Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide : Food and Pharmaceutical Applications

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-06-19
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, mainly used for pasteurization of liquid foods. It has advantages compared to thermal pasteurization in its potential to preserve the sensory quality and nutrient content of the foods. It also has potential advantages over other non-thermal processes since it is a continuous process, and both the capital costs and operating costs are lower than some other non-thermal processes. The theory, microbial, enzymatic, quality, and process related issues have been researched. However, there is no compilation of all of this accumulated knowledge and know-how in a single volume. Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Applications for Food brings into one volume the diverse aspects and the accumulated knowledge regarding DPCD. International experts in the Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide applications to foods have contributed in their areas of expertise to create synergy that clarifies concepts and reveals potential application areas and future direction of research. Positioned as an industry reference book, Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Applications for Food will appeal to food scientists, food technologists, food engineers, food safety, quality and production managers; government officials, researchers and regulators; extension specialists; equipment and packaging suppliers; and particularly professionals in the juice, dairy and beverage industries.

Author Biography

Professor Murat O. Balaban, Chair of Food Process Engineering, Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Auckland, New Zealand Dr Giovanna Ferrentino, Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Italy

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Contributorsp. xiii
Introduction to Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide Technologyp. 1
Thermodynamics of Solutions of CO2, with Effects of Pressure and Temperaturep. 5
Introductionp. 5
Thermodynamics of liquid-vapour phase equilibriap. 6
Calculation of p. 10
Calculation of p. 13
Calculation of the liquid-vapour phase equilibriap. 20
Application to CO2-H2O system modelp. 24
Non-electrolyte modelsp. 24
Electrolyte modelsp. 26
Thermodynamics of solid-vapour equilibriap. 28
List of symbolsp. 31
Experimental Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Solubilityp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Solubility of carbon dioxide in waterp. 38
Definition and brief review of early studiesp. 38
Physical properties associated with the phase diagram of carbon dioxidep. 41
Effect of pressure and temperature on carbon dioxide solubility in waterp. 42
Experimental methods for carbon dioxide solubility measurementp. 45
Analytical methodsp. 46
Synthetic methodsp. 55
Review of experimental resultsp. 58
Conclusionsp. 66
Effects of Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide on Vegetative Cellsp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Gases used for inactivating microorganismsp. 68
Effect of DPCD on vegetative microorganismsp. 69
Effect of DPCD on bacterial cellsp. 69
Effect of DPCD on vegetative forms of fungi, pests and virusesp. 73
Factors affecting the sensitivity of microorganisms to DPCDp. 74
Effect of CO2 physical statesp. 75
Effect of temperature and pressurep. 75
Effect of CO2 concentrationp. 76
Effect of agitationp. 77
Effect of water contentp. 77
Effect of pressurization and depressurization ratesp. 78
Effect of pressure cyclingp. 79
Effect of microbial typep. 79
Effect of initial microbial numberp. 80
Effect of physical and chemical properties of suspensionp. 80
Effect of culture conditions and growth phasesp. 81
Injured microorganismsp. 82
Effect of combination processesp. 83
Effect of type of systemp. 83
Treatment time and inactivation kineticsp. 84
Mechanisms of microbial inactivation by DPCDp. 85
Solubilization of CO2 under pressure into suspensionp. 87
Cell membrane modificationp. 88
Cytoplasmic leakagep. 88
Intracellular pH decreasep. 89
Key enzyme inactivationp. 90
Inhibitory effect of molecular CO2 and HCO3- on metabolismp. 90
Intracellular precipitation and electrolyte imbalancep. 91
Extraction of vital cellular constituentsp. 91
Physical cell rupturep. 92
Characterization of CO2 states and survival curvesp. 93
Quantifying inactivationp. 96
Conclusionsp. 96
Effects of Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide on Bacterial and Fungal Sporesp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Inactivation of bacterial spores by DPCDp. 101
Effect of temperaturep. 101
Effect of pressurep. 104
Effect of pH and aw of the treatment mediump. 105
Susceptibility of different bacterial sporesp. 105
Effects of combination treatmentsp. 106
Mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivationp. 107
Inactivation of fungal spores by DPCDp. 109
Conclusionp. 212
Effects of DPCD on Enzymesp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Effects of gas bubblingp. 118
Alteration of the protein structurep. 118
Studies with multiple enzymesp. 119
Effects on specific enzymesp. 120
Alpha-amylasep. 120
Acid proteasep. 121
Alkaline proteasep. 121
Gluco-amylasep. 122
Lipasep. 122
Pectinesterase (PE)p. 124
Pectin methyl esterase (PME)p. 125
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)p. 126
Tyrosinasep. 129
Lipoxygenasep. 130
Peroxidasep. 131
Alkaline phosphatasep. 133
Myrosrnasep. 133
Hydrolasesp. 134
Conclusions and suggestionsp. 134
The Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation by Carbon Dioxide under High Pressurep. 135
Introductionp. 135
The survival curvep. 137
Primary modelsp. 137
Secondary models-the effect of pressure alonep. 141
The temperature effect and that of other auxiliary factorsp. 143
Dynamic treatmentsp. 144
Application of the models to published experimental datap. 147
Primary model derivationp. 147
Concluding remarksp. 151
List of symbolsp. 154
Applications of DPCD to Juices and Other Beveragesp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Juices processed with DPCDp. 158
Orange juicep. 158
Apple juicep. 162
Mandarin juicep. 164
Grapefruit juicep. 164
Watermelon juicep. 165
Coconut waterp. 166
Guava pureep. 167
Grape juicep. 167
Pearp. 170
Carrotp. 170
Carrot juicep. 171
Peachp. 171
Kiwip. 172
Melonp. 172
Other beverages processed with DPCDp. 173
Beerp. 173
Kava kavap. 173
Jamaica beveragep. 174
Conclusionsp. 175
Use of Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide in Dairy Processingp. 177
Introductionp. 177
Carbon dioxide in milkp. 178
Enzymes and microorganisms in milkp. 178
Application of carbon dioxide to milkp. 180
Carbon dioxide addition to raw milkp. 180
Carbon dioxide addition during thermal pasteurization of milkp. 183
Effect of carbon dioxide addition on sensory properties of milkp. 184
Dense phase carbon dioxide processp. 185
Application of carbon dioxide for enzyme inactivationp. 186
Application of carbon dioxide to cottage cheese productionp. 188
Application of carbon dioxide to yogurt and fermented productsp. 189
Application of carbon dioxide to casein productionp. 190
Casein propertiesp. 190
Casein production by high-pressure carbon dioxidep. 191
Comparison between continuous and batch systems for casein production by carbon dioxidep. 194
Economic comparison between high-pressure carbon dioxide and a conventional process for casein productionp. 196
Conclusionsp. 198
Particle Engineering by Dense Gas Technologies Applied to Pharmaceuticalsp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Dense gas as a solventp. 201
Rapid expansion of supercritical solutionsp. 201
Rapid expansion of supercritical solutions with a solid solventp. 206
Rapid expansion of supercritical solutions with a nonsolventp. 206
Particles from gas-saturated solutionsp. 207
Dense gases as antisolventsp. 208
Gas antisolvent processp. 209
Aerosol solvent extraction systemp. 211
Solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluidsp. 216
Atomized rapid injection for solvent extractionp. 218
SCFs as co-solventsp. 220
Depressurisation of an expanded liquid organic solventp. 220
Dense gases as aerosolisation aids (spray-drying assistance)p. 221
Carbon dioxide-assisted nebulisation with a bubble dryerp. 221
Supercritical fluid assisted atomisationp. 224
Conclusionp. 225
Industrial Applications Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Foodp. 227
Overviewp. 227
Past developmentp. 228
Mechanism of microbial inactivationp. 229
Effect of other gases-on microbial inactivationp. 229
scCO2 commercialization activitiesp. 230
Porocrit processp. 230
Impact on juice qualityp. 232
Impact on nutrient valuesp. 233
Impact on microbial inactivationp. 233
Impact on microbial inactivation for solid foodsp. 236
scCO2 processing efficienciesp. 237
Conclusionsp. 237
Outlook and Unresolved Issuesp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Unresolved issuesp. 242
Inactivation mechanism of DPCDp. 242
Food quality and storagep. 250
Target foodsp. 252
Process equipment and intellectual propertyp. 254
Fouling, cleaning, and disinfectingp. 259
Occurrence of DPCD-resistant mutantsp. 261
Industrial implementation and process economicsp. 262
Future outlook and conclusionsp. 263
Acknowledgementsp. 264
Referencesp. 265
Indexp. 309
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