9781570181511

The Developing Labor Law

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781570181511

  • ISBN10:

    1570181519

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Bna Books
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Table of Contents

In Memoriam xxvii
Foreword xxxi
Preface xxxiii
Part I HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT
Historical Background of the Wagner Act
3(21)
The Inadequacies of Judicial Regulation
4(4)
The Rise of Federal Regulation
8(4)
An Affirmative National Labor Policy: The Ancestry of the Wagner Act
12(12)
The Erdman Act
13(2)
The Clayton Act
15(4)
The Railway Labor Act
19(2)
The Norris-LaGuardia Act
21(3)
The Wagner Act Period
24(10)
The Political Climate
24(1)
The Role of Senator Wagner
25(1)
The National Labor Relations Act: The Beginning of an Era
26(3)
Criticism of the Act: One-Sided Legislation
29(5)
The Taft-Hartley Changes
34(15)
Industrial Unrest and Congressional Response
34(5)
Union Growth
34(1)
A Republican Congress
35(1)
Response to President Truman's Proposals
35(1)
Problem Areas
36(1)
Differences Between Senate and House Bills
37(1)
Presidential Veto
38(1)
The New Amendments
39(7)
Employee Rights
40(1)
Structural Changes in Board Administration
41(1)
Union Unfair Labor Practices
41(1)
``Free Speech'' Proviso
42(1)
Collective Bargaining Duties
42(1)
Representation Under Section 9
43(1)
Regulation of Internal Union Affairs
43(1)
Procedural Changes
44(1)
Injunctions
45(1)
``Right-to-Work'' Laws
45(1)
The Reaction
46(3)
Labor Response
46(1)
Congressional Response
47(1)
Stalemate Years
47(2)
The Landrum-Griffin Changes
49(12)
The Impetus of Legislative Investigation
49(2)
The Political Climate
51(1)
Senate Action
51(2)
Struggle in the House
53(2)
Reconciling Title VII
55(2)
A Jurisdictional Problem: An ``Unregulated Terrain''
55(1)
The ``Hot-Cargo'' Provision
56(1)
Restrictions on Organizational and Recognitional Picketing
56(1)
Prehire Agreements
57(1)
Voting Rights for Economic Strikers
57(1)
The Conference Committee Version
57(4)
The Changes
57(1)
Recognitional and Organizational Picketing
58(1)
Secondary Boycott Changes
58(1)
Hot-Cargo Restrictions
59(1)
Prehire Agreements
59(1)
Voting Rights for Economic Strikers
59(1)
Delegation of Board Authority Authorized
60(1)
Taft-Hartley Provisions Repealed
60(1)
Enactment of the Bill
60(1)
The Post-Landrum-Griffin Period
61(12)
Jurisdiction Over United States Postal Service
61(1)
Section 302 Amendments and Additional Bargaining Subjects
62(3)
Health Care Institution Amendments
65(1)
Court Invalidates Act Giving Religious Conscientious Objectors Exemption From Union-Security Coverage
66(1)
Unsuccessful Efforts to Amend the Basic Act
67(6)
Part II PROTECTED EMPLOYEE ACTIVITY
Interference with Protected Rights
73(168)
Overview
76(17)
Introduction
76(1)
Section 7---Rights of Employees
77(1)
To Form, Join, or Assist Labor Organizations
77(1)
To Refrain From Such Activities
78(1)
Other Concerted Activities
78(3)
Employer Interference With Section 7 Rights: Section 8(a)(1)
81(1)
Derivative Violations
82(1)
Independent Violations
82(1)
Motive Not an Essential Element of Section 8(a)(1) Violations
82(2)
Union Restraint and Coercion---Section 8(b)(1)(A)
84(1)
Not a Derivative Counterpart of Section 8(a)(1)
85(1)
Nature of the Violation
85(2)
Motive Not an Essential Element of Section 8(b)(1)(A) Violations
87(1)
``Freedom of Speech''---Section 8(c) in General
87(2)
Threat or Prophecy?
89(2)
The Outer Limit of Employer Speech
91(2)
Organizational and Preelection Activity
93(82)
In General: Relation of Unfair Labor Practices to ``Laboratory Conditions'' Required for Elections
93(3)
Unlawful Employer Conduct
96(1)
Employer's Restrictions on Union and Employee Activity on Employer's Property
96(1)
Basic Presumptions
96(1)
Rights of Employees Over Nonemployees
97(2)
No-Solicitation and No-Distribution Rules Generally
99(1)
Presumptions of Validity
100(1)
Facial Validity of Rule
101(5)
Unlawful Promulgation or Enforcement
106(2)
Implementation of Rules: Timing as an Element of Legality
108(1)
Union Buttons and Insignia
109(3)
``Captive-Audience'' Speeches, Conferences, and Interviews
112(2)
No-Access Rules
114(2)
Prohibiting Protected Activity on Private Property Open to the Public
116(8)
Prohibiting Distribution of Political Materials
124(1)
Effect of Contractual Waiver of Right to Solicit or Distribute
125(2)
Specific Conduct That Violates Section 8(a)(1)
127(1)
Threats to Withdraw, and Withdrawals of, Benefits
127(2)
Permissible Predictions and Prohibited Threats
129(3)
Futility of Organizing
132(2)
Inevitability of Strikes or Violence
134(1)
Assessing Recurrent Phrases and Themes
135(1)
``Serious Harm''
135(2)
``Bargaining Will Start From Scratch''
137(1)
Statements Regarding Plant Closings
138(2)
Promises and Grants of Benefits
140(2)
Employer Inducements
142(4)
Soliciting or Remedying Employee Grievances
146(2)
Withholding Benefits During an Election Campaign
148(2)
Interrogation and Polling
150(2)
Systematic Polling
152(5)
Individual or Isolated Questioning
157(3)
Preparation of Defense for Trial of Unfair Labor Practice Case
160(2)
Surveillance and Photographing
162(4)
Employer's Responsibility for Third-Party Conduct
166(1)
Employer Violence
167(1)
Discipline and Discharge of Supervisors
168(2)
Other Unlawful Employer Interference
170(1)
Bonuses or Benefits to Nonstrikers and Strike Replacements
170(2)
Requests for Employee Statements to the NLRB
172(1)
Employer Conduct Relating to Authorization Cards
172(1)
Suits and Threats of Suits Against Employees
173(2)
Other Concerted Activity
175(40)
Protected Concerted Activity: In General
175(1)
Individual Versus Concerted Activity: Employee Claim of Right Under a Collective Agreement
175(3)
Individual Versus Concerted Activity: Employee Claim of Right Under Employment, Safety, and Other Laws
178(6)
Employee Activity for ``Other Mutual Aid or Protection''
184(4)
Protected Concerted Activity: Specific Conduct
188(1)
Work Stoppages
188(1)
Honoring Picket Lines
189(1)
Filing or Processing of Grievances
190(2)
Weingarten: Employee Request or Demand for Union Representation During Investigation
192(1)
Covered Interviews and Meetings
193(2)
Rights of Unrepresented Employees
195(2)
Requesting and Selecting the Union Representative
197(1)
Role of Union Representative
198(1)
Remedies for Weingarten Violations
199(1)
Safety-Related Protests
200(2)
Protests Relating to Employment Discrimination
202(1)
Appeals to Agencies and Filing of Court Actions
202(2)
Unprotected Concerted Activities
204(1)
Sit-Down Strikes
204(1)
Partial and Intermittent Strikes
205(1)
Other Unprotected Activity
206(1)
Breach of Confidentiality
207(3)
False Allegations or Affidavits Concerning the Employer
210(1)
Disparagement of the Employer or Its Business Activities
211(4)
Union Restraint and Coercion
215(26)
Section 8(b)(1)(A): Restraint and Coercion of Employees
215(1)
Not a Derivative Counterpart of Section 8(a)(1)
215(2)
Fines and Discipline of Union Members
217(1)
Discipline for Activity Protected by Rights ``Embedded'' in Section 7 and the Labor Laws, Including the Filing of NLRB Petitions and Charges
218(3)
Impact of Discipline on Employee Relationship
221(2)
The Effect of Resignation on Legality of Discipline
223(4)
Discipline for Refusal to Engage in Unlawful or Unprotected Activity
227(2)
Discipline for Intraunion Activity
229(1)
Reasonableness of Fines Imposed
230(1)
Violence and Threats
231(1)
Sections 8(b)(1)(B) and 8(b)(4)(A): Restraint and Coercion in Selection of Employer Representatives
232(1)
Interference With the Employer's Choice of Representatives
232(3)
Union Discipline of Supervisor-Members
235(6)
Discrimination in Employment
241(150)
Discrimination as an Unfair Labor Practice
242(3)
Employer Discrimination
245(93)
Persons Within the Protection of Section 8(a)(3)
245(3)
Purpose of the Discrimination
248(2)
Conduct Requiring Proof of Union Animus: The Wright Line Rule
250(12)
Conduct Inherently Destructive of Section 7 Rights
262(21)
Specific Conduct
283(1)
Discharge or Discipline for Union Activity
283(1)
Elements of an Unlawful Discharge
283(4)
Constructive Discharge
287(3)
Employer's Knowledge of Employee's Union Activity
290(3)
Inferential Proof of Employer's Animus
293(6)
Lockouts
299(7)
Plant Closings
306(1)
Complete Cessation of Business
306(1)
Partial Closings
307(5)
Transfer of Work: The ``Runaway Shop''
312(6)
Replacement and Reinstatement of Economic Strikers
318(1)
Development of the Law
318(2)
Nature of the Duty to Reinstate
320(5)
Defenses and Limitations
325(4)
Discharge or Discipline of Union Officers for Strikes in Breach of Contract
329(1)
Discrimination Against Union Organizers and ``Salts''
330(3)
Discrimination Based on Race or Sex
333(1)
Discrimination Based on Terms of Collective Bargaining Agreement
334(1)
Enforcement of Union-Security Provision
334(2)
Compliance With Superseniority Provision
336(2)
Union Inducement of Employer to Discriminate
338(38)
Union Inducements as Unfair Labor Practice Prohibited by Section 8(b)(2)
338(11)
Violations Relating to Seniority Provisions
349(8)
Violations Relating to Union-Security Provisions
357(1)
Introduction and Overview
357(2)
Discriminatory Enforcement Prohibited
359(2)
Dues and Fees That May Be Exacted
361(2)
Union Must Supply Information to Employees
363(3)
Obligations of Employers
366(2)
Violations Relating to Hiring and Referral Halls
368(8)
Discrimination Because of Involvement With NLRB Procedures: Section 8(a)(4)
376(13)
Development of the Law of Judicial Review in Discrimination Cases
389(2)
Employer Domination of and Assistance to Labor Organizations
391(53)
Introduction: Section 8(a) (2)
391(3)
Labor Organization Defined
394(9)
Requirement of Participation by ``Employees''
395(1)
Requirement of ``Dealing With'' Employers
396(7)
Employer Domination
403(8)
Employer Interference
411(10)
Unlawful Recognition or Other Assistance
411(4)
Employer Preference Among Contending Unions
415(3)
Conduct of Supervisors
418(3)
The Requirement of Employer Neutrality
421(7)
Development of the Requirement: The Rise and Fall of Midwest Piping
421(5)
When a Union Is Incumbent
426(1)
When No Union Is Incumbent
427(1)
Support Versus Cooperation
428(4)
The Union as Party to the Employer's Domination, Assistance, or Support
432(2)
Remedies
434(10)
Part III THE REPRESENTATION PROCESS AND UNION RECOGNITION
Restrictions on Preelection Activity: ``Laboratory Conditions''
444(53)
Introduction
444(10)
The Board's Authority Under Section 9
445(1)
Relation to Unfair Labor Practices
445(1)
Development of the General Shoe ``Laboratory Conditions'' Doctrine
446(2)
Timing of ``Laboratory Period''
448(3)
Procedural Considerations
451(1)
Regulating Preelection Conduct by Adjudication Rather Than Rulemaking
452(2)
Grounds for Setting Aside Elections
454(40)
Employer and/or Union Conduct
454(1)
Misrepresentations
454(1)
Development of the Prior Law Prohibiting Last Minute Misrepresentations: The Hollywood Ceramics Rule
455(1)
Hollywood Ceramics Overruled: Voters Allowed to Assess Misrepresentations
456(1)
General Knit: A Temporary Return to Hollywood Ceramics
457(1)
Return to Shopping Kart: Hollywood Ceramics Again Abandoned
457(2)
Forged Documents
459(1)
Misuse of the Board's Election Process
460(1)
Reproduction of Board Documents
460(4)
Misrepresentation of Board Action
464(1)
Electioneering at the Polls
465(3)
Other Conduct In and Around the Polls
468(1)
Appeals to Racial Prejudice
469(5)
The 24-Hour Rule Barring Speeches to Massed Employees
474(1)
Mail Ballots
475(1)
Paychecks
475(1)
Employer Conduct
475(1)
Assembly of Employees at Focal Point of Authority
475(1)
Home Visits
476(1)
Voter Eligibility List
476(1)
Paychecks
476(1)
Union Conduct
476(1)
In General
476(1)
Specific Promises and Grants of Benefits
477(3)
Waiver of Initiation Fees
480(6)
Other Union Conduct
486(1)
Interrogation
486(1)
Failure to Disclose Information
486(1)
Third-Party Conduct
487(4)
Violence and Threats
491(3)
Remedies
494(3)
Representation Proceedings and Elections
497(90)
Questions Concerning Representation
499(14)
Petitions by Labor Organizations and Employees
501(1)
Showing of Interest
501(2)
Employer Denial of Recognition
503(1)
Joint Petitions
504(1)
Petitions by Employers
504(1)
History Under the Wagner Act
504(1)
History Under the Taft-Hartley Act
505(1)
Unrecognized Unions
506(1)
Incumbent Unions
507(1)
Development of the Law Before the Allentown Mack Decision
508(1)
The Allentown Mack Decision
509(1)
Effect of Section 8(f) in the Construction Industry
510(1)
Disclaimer of Interest
511(2)
Timeliness of Petitions
513(32)
The One-Election-per-Year Rule
513(1)
The Statutory Bar
513(2)
The Certification Year
515(1)
Voluntary Recognition Bar
516(2)
Pendency of Unfair Labor Practice Charges
518(3)
Unlawful Employer Assistance
521(1)
Fluctuating Work Force
521(2)
Contract-Bar Doctrine
523(1)
Requisites of the Contract
523(2)
Duration of the Contract
525(2)
Unlawful Clauses
527(1)
Union Security
527(1)
Checkoff
528(1)
Racial Discrimination
529(1)
``Hot Cargo''
529(1)
Expanding Units
529(1)
Prehire Agreements
530(1)
Relocation and Consolidation
531(1)
Purchasers
532(1)
Accretions
533(2)
Schism, Defunctness, and Disclaimer
535(1)
Schism
536(1)
Defunctness
536(1)
Disclaimer
537(1)
Expiration of the Contract Bar: Timeliness
538(1)
The Open Period
538(1)
The Insulated Period
539(1)
After the Terminal Date
540(2)
Clarification of Units
542(3)
Election Procedures
545(42)
Preelection Matters
545(1)
Types of Elections
546(1)
Details of the Election
547(1)
Date
547(1)
Time
548(1)
Place
548(1)
Voter List and Eligibility
549(1)
The Excelsior List of Eligible Voters' Names and Addresses
549(3)
Eligibility
552(8)
Notice of Election
560(1)
Review of Direction of Election
561(2)
The Election Proper
563(1)
Observers
563(1)
Balloting
564(1)
The Ballot
564(1)
Voting
565(1)
Mail Ballots
565(1)
Defective Ballots
566(1)
Challenges
567(2)
Standards for the Conduct of Elections
569(2)
The Opportunity to Vote
571(2)
Conduct in and Around the Polling Areas
573(2)
The Integrity of the Ballots and the Ballot Box
575(1)
Conduct of Board Agents
576(2)
Resolution of Challenges and Objections to the Election
578(1)
Challenges
578(1)
Objections to the Election
579(3)
Resolution of Challenges and Objections
582(1)
Runoff and Rerun Elections
583(2)
Certification and Revocation
585(2)
Appropriate Bargaining Units
587(91)
Background
589(3)
General Factors in Unit Determinations
592(6)
Community of Interest Among Employees
592(1)
Extent of Union Organization
593(2)
Desires of the Employees---The Globe Doctrine
595(2)
Bargaining History
597(1)
Employer's Organizational Structure
598(1)
Types of Units
598(80)
Unit Classifications Required by the Act
598(1)
Professionals
599(2)
Guards
601(4)
Unit Classifications in General
605(1)
Craft Units
605(6)
Departmental Units
611(2)
Plant and Employer Units
613(6)
Specialized Units
619(1)
Units in Health Care Institutions
619(1)
Background: The 1974 Amendment to the Act
619(2)
Development of the Law: Application of Community of Interest Standard and the Eight-Unit Result
621(1)
Physicians, Excluding Interns and Residents
621(1)
Registered Nurses
622(2)
Other Professionals
624(1)
Technical Employees
624(1)
Business Office Clericals
625(1)
Service and Maintenance Employees
626(2)
Guards
628(1)
Development of the Law: Adoption of the ``Disparity of Interest'' Standard in St. Francis (II)
628(2)
Development of the Law: The Return to the Eight-Unit Standard: The Board Engages in Rulemaking and the Supreme Court Approves
630(2)
Application of the Rule
632(1)
Units in Nonacute Health Care Institutions
633(1)
Related Issues
634(1)
Single-Facility v. Multifacility Units
634(2)
Prior Bargaining History in the Institution
636(1)
Stipulated Units
636(1)
Decertification Elections
637(1)
Supervisory Determinations
637(3)
Units in Colleges and Universities
640(1)
Background
640(1)
Development of the Law: Basic Structure of Professional Units and the Impact of Yeshiva
641(1)
The Unit of All Full-Time Faculty Members
641(1)
Development of the Law: Faculty as Managerial and Supervisory Employees---NLRB v. Yeshiva University
641(3)
Yeshiva Applied to Faculty
644(2)
Other Specific Inclusions and Exclusions
646(1)
Department Chairpersons
646(1)
``Principal Investigators''
647(1)
Administrative Officials
648(1)
Program Directors
648(1)
Coaches
648(1)
Visiting Faculty
649(1)
Members of Religious Orders
649(2)
Part-Time Faculty
651(1)
Librarians
652(1)
Research Associates and Assistants
653(1)
Graduate Students
653(1)
Counselors
653(1)
Scope of the Units
654(1)
Multicampus Units
654(1)
Separate Units for Professional and Graduate School Faculty
654(2)
Units in the U.S. Postal Service
656(1)
Background
656(1)
The Basic Unit
657(2)
The U.S. Postal Service's Challenge to the Basic Units
659(1)
Multi-Employer Bargaining Units
660(1)
The Role of Multi-Employer Units in the Bargaining Process
660(3)
Establishment of the Multi-Employer Unit: Its Consensual Nature
663(4)
Dissolution of the Unit
667(1)
Total Dissolution
667(2)
Withdrawal After Bargaining Begins
669(1)
Withdrawal After Impasse: The Bonanno Linen Rule
670(4)
Scope of the Multi-Employer Unit
674(2)
Multilevel Bargaining Units
676(2)
Recognition and Withdrawal of Recognition Without an Election
678(81)
Introduction
679(3)
History
682(11)
The Practice Under the Wagner Act
682(1)
The Joy Silk Period
683(5)
The Gissel Decision
688(5)
Elements of a Bargaining Obligation in the Absence of an Election
693(29)
Majority Representation
693(1)
Form of Designation
694(1)
Name of Union
695(1)
Status of the Solicitor
695(1)
Time of Execution
696(1)
Authentication
697(1)
Demand for Recognition in an Appropriate Unit
697(3)
Employer Unfair Labor Practices
700(1)
Conduct Warranting a Gissel Bargaining Order
701(1)
No Per Se Rules
701(1)
``Hallmark'' Violations: Invasive Employer Conduct
702(3)
Other Specific Employer Unfair Labor Practices
705(1)
Threats
705(2)
Promise or Grant of Benefits
707(1)
Unlawful Efforts to Undermine or Discourage Union Support
707(2)
Interrogation
709(1)
Other Offenses
709(2)
Conduct Not Warranting a Gissel Bargaining Order
711(5)
The Bargaining Order as an Extraordinary Remedy
716(1)
Where the Employer Does Not Violate Section 8(a)(5)
716(2)
Where the Employer Commits ``Outrageous'' Violations But the Union Lacks Proof of Majority Support
718(4)
Bargaining Obligation Established by Employer Card Checks, Polls, and Other Independent Means
722(5)
Defenses to the Remedial Bargaining Order
727(12)
Union Lack of Majority Status
727(1)
Timing of the Demand for Recognition
728(1)
Invalid Authorization
729(1)
In General
729(1)
Nature of the Card
730(1)
Misrepresentations
731(1)
Coercion and Related Interference
732(1)
Supervisory Interference
733(1)
Change of Circumstances
733(4)
Union Discrimination or Misconduct
737(2)
Withdrawal of Recognition
739(20)
Employee Activity or Inactivity as a Justifying Consideration
744(5)
Activity or Inactivity by the Union
749(3)
Filing of Decertification Petition
752(1)
Bargaining-Unit Factors
753(1)
Miscellaneous Factors
754(5)
Part IV THE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS
The Duty to Bargain
759(241)
Introduction
761(12)
Historical Background
761(2)
Origin of Concept of Collective Bargaining
763(1)
The Wagner Act
764(1)
The Taft-Hartley Amendments: The Statutory Language
765(2)
Elements of the Bargaining Obligation
767(1)
The Duty to Meet, Confer, and Negotiate
767(1)
The Obligation to Deal in Good Faith
768(2)
The Subjects of Bargaining
770(3)
Per Se Violations
773(20)
Unilateral Changes
773(10)
Bargaining Directly With Employees
783(2)
Refusal to Execute Written Contract
785(2)
Refusal to Meet at Reasonable Times
787(1)
Refusal to Confer
788(1)
Insisting on Nonmandatory Subjects of Bargaining
789(4)
The Good Faith Requirement
793(63)
Totality of Conduct Assessed: General Electric and the Proper Roles of the Parties
793(9)
Indicia of Good or Bad Faith
802(1)
Surface Bargaining
802(10)
Concessions, Proposals, and Demands
812(1)
Concessions
812(6)
Proposals and Demands
818(7)
Contract Duration
825(1)
Checkoff
826(2)
Management Rights
828(2)
Dilatory Tactics: Refusing to Confer at Reasonable Times and Intervals
830(6)
Representative With Inadequate Authority to Bargain
836(1)
Imposing Conditions
837(3)
Unilateral Changes
840(7)
Bypassing the Representative: Individual Contracts of Employment
847(6)
Commission of Unfair Labor Practices
853(3)
The Duty to Furnish Information
856(54)
The Role of Information in the Collective Bargaining Relationship---An Overview
856(1)
Bargaining Over New Terms and Conditions
856(1)
Representation Under an Existing Collective Bargaining Agreement
857(1)
Refusal to Furnish Information as an Unfair Labor Practice
858(2)
The Union's Duty to Supply Information
860(1)
Nature of the Duty to Furnish Information
861(1)
Request or Demand
861(3)
Relevance or Necessity
864(7)
Availability
871(2)
Manner and Form
873(3)
Employer Defenses
876(1)
Claims of Confidentiality or Privilege Based on Employer Interests
877(5)
Claims of Confidentiality or Privilege Based on Employee Privacy or Protection
882(4)
Waiver by Union
886(3)
When the Duty Exists
889(4)
Information That Must Be Furnished
893(1)
Financial Information
893(8)
Other Information
901(9)
Economic Pressure During Bargaining
910(8)
Bargaining Impasses
918(15)
Elements of Impasse
918(7)
Effect on the Bargaining Obligation
925(8)
Defenses and Exceptions: Waiver, Suspension, and Termination of Bargaining Rights
933(25)
Waiver of Bargaining Rights
933(1)
Waiver by Express Agreement
934(3)
``Zipper'' Clauses
937(2)
``Management-Rights'' Clauses
939(3)
Board Jurisdiction to Construe Collective Bargaining Agreements
942(1)
Waiver by Bargaining History
943(3)
Waiver by Inaction
946(5)
Suspension During Illegal or Unprotected Activity
951(2)
Union Loss of Majority
953(5)
The Construction Industry: Section 8(f)
958(9)
History of Bargaining in the Industry and Application of Section 8(f)
958(4)
The Deklewa Decision: Binding Section 8(f) Agreements and the Duty to Bargain
962(5)
Notice to Terminate or Modify the Labor Agreement
967(8)
Notice Requirements Generally
967(5)
Notice Requirements in the Health Care Industry
972(3)
Coalition or Coordinated Bargaining
975(6)
Bargaining During the Term of an Existing Agreement
981(7)
Dual Employer Operations: The ``Double-Breasted'' Issue
988(12)
Effect of Change in Bargaining Representative During the Term of a Collective Bargaining Agreement
1000(17)
Context in Which the Issue Arises
1000(2)
Rights and Obligations of New Bargaining Representative and Employer Under Contract With Prior Representative
1002(4)
Representation Proceedings
1002(1)
Section 8(a) (5) Proceedings: American Seating
1003(2)
Right of Superseded Contracting Union
1005(1)
Mergers and Transfers of Affiliation
1006(11)
Due Process
1008(3)
Continuity of Representation
1011(6)
Effect of Change in the Employing Unit: Successorship
1017(138)
Scope of the Topic
1018(4)
Factual Setting
1018(2)
A Summary of the Law
1020(2)
Historical Development
1022(17)
Early Rulings
1022(2)
Wiley v. Livingston: Under Section 301 Contract Obligations of Merged Employer Survive the Merger
1024(3)
Impact of Wiley: The Courts
1027(1)
Impact of Wiley: The Board
1027(1)
The Burns Case: Under NLRA, Is New Employer Bound to Prior Employer's Contract?
1028(2)
Burns: The Supreme Court's View
1030(1)
The Bargaining Obligation
1030(1)
The Contractual Obligation
1031(2)
Aftermath of Burns
1033(1)
Howard Johnson: The Triumph of Burns Over Wiley
1034(2)
Golden State Bottling Co.: Duty to Remedy Predecessor's Unfair Labor Practices
1036(2)
Fall River Dyeing: ``Successor'' Further Defined
1038(1)
Successorship and the Bargaining Obligation
1039(54)
Continuity of the Work Force: ``The Concept of Majority''
1039(1)
The Applicable Yardstick
1040(5)
The Appropriate Time for Measuring Majority Status
1045(5)
Presumption of the Union's Continued Majority Status
1050(12)
Discriminatory Refusals to Hire Predecessor's Employees
1062(6)
Continuity of Identity in the Business Enterprise or Employing Industry
1068(8)
Continuity of the Appropriate Bargaining Unit
1076(7)
The Effect of Hiatus
1083(2)
Determining When the Bargaining Obligation Attaches
1085(8)
Successorship and the Contractual Obligation
1093(48)
The ``Alter Ego'' Employer
1093(3)
Alter Ego Status Compared With Single-Employer Status
1096(3)
The Defining Factors of the Alter Ego Employer
1099(3)
The Factor of Common Ownership
1102(6)
The Factor of Employer Motive to Evade Labor Obligations
1108(5)
Alter Ego Status Based on the ``Disguised Continuance of the Old Employer''
1113(3)
Individual Liability: ``Piercing the Veil'' of the Alter Ego Employer Entity
1116(5)
Application of Alter Ego Test in Section 301 Actions and in Arbitration
1121(4)
Application of Alter Ego Test in Bankruptcy Settings
1125(4)
The Stock Purchaser
1129(7)
Adoption of Predecessor's Contract
1136(5)
Successorship and the Contract-Bar Doctrine
1141(4)
Liability of Successor for Predecessor's Unfair Labor Practices
1145(10)
Subjects of Bargaining
1155(136)
Introduction
1157(1)
Historical Background
1157(3)
Development of the Distinction Between ``Mandatory'' and ``Permissive''
1160(10)
Borg-Warner---The Basic Principles
1160(3)
Pittsburgh Plate Glass---The ``Vitally Affects'' Test
1163(1)
Ford Motor Co.---The Role of the Board and of Industry Bargaining Practices
1164(2)
First National Maintenance Corp.---The Balancing Test
1166(2)
Application of First National: From Otis Elevator to Dubuque Packing
1168(2)
Mandatory Subjects of Bargaining
1170(84)
Wages
1171(1)
In General
1171(1)
Specific Forms of Compensation
1172(1)
Bonuses
1172(3)
Pensions
1175(5)
Health and Welfare, and Insurance Plans
1180(6)
Profit-Sharing Plans
1186(1)
Stock Purchase Plans
1187(1)
Merit Wage Increases
1187(4)
Housing, Meals, Services, and Discounts Supplied by Employer
1191(4)
Payments and Charges to Nonemployees That Affect Wages of Employees
1195(1)
Effect of Governmental Wage Controls
1196(1)
Hours
1197(3)
Other Terms and Conditions of Employment
1200(1)
In General
1200(2)
Specific Terms and Requirements
1202(1)
Seniority, Promotions, and Transfers
1202(3)
Retirement Eligibility
1205(1)
Union-Security Provisions and Hiring Halls
1205(2)
Management-Rights and Waiver Clauses
1207(3)
Plant Rules and Discipline
1210(4)
Drug and Alcohol Testing
1214(2)
Grievance Procedures and Arbitration
1216(1)
Safety and Health
1217(2)
No-Strike and No-Lockout Clauses
1219(1)
Work Assignments
1220(3)
No-Discrimination Provisions
1223(1)
Change in Operations
1224(2)
Major Business Changes
1226(1)
Subcontracting and Removal of Work From the Bargaining Unit
1226(1)
Background
1227(1)
Supreme Court Decisions
1228(6)
Otis Elevator II
1234(2)
Effects of the Decision to Subcontract or Transfer Work
1236(1)
Relocation of Unit Work
1237(2)
Partial Closure, Sale, or Merger of Business, or Plant Relocation
1239(10)
Successorship and ``Application of Contract'' Clauses
1249(2)
Arrangements and Conditions for Negotiations
1251(3)
Permissive Subjects of Bargaining
1254(28)
In General
1254(3)
Specific Subjects
1257(1)
Definition of Bargaining Unit
1257(7)
Parties to a Collective Bargaining Agreement
1264(1)
Selection of Bargaining Representative
1265(1)
Union-Recognition Clause
1266(1)
Performance Bonds, Indemnifications, and Legal Liability Clauses
1267(2)
Administrative Expense Funds
1269(1)
Interest Arbitration and Bi-Level Bargaining
1269(4)
Internal Union Affairs
1273(2)
Union Label
1275(1)
Industry Promotion Funds
1276(1)
Employees Excluded From Coverage of the Act: Supervisors and Agricultural Labor
1277(1)
Settlement of Unfair Labor Practice Charges
1278(2)
Tape Recordings, Stenographers, and Other Technical Preconditions on the Bargaining Process
1280(1)
Miscellaneous
1280(2)
Illegal Subjects of Bargaining
1282(9)
Relationship to Duty to Bargain
1282(2)
Specific Illegal Subjects
1284(7)
Part V ARBITRATION AND THE ACT
Relation of Board Action to Enforcement of Agreements Under Section 301
1291(74)
Introduction
1294(1)
Section 10 (a) Power of the Board
1295(2)
Scope and Purpose of Section 301
1297(33)
Background and Legislative History
1297(1)
Background
1297(1)
Legislative History
1298(2)
A Source of Federal Substantive Law
1300(3)
The Steelworkers Trilogy
1303(7)
Jurisdiction of the Courts: State and Federal
1310(1)
Jurisdiction of the Courts: Preemption
1311(1)
Overlapping Jurisdiction: Conflict or Accommodation?
1312(1)
Federal and State Courts
1312(1)
Concurrent Jurisdiction
1312(1)
Statutes of Limitations
1313(7)
The Board and the Courts
1320(10)
Injunctions in Aid of Arbitration: Section 301 Versus Norris-LaGuardia
1330(29)
The Supreme Court First Bars, Then, in Boys Markets, Allows, Enjoining of Strikes Over Arbitrable Grievances
1330(3)
The Boys Markets Injunction: Halting the Strike Over an Arbitrable Grievance
1333(1)
The Prerequisites for Issuance of Injunctive Relief
1333(1)
In General
1333(2)
Strike in Breach of a Contract
1335(3)
Strike Over an Arbitrable Dispute
1338(4)
Irreparable Injury and the Balance of Equities
1342(2)
Employer Ordered to Arbitrate
1344(1)
Limitations on Prospective Relief; Mootness
1344(2)
Sympathy Strikes Not Enjoinable: Buffalo Forge
1346(4)
Safety Strikes
1350(1)
Injunctions Against Employers to Preserve the Status Quo
1351(7)
Injunction Suits in State Courts
1358(1)
NLRB Interpretation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement
1359(6)
Statutory Authority to Interpret Agreements
1360(3)
Cases Where the Board Interprets Contract Provisions
1363(1)
Interpretation of Lawful Contract Clauses
1363(1)
Interpretation to Determine Whether Express Statutory Prohibitions Have Been Violated
1364(1)
Accommodation of Board Action to the Arbitration Process
1365(87)
Introduction and Historical Development
1366(25)
Arbitration and the Courts
1366(4)
Jurisdiction of the NLRB Over Arbitral Matters
1370(6)
From Post-Arbitration Deferral Under Spielberg to Prearbitration Deferral Under Collyer
1376(1)
The Spielberg Rationale for Board Deferral After an Arbitrator Has Ruled
1376(2)
The Collyer Rationale for Board Deferral Before Arbitration Has Occurred
1378(7)
Collyer in the Reviewing Courts
1385(1)
Contractions and Expansions of Collyer Deferral Policy
1386(1)
Restricting the Deferral Practice: General American Transportation
1386(1)
Expanding the Deferral Practice: United Technologies
1387(4)
The Board's Dubo Deferral Policy
1391(1)
Prearbitral Deferral: Applying the Collyer Doctrine
1391(23)
The Parties' Relationship
1391(4)
The Parties' Willingness to Arbitrate and Arbitrability
1395(3)
Whether the Dispute Centers on the Collective Bargaining Agreement
1398(1)
Matters Incidentally Related to the Collective Bargaining Agreement
1398(7)
Discharge and Discipline Cases
1405(1)
Matters Involving the Contract: Unilateral Action
1406(5)
Demands for Information
1411(1)
The Board's Continuing Role in Collyer and Dubo Deferral Cases
1412(2)
Post-Arbitral Deferral: Applying the Spielberg Standards
1414(18)
The Issue Under the Act Was Presented and Considered in Arbitration
1415(1)
Development of the Law: Early Indecision and Vacillation
1415(3)
The Current Standard: ``Factual Parallelism'' Under Olin
1418(2)
Application of the ``Factual Parallelism'' Standard
1420(3)
Fair and Regular Proceedings
1423(1)
The Arbitral Procedure
1423(1)
Hostility of the Tribunal or Union Representative Toward the Grievant
1424(1)
Agreement of All Parties to Be Bound
1425(1)
The Award Is Not Repugnant to the Policies of the Act
1426(6)
Other Factors Affecting the Board's Post-Arbitral Deferral Policy
1432(11)
Representation Cases
1432(3)
Certain Unfair Labor Practices: Sections 8(a)(2) and 8(a)(4)
1435(1)
Work-Assignment Disputes, Deferral by Statute
1436(2)
Settlement or Other Disposition Under a Grievance Procedure Short of an Arbitral Award
1438(1)
Deferral to Joint Committee Awards
1438(1)
Deferral to Voluntary Grievance Settlements
1439(2)
Deferral to Grievances Dropped by the Union
1441(1)
Failure to Abide by an Arbitral Award
1442(1)
Response of the Reviewing Court to the Board's Deferral Standards
1443(9)
In Memoriam xxvii
Foreword xxxi
Preface xxxiii
Part VI ECONOMIC ACTION
The Primary Strike
1452(59)
Introduction: The Right to Strike
1453(17)
Constitutional Protection
1455(7)
Preemption
1462(2)
Statutory Protections and Restrictions
1464(1)
Protections to Engage in Strikes
1464(2)
Restrictions on the Right to Strike
1466(4)
Strikes Protected Under the Act
1470(16)
The Requirement of a Labor Dispute
1470(1)
Economic and Unfair Labor Practice Strikes
1471(1)
Unfair Labor Practice Strikes
1472(6)
Economic Strikes
1478(8)
Unprotected and Prohibited Strikes
1486(15)
Unlawful or Wrongful Means
1486(1)
Sit-Down or Sit-In Strikes
1486(1)
Minority Strikes
1487(1)
Partial and Intermittent Strikes
1488(2)
Picket Line Misconduct; Strike Violence
1490(5)
Unlawful or Wrongful Ends
1495(1)
Strikes in Violation of the Act
1496(2)
Strikes in Breach of Contract
1498(2)
Strikes in Circumvention of the Exclusive Bargaining Representative
1500(1)
Rights of Employees Respecting Picket Lines: Sympathy Strikes
1501(10)
Statutory Rights of Employees
1501(5)
Effect of Contractual Waiver of Rights
1506(2)
Sympathy Strikes Not Enjoinable: Buffalo Forge
1508(3)
The Lockout
1511(33)
Introduction: Historical Perspective
1511(20)
Basic Concepts
1511(3)
Lockouts for Unlawful or Wrongful Purposes
1514(2)
Evolution of Justifiable Lockouts: The Defensive Lockout
1516(1)
The Single-Employer Defensive Lockout
1517(1)
The Defensive Multi-Employer Lockout
1518(2)
Legitimation of the ``Offensive'' Lockout: Economic Lockouts and American Ship Building
1520(5)
Brown Food and Its Progeny---The Multi-Employer Lockout
1525(6)
Contemporary Law of Lockouts
1531(13)
The Offensive Economic Lockout---In General
1531(1)
Lockouts Occurring in Conjunction With Employer Unfair Labor Practices
1532(3)
The Use of Replacements
1535(2)
The Pre-Impasse Lockout
1537(3)
The Lockout During First Negotiations
1540(1)
The Partial Lockout
1540(1)
The ``Common Interest'' Lockout
1541(1)
Timing of Lockout
1542(2)
Picketing for Organization and Recognition
1544(70)
Introduction: Recognitional Picketing in History
1545(4)
Taft-Hartley Amendments: Section 8(b)(4)(C) Forbids Picketing Where Another Union Is Certified
1545(1)
Curtis Brothers: Recognitional Picketing Not Regulated by Section 8(b)(1)(A)
1546(1)
Landrum-Griffin Amendments: Enactment of Section 8(b)(7)
1547(2)
Picketing Defined
1549(6)
Threats of Picketing
1550(2)
Patrolling or Carrying Placards
1552(2)
Handbilling as Picketing
1554(1)
Proscribed Organizational or Recognitional Objective
1555(29)
Evidence of Proscribed Object
1557(6)
Picketing to Protest Unfair Labor Practices or Discharges
1563(6)
Area-Standards Picketing
1569(1)
Area-Standards Object Not Proscribed
1569(7)
Picketing on Private Property
1576(5)
Members-Only and Prehire Agreements
1581(3)
Picketing When Another Union Is Currently Recognized
1584(6)
Contract-Bar Limitations on Picketing
1585(2)
Section 8(a)(2): Assistance to Incumbent as Defense
1587(1)
Section 8(a)(2) Defense
1588(1)
Inapplicability of Informational Proviso
1589(1)
Picketing Within Twelve Months of a Valid Election
1590(6)
Validity of the Election
1593(1)
Invalidity of the Direction of Election
1594(1)
Other Assertions of Invalidity
1595(1)
Determinative Dates
1596(1)
The Violation
1596(1)
The Remedy
1596(1)
Picketing of Unreasonable Duration Absent a Petition
1596(7)
Reasonable Period of Time
1597(4)
Effect of Filing or Refraining From Filing a Petition
1601(2)
The Informational Picketing Proviso
1603(11)
Scope of the Proviso: Dual-Purpose Picketing
1606(1)
The Statutory Requisites
1607(1)
Appeal to the Public
1607(2)
Truthfully Advising the Public
1609(2)
Absence of Impermissible Effect
1611(3)
Secondary Activity: Handbills, Pickets, and Strikes
1614(131)
Introduction: Development of the Law
1616(13)
The Generally Protected Nature of Picketing and Handbilling
1616(1)
The Constitutional Dimensions
1616(3)
Basic Statutory Protection
1619(2)
Regulation of Secondary Activity Before Taft-Hartley
1621(4)
The Taft-Hartley Amendments: Secondary Activity Limited
1625(1)
The Landrum-Griffin Amendments: Closing the Taft-Hartley ``Loopholes''
1626(3)
Section 8(b)(4)(B): Prohibited Secondary Activity Defined
1629(66)
Definitions of Terms
1629(7)
The Elusive Distinction Between Primary and Secondary Conduct
1636(3)
The Situs of the Dispute
1639(1)
Primary Situs
1639(3)
Common and Ambulatory Situs
1642(5)
The Reserved Gate and the Related-Work Test
1647(1)
General Electric: To Whom May the Union Appeal?
1647(4)
Carrier Corp
1651(1)
Application in the Construction Industry
1652(5)
Application Generally: The Totality of Conduct Test
1657(3)
The First Moore Dry Dock Criterion: The Primary Employer Is Present at the Site
1660(3)
The Second Moore Dry Dock Criterion: The Primary Employer Is Engaged in Its Normal Business at the Situs
1663(1)
The Third Moore Dry Dock Criterion: Picketing Must Occur Reasonably Close to the Situs of the Primary Employer
1664(6)
The Fourth Moore Dry Dock Criterion: Picketing Must Identify the Primary Employer
1670(1)
The Ally Doctrine
1670(2)
Struck Work
1672(5)
The Straight-Line Operation/Single-Employer Status
1677(5)
Applying the Primary-Secondary Tests
1682(2)
Conduct Other Than Picketing
1684(4)
Nature of Related Work
1688(1)
Location of the Picketing
1689(2)
Political Boycotts
1691(4)
Handbilling
1695(15)
DeBartolo II: Consumer Handbilling Not Prohibited by Section 8(b)(4)(B)
1695(3)
Standards for Lawful Handbilling
1698(2)
The Conduct of Handbilling
1700(3)
Location of Handbilling
1703(1)
Lechmere: Nonemployee Access to Employer Property Curtailed
1704(1)
Limitations on Nonemployee Handbilling on Employer Property After Lechmere
1705(5)
Consumer Picketing
1710(14)
The Tree Fruits Case: Point of Sale Picketing of Struck Product
1711(2)
Development of the Law After Tree Fruits
1713(1)
``Merged Products'' and Other Problems of the Economic Setting
1714(2)
Total Economic Boycott of the Secondary Employer---The Safeco Caveat
1716(4)
Specificity of the Union's Appeal: Location and Timing
1720(3)
Application by State Courts
1723(1)
Actions for Damages Under Section 303
1724(21)
Nature of the Action
1724(1)
Relationship to Section 8(b)(4)
1724(3)
Who Can Sue and Be Sued?
1727(6)
Relationship to Related Board Proceedings-Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel
1733(2)
The Measure of Damages
1735(6)
Limitations, Federal Preemption, and Supplemental Jurisdiction
1741(1)
Statutes of Limitations
1741(1)
Federal Preemption
1742(1)
Supplemental Jurisdiction
1743(2)
Section 8(e): The ``Hot-Cargo'' Agreement
1745(64)
Introduction: The Law Before Landrum-Griffin
1746(3)
Enactment of Section 8(e): Agreements to Boycott Prohibited
1749(4)
Scope of the Provision
1749(3)
Constitutionality
1752(1)
Interpretation and Application
1753(56)
Definitions and Coverage
1753(6)
Picket Line Clause
1759(3)
Struck and Nonunion Goods and Work
1762(3)
Subcontracting and Work-Allocation Clauses
1765(1)
Early Development
1765(6)
National Woodwork: Work Preservation as Primary Objective
1771(3)
Application of National Woodwork
1774(1)
Work-Preservation Clauses Generally
1774(7)
Union-Standards Clauses
1781(2)
Fringe-Benefit Fund Clauses
1783(2)
Right-of-Control Exception: Enterprise Association
1785(5)
Construction Industry Proviso Allowing Agreements Concerning Job-Site Work
1790(1)
Scope of the Proviso: Connell and Woelke & Romero
1790(6)
Job-Site Work
1796(3)
Obtaining and Enforcing Subcontracting Agreements
1799(3)
Clauses Prohibiting Double-Breasting
1802(3)
Garment Industry Proviso
1805(4)
Jurisdictional Disputes and ``Featherbedding''
1809(47)
Introduction
1809(1)
Jurisdictional Disputes
1810(38)
Background: Development of the Law
1810(1)
Enactment of Sections 8(b) (4) (D) and 10(k)
1810(1)
Limited Enforcement by the Board
1811(1)
The CBS Case
1812(2)
Scope of Section 8(b)(4)(D)
1814(9)
Procedure in Jurisdictional Dispute Cases
1823(1)
Generally
1823(2)
Voluntary Adjustment
1825(4)
Disclaimer
1829(1)
Judicial Review of Section 10(k) Awards
1830(2)
Factors Determining Jurisdictional Disputes
1832(7)
Post-Hearing Procedure
1839(6)
Relationship of Section 8(b) (4) (D) Proceedings to Other Actions and Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings
1845(3)
``Featherbedding''
1848(8)
Background
1848(1)
Judicial Limitations
1849(3)
Application of the Law
1852(4)
Part VII RELATIONS BETWEEN EMPLOYEE AND UNION
The Duty of Fair Representation
1856(105)
Introduction: Origin of the Duty
1858(7)
Relationship to Exclusive Representation: Steele and Tunstall
1858(3)
The Duty Defined: Vaca v. Sipes
1861(4)
Jurisdiction and Procedures to Enforce the Duty
1865(34)
The Courts
1865(2)
Exhaustion of Contractual Remedies
1867(5)
Exhaustion of Internal Union Remedies
1872(8)
Parties to Fair Representation Actions
1880(2)
Right to Jury Trial
1882(2)
The Labor Board
1884(1)
Unfair Labor Practice Cases
1884(5)
Board Representation Proceedings
1889(3)
Preemption and Accommodation
1892(7)
Nature of the Duty
1899(34)
The Duty Described
1899(11)
The Nature of the Duty in Grievance Handling and Contract Administration
1910(10)
The Duty in Collective Bargaining
1920(13)
Statutes of Limitations
1933(8)
Remedies
1941(20)
The Board
1941(1)
Unfair Labor Practice Cases
1941(6)
Representation Proceedings
1947(1)
The Courts
1948(1)
Damages
1948(4)
Attorneys' Fees
1952(4)
Injunctions and Other Equitable Remedies
1956(2)
Apportionment of Liability
1958(3)
Union Security
1961(100)
Introduction: Historical Evolution
1962(6)
Union Security: The Obligation of Membership
1962(3)
The Wagner Act and the Closed Shop
1965(1)
The Taft-Hartley Amendments: Modifying the Lawful Obligations of Membership
1965(2)
Developments After Taft-Hartley
1967(1)
Required Membership---The Union Shop
1968(33)
In General
1968(2)
Financial Core Membership
1970(5)
Failure to Tender Payments
1975(2)
Miscellaneous Requirements
1977(2)
Enforcement Procedures
1979(6)
The 30-Day Grace Period
1985(2)
Uniform Periodic Dues and Fees
1987(1)
The Requirements of Sections 8(a)(3) and (b)(2)
1987(6)
Excessive or Discriminatory Initiation Fees---Section 8(b)(5)
1993(2)
The Belated Tender
1995(2)
The Contract Bar
1997(1)
Representation Elections
1997(1)
Union-Shop Deauthorization Elections
1998(1)
The Section 8(f) Exception: The Construction Industry
1999(2)
Variations: The Agency Shop and Maintenance of Membership
2001(6)
Agency Shop
2001(4)
Maintenance of Membership
2005(2)
Section 14(b) and State ``Right-to-Work'' Laws
2007(7)
Hiring-Hall and Job-Referral Practices
2014(17)
General Rules
2014(13)
Remedies
2027(4)
The Dues Checkoff
2031(12)
The LMRA and the Courts
2032(3)
The Checkoff in the Public Sector
2035(1)
The NLRB
2036(1)
Jurisdiction of the Board
2036(3)
Specific Violations
2039(4)
Constitutional Dimensions and Other Statutory Requirements
2043(18)
Constitutionality of the Union Shop
2043(3)
Effect of Political Expenditures
2046(11)
Religious Objectors
2057(4)
Part VIII ADMINISTRATION OF THE ACT
Jurisdiction: Coverage of the Act
2061(108)
Constitutionality
2062(8)
As a Regulation of Commerce
2062(3)
The Shadow of the First Amendment: Jurisdiction Over Religious Organizations
2065(5)
Statutory Jurisdiction
2070(21)
Basic Coverage: ``Commerce'' and ``Affecting Commerce''
2070(6)
Foreign Operations
2076(4)
The United States Postal Service
2080(1)
Health Care Institutions
2081(4)
Nonprofit Organizations
2085(3)
Relation to Jurisdictions of Other Agencies
2088(1)
Railway Labor Act
2088(1)
Shipping Act
2089(2)
Definitions and Limitations on Coverage
2091(61)
Person
2091(1)
Employer
2092(1)
Single-Employer Status
2093(5)
Agents
2098(2)
Exclusions From Coverage of the Act
2100(7)
Employee
2107(1)
In General
2107(3)
Excluded Categories of Employees
2110(1)
Supervisors
2110(10)
Managerial Employees
2120(4)
Confidential Employees
2124(2)
Agricultural Laborers
2126(5)
Independent Contractors
2131(1)
In General
2131(2)
Insurance Agents
2133(1)
Owner-Operators in the Trucking Industry
2134(2)
Newspaper Carriers and Distributors
2136(2)
Free-Lance Performers, Musicians, and Announcers
2138(1)
Taxicab Owner-Operators and Lessees
2139(2)
Service Station Operators
2141(1)
Free-Lance Photographers
2141(1)
Miscellaneous Classifications
2141(5)
Family Members and Relationships
2146(2)
Domestic Servants
2148(1)
Medical Residents and Interns
2149(1)
Employees of ``Nonemployers''
2150(1)
Retired Employees
2150(2)
Discretionary Administrative Jurisdictional Standards
2152(17)
In General
2152(2)
Specific Assertions or Denials of Coverage
2154(12)
Advisory Opinions and Declaratory Orders
2166(3)
Federal Preemption of State Regulation
2169(102)
Introduction
2170(5)
The Constitutional Basis
2172(1)
The Congressional Role
2173(1)
The Judicial Role
2174(1)
Evolution of Preemption Doctrine
2175(29)
The Actual and Potential Conflict of State and Federal Regulation
2175(1)
The Briggs & Stratton Detour: State Regulation of Conduct Left Unregulated by Congress
2176(1)
The Preemptive Effect of NLRB Primary Jurisdiction
2177(2)
Federalism: Recognizing Important Matters of Particular Local Concern
2179(3)
Matters of Peripheral Concern to the NLRA
2182(2)
A Brief Gap in Regulation: State Power Preempted Despite Board Refusal to Act
2184(1)
A Foundation: Garmon Preempts State Regulation of Conduct Arguably Protected or Prohibited by the Act
2184(8)
Briggs & Stratton Overruled: States May Not Regulate Economic Weapons Furnished by Congress
2192(8)
Garmon Refined: Reconsidering the Preemption of Arguably Protected or Prohibited Conduct
2200(4)
Garmon Preemption in Specific Situations
2204(17)
Picketing in General
2205(1)
Trespass
2206(3)
Violence, Threats of Violence, and Intimidation
2209(3)
Other Intentional Torts
2212(1)
Defamation: Linn v. Plant Guard Workers
2212(3)
Inflicting Emotional Distress: Farmer v. Carpenters
2215(2)
Internal Union Matters
2217(4)
Preemption Under Section 301
2221(32)
Section 301 Suits
2221(2)
The Preemptive Effect of Section 301
2223(18)
Relationship to NLRB
2241(1)
Introduction: Exclusive Jurisdiction of Board Versus Concurrent Jurisdiction
2241(2)
Jurisdiction in Representation Matters
2243(4)
Jurisdiction in Other Matters
2247(2)
Relationship to the Norris-LaGuardia Act
2249(4)
Preemptive Effect of Other Statutory Provisions
2253(18)
Section 303 Actions
2253(2)
State Power Under Section 14(b) to Regulate Union-Security Agreements
2255(3)
State Power to Regulate When the Board Declines Jurisdiction Under Section 14(c)
2258(2)
Board Cession Under Section 10(a)
2260(1)
Fair Representation
2261(1)
Concurrent Jurisdiction of Board and Courts
2261(2)
Federal Law Governs
2263(4)
Disputes Not Within the Coverage of the NLRA
2267(4)
Accommodations to Other Federal Enactments
2271(51)
The NLRA and the Antitrust Law
2272(26)
Historical Development of the Antitrust Laws
2273(3)
Loss of the Exemption Through Combination With Nonlabor Groups
2276(3)
The Requirement of a ``Labor Dispute''
2279(3)
The Issue of the Board's Primary Jurisdiction
2282(1)
The Connell Decision: Union Restraints on Subcontracting in the Construction Industry
2283(4)
Application of the Statutory and Nonstatutory Exemption After Connell
2287(11)
The NLRA and the Bankruptcy Code
2298(24)
Power of Bankruptcy Court to Reject Collective Bargaining Agreement
2298(1)
Requirements for Rejection of a Collective Bargaining Agreement
2299(6)
Modification of Post-Retirement Health Benefits
2305(1)
Bargaining After Rejection Is Authorized
2305(1)
Post-Petition Collective Bargaining Agreements
2306(1)
Priority of Wage and Employee Benefit Plan Contributions
2307(1)
Prepetition Claims
2307(1)
Post-Petition Claims for Wages and Benefits Due Under an Unrejected Agreement
2308(2)
Priority of Claims for Wages and Benefits Due Under Rejected Agreement
2310(1)
Enforcement of an Unrejected Collective Bargaining Agreement
2311(1)
Severance Pay and Withdrawal Liability
2312(2)
Limitations on Jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Courts
2314(1)
Bankruptcy Code Automatic Stay Provision
2315(2)
Jurisdiction of Bankruptcy Court to Enjoin NLRB Proceedings
2317(3)
Bankruptcy of a Labor Organization
2320(2)
RICO and Labor Law
2322(120)
Introduction
2324(2)
Historical Background of RICO and Its Applicability to Labor Disputes
2326(9)
Legislative History
2326(1)
Expansion of the Statute From a Measure to Control Organized Crime
2326(3)
RICO and Labor Disputes
2329(3)
Subsequent Amendments and Proposals to Limit RICO
2332(1)
State Laws Applicable to Labor Racketeering
2333(2)
Overview of the Statute
2335(38)
Key Elements
2335(1)
Racketeering Activity
2336(3)
Person
2339(1)
Enterprise
2340(4)
Pattern
2344(6)
Causation
2350(1)
Three Substantive Violations
2351(1)
18 U.S.C. §1962(a) (Using or Investing Racketeering Income)
2351(1)
Investment Injury
2352(1)
Person/Enterprise Distinction
2353(1)
U.S.C. §1962(b) (Acquiring or Maintaining an Interest in an Enterprise)
2354(1)
Acquisition Injury
2355(1)
Control
2356(1)
Person/Enterprise Distinction
2357(1)
U.S.C. §1962(c) (Conducting an Enterprise's Affairs Through Racketeering)
2357(2)
Person/Enterprise Distinction
2359(1)
Application to Corporate Relationships
2360(1)
Application to Association-in-Fact Enterprises
2361(3)
Operation or Management Requirement
2364(3)
U.S.C. §1962(d) (Conspiracy to Violate the Substantive Provisions)
2367(1)
Relationship to Substantive RICO Violations
2368(2)
Agreement by the Defendant to the Commission of Predicate Acts
2370(1)
Injury From an Act in Furtherance of the Conspiracy
2371(1)
Intra-Corporate Conspiracies
2371(2)
Predicate Acts Commonly Alleged in Labor Cases
2373(22)
18 U.S.C. §664: Embezzlement From Pension and Welfare Funds
2374(4)
18 U.S.C. §1954: Unlawful Welfare Fund Payments
2378(2)
29 U.S.C. §186: Restrictions on Payments and Loans to Labor Organizations
2380(4)
29 U.S.C. §501(c): Embezzlement From Union Funds
2384(3)
18 U.S.C. §1951: ``Racketeering'' Prohibited by the Hobbs Act
2387(1)
History of the Hobbs Act
2388(1)
Enmons
2389(2)
Application of the Hobbs Act to RICO Cases After Enmons
2391(1)
Legitimate Objectives
2392(2)
Property
2394(1)
Nonapplicability of Enmons to Other Statutes
2395(1)
Issues in Civil Litigation
2395(36)
Standing
2396(1)
Person
2396(1)
Business or Property
2396(2)
``By Reason of''
2398(4)
Standing Under Section 1962(d)
2402(2)
Accommodation to the Labor Laws
2404(2)
Early Leading Cases on ``Preemption'' of Civil RICO Claims
2406(1)
Butchers Local 498 v. SDC Investment
2407(1)
MHC, Inc. v. Mine Workers
2408(2)
The Emerging Majority Rule
2410(1)
Cases Recognizing Limited Labor Law ``Preemption''
2410(2)
Cases Rejecting Labor Law ``Preemption''
2412(3)
The Minority Rule
2415(1)
Accommodation of RICO and Labor Laws in Criminal and Consent Decree Cases
2415(3)
Vicarious Liability
2418(1)
Claims Under 18 U.S.C. §1962(c)
2418(1)
Where the Principal Is Not Distinct From the Enterprise
2418(2)
Where the Principal Is Distinct From the Enterprise
2420(3)
Claims Under 18 U.S.C. §§1962(a)--(b)
2423(1)
Aiding and Abetting Liability
2423(5)
Statute of Limitations
2428(3)
Remedies
2431(11)
Criminal Sentences
2431(1)
Criminal Forfeiture
2432(3)
Trusteeships and Other Injunctive Relief
2435(5)
Damages in Private Actions
2440(2)
NLRB Procedures
2442(49)
Organization of Board and Office of General Counsel
2443(6)
Background
2443(1)
The Board
2444(2)
The General Counsel
2446(1)
The Administrative Law Judges
2447(1)
The Regional Offices
2447(1)
Personnel and Budget
2448(1)
Procedures in Representation Cases
2449(15)
The Petition
2449(1)
Timeliness of Petitions
2450(2)
Investigation of Petitions
2452(2)
Consent Elections
2454(1)
Representation Hearings
2454(2)
Representation Decisions
2456(1)
By the Regional Director
2456(1)
By the Board
2456(1)
Oral Argument
2457(1)
The Election
2458(1)
Date and Place
2458(1)
Eligibility of Voters
2459(1)
Voting Procedure
2460(2)
Objections to the Election and Challenged Ballots
2462(1)
Amendment, Clarification, and Revocation
2463(1)
Deauthorization and Decertification Elections
2464(1)
Procedures in Unfair Labor Practice Cases
2464(15)
Background
2465(1)
The Unfair Labor Practice Charge
2466(1)
Time for Filing
2466(1)
Investigation of Charge
2467(1)
Disposition of Charge
2468(1)
Settlement of Unfair Labor Practice Charges
2468(1)
Informal Settlements
2469(1)
Formal Settlements
2470(1)
The Complaint and the Answer
2471(2)
The Unfair Labor Practice Hearing
2473(3)
The Administrative Law Judge's Decision
2476(1)
The Board's Decision
2476(1)
Compliance Procedures
2477(1)
Applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act
2477(2)
Procedures Applicable to All Cases
2479(7)
In General
2479(1)
Discovery
2480(2)
Subpoenas
2482(1)
Request for Information Under the Freedom of Information Act
2483(3)
Applicability of the Right of Privacy Act
2486(1)
The NLRB and Rulemaking
2486(4)
Other Rulemaking Initiatives
2490(1)
NLRB Orders and Remedies
2491(78)
General Principles
2493(2)
Orders in Representation Cases (Section 9)
2495(2)
Orders and Remedies in Complaint Cases (Section 10)
2497(72)
Provisional Remedies
2498(1)
General Principles
2499(1)
Discretionary Injunctions Under Section 10 (j)
2499(1)
Statutory Purpose
2499(1)
The Board's Utilization of Section 10(j)
2500(1)
Judicial Standards
2501(3)
Temporary Restraining Orders
2504(1)
Delay in Filing Petition
2505(1)
Injunctions Against Employers
2505(3)
Injunctions Against Unions
2508(1)
Duration of Section 10(j) Relief
2509(1)
Mandatory Injunctions Under Section 10(l)
2509(1)
Standards for Issuance
2509(4)
Temporary Restraining Orders
2513(1)
Limitations on Charging Party
2513(1)
Duration of Injunctions
2514(1)
Temporary Orders Under Sections 10(e) and (f)
2515(1)
Final Orders and Remedies
2516(2)
Final Orders and Remedies for Employer Misconduct
2518(1)
Section 8(a)(1) Violations
2518(2)
Section 8(a)(2) Violations
2520(1)
Sections 8(a)(3) and (4) Violations
2521(1)
In General
2521(8)
Discriminatory Discontinuance of Operations
2529(2)
Section 8(a)(5) Violations
2531(1)
In General
2531(1)
Duration of Bargaining Order
2532(1)
Breadth of Bargaining Order
2532(1)
Bargaining Orders Denied Because of Union Misconduct
2533(1)
Remedies for Particular Kinds of Section 8(a)(5) Violations
2533(1)
Unilateral Changes
2533(1)
Supplying Information
2534(1)
Bargaining Orders Without Certification
2534(1)
Where the union can show a majority
2534(5)
Bargaining orders where the union lacks a majority
2539(1)
Execution of Contractual Provisions Where There Is an Agreement
2540(2)
Execution of Contractual Provisions Where There Is No Agreement
2542(1)
Surface Bargaining
2543(1)
Change of Operations
2544(2)
Remedies Against Successor to Bargaining Obligation
2546(1)
Withdrawal of Recognition
2547(1)
Special Remedial Problems Involving Employers
2547(1)
Flagrant Violations
2547(3)
Litigation Costs, Attorneys' Fees, and Union Expenses
2550(2)
Imposing Remedial Order on Successor to Wrongdoer
2552(1)
Imposing Remedial Order on Joint Employer
2552(1)
Final Orders and Remedies for Union Misconduct
2552(1)
Sections 8(b) (1) (A) and (B) Violations
2553(2)
Section 8(b)(2) Violations
2555(1)
General Principles
2555(3)
Scope of Order
2558(1)
Hiring-Hall Cases
2558(2)
Fair Representation Cases
2560(2)
Section 8(b) (3) Violations
2562(1)
Section 8(b) (4) Violations
2563(1)
Section 8(b) (5) Violations
2564(1)
Section 8(b) (6) Violations
2565(1)
Section 8(b) (7) Violations
2565(1)
Section 8(e) Violations
2566(1)
Special Remedial Problems Involving Unions
2567(1)
Flagrant Violations
2567(1)
Litigation Costs
2568(1)
Judicial Review and Enforcement
2569(46)
Introduction
2569(2)
Appellate Review and Enforcement
2571(28)
Board's Rulings Subject to Review
2571(2)
Parties Entitled to Enforcement and Review
2573(3)
Intervention
2576(1)
Place for Filing Petition for Enforcement and Review
2577(2)
Procedure
2579(3)
Scope of Review
2582(1)
Questions of Fact
2582(6)
Questions of Law
2588(5)
Issues That Can Be Raised on Review
2593(2)
Judicial Review of Equal Access to Justice Determinations
2595(2)
Disposition of Cases by Reviewing Court
2597(1)
Award of Costs and Expenses on Review
2598(1)
Direct Review and Enforcement
2599(16)
Review of Representation or Certification Action
2599(6)
Review of Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings
2605(4)
Review Through Collateral Proceedings
2609(6)
Appendix National Labor Relations Act 2615(38)
Table of Cases 2653(350)
Index 3003

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