand Casting 236

14.3 Cores and Core Making 249

14.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns 252

14.5 Expendable-Mold Processes Using Single-Use Patterns 253

14.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing 259

14.7 Summary 259

15 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes 260

15.1 Introduction 260

15.2 Permanent-Mold Casting 260

15.3 Die Casting 263

15.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting 266

15.5 Centrifugal Casting 267

15.6 Continuous Casting 269

15.7 Melting 269

15.8 Pouring Practice 271

15.9 Cleaning, Finishing, Heat Treating, and Inspection 272

15.10 Automation in Foundry Operations 273

15.11 Process Selection 273

16 Powder Metallurgy (Particulate Processing) 275

16.1 Introduction 275

16.2 The Basic Process 275

16.3 Powder Manufacture 276

16.4 Powder Testing and Evaluation 277

16.5 Powder Mixing and Blending 277

16.6 Compacting 278

16.7 Sintering 281

16.8 Advances in Sintering (Shorter Time, Higher Density, Stronger Products) 282

16.9 Hot-Isostatic Pressing 282

16.10 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density P/M Products 283

16.11 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) 284

16.12 Secondary Operations 285

16.13 Properties of P/M Products 287

16.14 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts 288

16.15 Powder Metallurgy Products 289

16.16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy 290

16.17 Process Summary 291

17 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 292

17.1 Introduction 292

17.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables 292

17.3 Dependent Variables 293

17.4 Independent–Dependent Relationships 294

17.5 Process Modeling 295

17.6 General Parameters 295

17.7 Friction, Lubrication, and Wear under Metalworking Conditions 296

17.8 Temperature Concerns 297

17.9 Formability 303

18 Bulk-Forming Processes 304

18.1 Introduction 304

18.2 Classification of Deformation Processes 304

18.3 Bulk Deformation Processes 304

18.4 Rolling 305

18.5 Forging 309

18.6 Extrusion 318

18.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing 322

18.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion 324

18.9 Piercing 327

18.10 Other Squeezing Processes 328

18.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing 330

19 Sheet-Forming Processes 331

19.1 Introduction 331

19.2 Shearing Operations 331

19.3 Bending 337

19.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes 343

19.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products 353

19.6 Seamed Pipe Manufacture 354

19.7 Presses 354

20 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites 359

20.1 Introduction 359

20.2 Fabrication of Plastics 359

20.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers 369

20.4 Processing of Ceramics 369

20.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials 372

21 Fundamentals of Machining/ Orthogonal Machining 381

21.1 Introduction 381

21.2 Fundamentals 381

21.3 Forces and Power in Machining 386

21.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces) 390

21.5 Chip Thickness Ratio, rc 394

21.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics) 395

21.7 Shear Strain, γ, and Shear Front Angle, ϕ 397

21.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics) (Section courtesy of Dr. Elliot Stern) 399

22 Cutting Tool Materials 405

22.1 Cutting Tool Materials 408

22.2 Tool Geometry 417

22.3 Tool-Coating Processes 419

22.4 Tool Failure and Tool Life 420

22.5 Taylor Tool Life 421

22.6 Cutting Fluids 425

22.7 Economics of Machining 426

23 Turning and Boring Processes 428

23.1 Introduction 428

23.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning 430

23.3 Lathe Design and Terminology 434

23.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes 438

23.5 Workholding in Lathes 442

24 Milling 447

24.1 Introduction 447

24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes 447

24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters 453

24.4 Machines for Milling 457

25 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes 462

25.1 Introduction 462

25.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process 463

25.3 Types of Drills 464

25.4 Tool Holders for Drills 472

25.5 Workholding for Drilling 474

25.6 Machine Tools for Drilling 475

25.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling 478

25.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing 479

25.9 Reaming 480

26 CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and A(5) Levels of Automation 482

26.1 Introduction 482

26.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control 482

26.3 CNC Part Programming 488

26.4 Interpolation and Adaptive Control 494

26.5 Machining Center Features and Trends 497

26.6 Summary 501

27 Sawing, Broaching, Shaping, and Filing Machining Processes 502

27.1 Introduction 502

27.2 Introduction to Sawing 502

27.3 Introduction to Broaching 510

27.4 Fundamentals of Broaching 512

27.5 Broaching Machines 516

27.6 Introduction to Shaping and Planing 516

27.7 Introduction to Filing 520

28 Abrasive Machining Processes 523

28.1 Introduction 523

28.2 Abrasives 524

28.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade 528

28.4 Grinding Wheel Identification 531

28.5 Grinding Machines 534

28.6 Honing 540

28.7 Superfinishing 542

28.8 Free Abrasives 543

28.9 Design Considerations in Grinding 547

29 Nano and Micro-Manufacturing Processes 548

29.1 Introduction 548

29.2 Lithography 551

29.3 Micromachining Processes 554

29.4 Deposition Processes 556

29.5 How ICs Are Made 562

29.6 Nano- and Micro-Scale Metrology 568

30 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes 570

30.1 Introduction 570

30.2 Chemical Machining Processes 572

30.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 576

30.4 Electrical Discharge Machining 581

31 Thread and Gear Manufacturing 589

31.1 Introduction 589

31.2 Thread Making 592

31.3 Internal Thread Cutting–Tapping 595

31.4 Thread Milling 597

31.5 Thread Grinding 599

31.6 Thread Rolling 599

31.7 Gear Theory and Terminology 601

31.8 Gear Types 603

31.9 Gear Manufacturing 604

31.10 Machining of Gears 605

31.12 Gear Finishing 610

31.13 Gear Inspection 611

32 Surface Integrity and Finishing Processes 613

32.1 Introduction 613

32.2 Surface Integrity 613

32.3 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing 620

32.4 Chemical Cleaning 624

32.5 Coatings 626

32.6 Vaporized Metal Coatings 633

32.7 Clad Materials 633

32.8 Textured Surfaces 633

32.9 Coil-Coated Sheets 633

32.10 Edge Finishing and Burr Removal 634

33 Additive Processes—Including 3-D Printing 637

33.1 Introduction 637

33.2 Layerwise Manufacturing 638

33.3 Liquid-Based Processes 641

33.4 Powder-Based Processes 643

33.5 Deposition-Based Processes 647

33.6 Uses and Applications 649

33.7 Pros, Cons, and Current and Future Trends 652

33.8 Economic Considerations 655

34 Manufacturing Automation and Industrial Robots 656

34.1 Introduction 656

34.2 The A(4) Level of Automation 660

34.3 A(5) Level of Automation Requires Evaluation 666

34.4 Industrial Robotics 669

34.5 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 675

34.6 Computer-Aided Design 677

34.7 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 678

34.8 Summary 679

35 Fundamentals of Joining 680

35.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes 680

35.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes 681

35.3 Some Common Concerns 681

35.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints 681

35.5 Design Considerations 682

35.6 Heat Effects 684

35.7 Weldability or Joinability 688

35.8 Summary 689

36 Gas Flame and Arc Processes 690

36.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding 690

36.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting 693

36.3 Flame Straightening 694

36.4 Arc Welding 695

36.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding 696

36.6 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding 702

36.7 Other Processes Involving Arcs 706

36.8 Arc Cutting 707

36.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting 709

36.10 Welding Equipment 710

36.11 Thermal Deburring 711

37 Resistance and Solid-State Welding Processes 712

37.1 Introduction 712

37.2 Theory of Resistance Welding 712

37.3 Resistance Welding Processes 714

37.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding 717

37.5 Solid-State Welding Processes 718

38 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering 726

38.1 Introduction 726

38.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes 726

38.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes 732

38.4 Brazing 735

38.5 Soldering 742

39 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Nonmetals 746

39.1 Adhesive Bonding 746

39.2 Mechanical Fastening 752

39.3 Joining of Plastics 755

39.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass 758

39.5 Joining of Composites 758

40 JIG and Fixture Design W1
(Available in e-text for students, and on BCS for instructors)

41 The Enterprise (Production System) W20
(Available in e-text for students, and on BCS for instructors)

42 Lean Engineering W35
(Available in e-text for students, and on BCS for instructors)

43 Mixed-Model Final Assembly W65
(Available in e-text for students, and on BCS for instructors)

Review Questions and Problems P-1

Key Terms (Available in e-text for students) K-1

Case Study (Available in e-text for students) C-1

Selected References For Additional Study (Available in e-text for students) S-1

Index I-1

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