Discovering Music

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-01-26
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Written to inspire students to connect intellectually and emotionally with music from the Western canon and beyond, Discovering Music offers the depth, breadth, and context that students need, in a concise, contemporary format that is visually appealing.

The book follows the established sequence for Music Appreciation texts, opening with an introduction to the musical elements; the instruments of the orchestra; and a discussion of how to listen to music. Then, each musical era is highlighted in individual parts, with a brief introduction to the key composers and developments that occurred in music and the related arts. Individual chapters focus on key figures or movements, with detailed Listening Maps offering unique guidance to students on how and why to listen to each work. In between each part, Musical Journeys allow students to make connections with non-Western musical traditions.

A full suite of engaging online learning tools, including an interactive eBook, digital listening maps, videos, auto-graded assessments, and other study tools, is available in Dashboard for Discovering Music. Access to Dashboard is included with all new copies of the print text and available for separate purchase. An instructor's manual, PowerPoint presentations, and a computerized test bank for instructors complete the support package.

Author Biography

R. Larry Todd is Arts & Sciences Professor of Music and former chair of the Music Department at Duke University.

Table of Contents



Part I The Elements of Music

Chapter 1 Pitch, Melody, and Key

Notating Pitch
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Physics of Sound: The Octave
Sharps, Flats, and Naturals
Phrases and Intervals
Dissonances and Consonances
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Ancient Greeks and Consonances
The Major and Minor Scales
The Chromatic Scale
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Alternative Scales
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 2 Rhythm, Meter, Texture, and Dynamics

Rhythmic Values
Tempo Markings
Pulse or Beat
Upbeats and Downbeats
Time Signatures
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Many Meters: Igor, Nicolas, Serge, and The Rite of Spring
Monophonic Texture
Polyphonic Texture and Counterpoint
Homophonic Texture
The Triad
Harmonic Progression
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Sound of Silence
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 3 Timbre, Instruments, and Ensembles

The Voice
The Family of Musical Instruments
Musical Ensembles
Instrumental Ensembles
Vocal Ensembles
Mixed Ensembles
Benjamin Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946)
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 1: Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra

Chapter 4 Musical Form

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Musical Form in Architecture and Painting
Binary and Ternary Form
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 5 Classical Music and Historical Styles

What Is Classical Music?
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Classic in Popular Culture
The Classical-Popular Connection
Classical Music Periods
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 6 How to Listen

The Listening Experience
Listening to John Philip Sousa's The Stars and Stripes Forever
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 2: John Philip Sousa, "The Stars and Stripes Forever "

Part II The Middle Ages


Chapter 7 The Origins of Medieval Music

check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 8 Music for the Christian Church

Gregorian Chant
The Divine Office and the Mass
Medieval Christmas Music: Viderunt omnes
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 3: Anonymous, Viderunt omnes (All the Ends of the Earth), fifth century

Chapter 9 Hildegard of Bingen

Listening Map 4: Hildegard of Bingen, O viridissima virga ("O Greenest Branch"), twelfth century
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 10 Léonin and the Rise of Polyphony

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Gothic Cathedrals and Polyphonic Architecture
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 5: Léonin, Viderunt omnes ("All the Ends of the Earth"), twelfth century

Chapter 11 Secular Medieval Music

Musical Instruments
Secular Medieval Song
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 12 Machaut and the Rise of Secular Polyphony

check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 6: Machaut, Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous ("Since You Have Forgotten Me") [ca. 1365]

MUSICAL JOURNEYS: Kora Music of the Mandinka People of Gambia
Listening Map I.1 "Jula Jekere"

Part III The Renaissance

A Note about Historical Periods

Chapter 13 The Development of Renaissance Music

MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Renaissance Rediscovers Classical Antiquity
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 14 Guillaume Dufay and the Franco-Flemish Style

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Brunelleschi's Dome
Listening Map 7: Guillaume Dufay, Mass Se la face ay pale, Kyrie [ca. 1485]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 15 Josquin Desprez

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Lorenzo the Magnificent
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 8: Josquin Desprez, Ave Maria [ca. 1485]

Chapter 16 Palestrina and the Counter-Reformation

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Martin Luther and the Reformation
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 9: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass, Kyrie [1562]

Chapter 17 New Currents: National Styles

The Italian Madrigal
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Art Imitates Life: The Shocking Music of Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa
The English Madrigal
Listening Map 10: Thomas Weelkes, "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" [1601]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 18 The Rise of Instrumental Music

MAKING CONNECTIONS: The English Reformation
Listening Map 11: William Byrd, "Pavana Lachrymae"
check your KNOWLEDGE
MUSICAL JOURNEYS: The Sitar and Ragas of India

Part IV The Baroque


Chapter 19 Music in the Early Baroque

The Development of Tonality
The Basso Continuo
Melody, Rhythm, and Dynamics in Baroque Music
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 20 Claudio Monteverdi and the Rise of Italian Opera

MAKING CONNECTIONS: St. Mark's Basilica, Venice
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Orfeo and The Rise of the Orchestra
Listening Map 12: Monteverdi's Orfeo, Act III, "Possente spirto" ("O powerful spirit") [1607]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 21 The Spread of Opera

Opera in France
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music as Royal Power: Lully at the Court of Louis XIV
Henry Purcell and English Opera
Listening Map 13: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, Act III, "When I Am Laid in Earth" [1689]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 22 Baroque Instrumental Music

The Violin Family
The Harpsichord
The Organ
New Musical Genres
Arcangelo Corelli
The Baroque Concerto
Listening Map 14: Corelli, Trio Sonata in A minor, Op. 3 No. 10 [1689]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 23 Antonio Vivaldi

Listening Map 15: Vivaldi, Spring from the Four Seasons, Op. 8 No. 1, First Movement [ca. 1725]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 24 Johann Sebastian Bach's Life and Career

Bach's Early Life and Career Beginnings
The Move to Cöthen
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Afterlife of Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor
Final Years in Leipzig
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Bach's Children and Wives
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 25 Bach's Instrumental Music

Bach and the Fugue
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Fugues beyond Music
Listening Map 16: J.S. Bach, Little Fugue in G minor for Organ [ca. 1708-1717]
Bach's Concertos
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 17: J. S. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, First Movement [1721 or earlier]

Chapter 26 Bach's Sacred Music

MAKING CONNECTIONS: A Tale of Two Churches
Listening Map 18: J. S. Bach, Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf (Sleepers Awake!), First Movement
Bach's Other Religious Music
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 27 George Frideric Handel

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel versus Bach: Two Baroque Titans Compared
Handel's Life and Career
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Zadok the Priest and English Royalty
Listening Map 19: Handel, Water Music: Air in F Major [1717]
Listening Map 20: Handel, Water Music: Alla Hornpipe [1717]
Handel and Italian Opera
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 28 Handel and the English Oratorio

MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel, the Duke of Cumberland, and Bonnie Prince Charlie
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel, Messiah, and Jonathan Swift
Listening Map 21: Handel, Messiah, Aria, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion" [1742]
Listening Map 22: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" Chorus
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Standing Up for Handel
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 29 The End of the Baroque

check your KNOWLEDGE
MUSICAL JOURNEYS: The Classical Music of Persia (Iran)
Listening Map I.3 "Avaz of Bayate Esfahan"

Part V The Classical Period


Chapter 30 Music in the Classical Period

Melody in Classical Music
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Balance in Neoclassical Art and Architecture
Dynamics in Classical Music
The Fortepiano
Rhythm in Classical Music
Harmony and Texture in Classical Music
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 31 Genre and Form in Classical Music

New Instrumental Genres
Sonata Form
Listening Map 23: Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), First Movement, Allegro [1787]
Theme and Variations Form
Minuet and Trio
Listening Map 24: Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major (Surprise), Second Movement (Andante) [1791]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Rise of the Minuet
Listening Map 25: Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525, Third Movement (Allegretto) [1787]
Rondo Form
Listening Map 26: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique), Third Movement (Allegro) [1798]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 32 Joseph Haydn

Haydn's Life and Music
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Esterhàzys and Haydn
Haydn and the Classical Orchestra
Listening Map 27: Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major ("Surprise"), Fourth Movement (Allegro Molto) [1791]
Haydn and the String Quartet
Listening Map 28: Haydn, String Quartet in G major, Op. 76 No. 3 ("Emperor"), Second Movement (Poco adagio; cantabile) [1797]
Haydn's Influence
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Politics of Haydn's "Emperor's Hymn"
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 33 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart's Life and Career
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mozart as Freemason
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mozart and Posterity
Mozart and the Classical Concerto
Mozart and Italian Opera
Listening Map 29: Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 23 in A major, K. 488, First Movement (Allegro) [1786]
Listening Map 30: Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act I, Scene 1, Figaro and Susanna, "Se a casa madama" ("If My Lady Needs You") [1786]
Mozart and German Opera
Listening Map 31: Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act I, Scene 2, Figaro, "Se vuol ballare" ("If You Want to Dance") [1786]
Listening Map 32: Mozart, The Magic Flute (1791), K. 620, Act II, Scene 3, Queen of the Night, "Der Hölle Rache" ("Vengeance of Hell") [1791]
Mozart's Legacy
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 34 Ludwig van Beethoven

Beethoven's Early Period
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Beethoven and Haydn
Beethoven's Middle Period
Listening Map 33: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 27 No. 2 (Moonlight), First Movement (Adagio sostenuto) [1801]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Napoleon as Romantic Figure
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony in C minor
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Finding Meaning in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
First Movement (Allegro con brio)
Listening Map 34: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, First Movement (Allegro con brio) [1808]
Second Movement (Andante con moto)
Third Movement (Allegro)
Listening Map 35: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Second Movement (Andante con moto) [1808]
Listening Map 36: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Third Movement (Allegro) [1808]
Beethoven's Late Period
Fourth Movement (Allegro)
Listening Map 37: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Fourth Movement (Allegro) [1808]
Beethoven's Death and Funeral
Beethoven's Legacy
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Eulogizing Beethoven
check your KNOWLEDGE
Tune Families and Instruments
The Ruse of the Empty City
Listening Map I.4 Solo from The Ruse of the Empty City: A Traditional Peking Opera

Part VI The Romantic Period


Chapter 35 Romantic Music

Melody in Romantic Music
Dynamics and Expression Marks in Romantic Music
Tempo and Rhythm in Romantic Music
Harmony and Tonality in Romantic Music
Forms and Genres in Romantic Music
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Romantic Content in Program Music
Timbre and Tone Color in Romantic Music
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 36 Art Song

Schubert's Life
Schubert's Lieder
Listening Map 38: Schubert, "Erlkönig" ("The Erlking")
Robert Schumann
Schumann's Dichterliebe, Op. 48
Listening Map 39: Robert Schumann, "Im Wunderschönen Monat Mai" ("In the Lovely Month of May"), from Dichterliebe (Poet's Love)
Clara Schumann, "Liebst du um Schönheit" ("If You Love for Beauty") [1841]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Clara Schumann as a Composer
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 37 Piano Music

MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Age of the Virtuoso
Frédéric Chopin
Chopin's Nocturnes and Preludes
MAKING CONNECTIONS: A Double Portrait by Delacroix
Listening Map 41: Chopin, Nocturne in E-flat Major for Piano, Op. 9 No. 2 [1831]
Listening Map 42: Chopin, Prelude in D minor for Piano, Op. 28 No. 24 [1839]
Franz Liszt
Liszt, Petrarch Sonnet No. 104
Fanny Hensel
Hensel, "Il Saltarello Romano" ("The Roman Saltarello") in A minor, Op. 6 No. 4
Listening Map 43: Liszt, Petrarch Sonnet No. 104 [1858]
Listening Map 44: Hensel, "Il Saltarello Romano" ("The Roman Saltarello") in A minor, Op. 6 No. 4 [1841]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 38 Orchestral Music

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mendelssohn as Conductor
Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 21
Listening Map 45: Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 21 [1826]
Hector Berlioz
Fantastic Symphony
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Romantics and Opium
Listening Map 46: Berlioz, Fantastic Symphony, Finale, "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" [1830]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 39 Opera

Italian Romantic Opera
Giuseppe Verdi
Listening Map 47: Verdi, Rigoletto, Act III, Canzone "La donna è mobile" ("Woman Is Fickle") [1851]
French Romantic Opera
German Romantic Opera
Richard Wagner
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Musical Cues in Wagner and Beyond
Listening Map 48: Wagner, Das Rheingold, concluding scene, "The Gods' Entrance into Valhalla" [1854]
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 40 Late Nineteenth-Century Music

Johannes Brahms
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 77, Third Movement
Nationalism in Music
Listening Map 49: Brahms Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 77, Third Movement
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Nationalism in Art
Antonín Dvorák
Dvorák, Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World"), Second Movement
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Jeanette Thurber and Music Patronage, Americanized
Russian Music
Listening Map 50: Dvorák, Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World), Second Movement, Largo [1893]
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition
Listening Map 51: Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, "Promenade" [1874], orchestrated by Maurice Ravel [1922]
Listening Map 52: Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, "The Great Gate of Kiev" (1874), orchestrated by Maurice Ravel [1922]
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky
Program Music of the Later Nineteenth Century
Listening Map 53: Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet [1880]
Richard Strauss, Death and Transfiguration
Gustav Mahler
Listening Map 54: Strauss, Death and Transfiguration
Europe at the Close of the Century
Bizet, Carmen, Habanera from Act I
Listening Map 55: Mahler, Songs of a Wayfarer, No. 2 [1896]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Afterlife of La Bohème
Listening Map 56: Bizet, Carmen, Act 1, Habanera [1875]
check your KNOWLEDGE
MUSICAL JOURNEYS: Balinese Gamelan Music
Gamelan Comes to the West
Balinese Gamelan
Listening Map I.5 "Pendet"

Part VII The Modern Era


Chapter 41 Music in the Twentieth Century

Alternatives to Tonality
Arnold Schoenberg and the Rejection of Tonality
MAKE CONNECTIONS: Atonality and Soundtracks
New Experiments with Rhythm and Timbre
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 42 Revolutionary Beginnings

Claude Debussy
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Eiffel Tower as Modernist Icon
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
Listening Map 57: Debussy, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun [1854]
Igor Stravinsky
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring (1913)
Listening Map 58: Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, "Introduction" and "Dance of the Adolescents" [1913]
Arnold Schoenberg
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Wassily Kandinsky and German Expressionism
Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire (1912), "Valse de Chopin"
Listening Map 59: Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire, No. 5, "Valse de Chopin" [1912]
Alban Berg and Anton von Webern
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 43 Neoclassicism

Sergei Prokofiev
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music in the Soviet Union
Prokofiev, Symphony No. 1 in D major ("Classical") First Movement [1917]
Stravinsky and Neoclassicism
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms Second Movement (Psalm 40: 1-3) [1930]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Stravinsky as Lecturer
Béla Bartók
Bartók, Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta (1936)
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Palindromes and Musical Symmetries
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 62: Bartók, Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta Third Movement [1936]

Chapter 44 National Styles

English Music
Vaughan Williams, Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1910)
Listening Map 63: Vaughan Williams, Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis [1910]
Dimitri Shostakovich and Russian Music
Shostakovich, Fifth Symphony, Second Movement (1937)
check your KNOWLEDGE
Listening Map 64: Shostakovich, Fifth Symphony Second Movement [1937]

Chapter 45 American Music: Beginnings to Aaron Copland

Amy Beach
Beach, Romance for Violin and Piano, Op. 23 (1893)
Charles Ives
Listening Map 65: Amy Beach, Romance for Violin and Piano, Op. 23 [1893]
Ives, General William Booth Enters into Heaven
Listening Map 66: Ives, General William Booth Enters into Heaven [1914]
William Grant Still
Still, "Afro-American" Symphony, Third Movement ("Humor") (1930)
Listening Map 67: William Grant Still, "Afro-American" Symphony, Third Movement ("Humor")
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Harlem Renaissance and the "New Negro"
George Gershwin
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Rhapsody in Blue: An Icon of American Music
Gershwin, "Summertime" from Porgy and Bess (1935)
Listening Map 68: Gershwin, "Summertime," from Porgy and Bess, as performed by Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong [1957]
Aaron Copland
Copland, Appalachian Spring
Listening Map 69: Copland, Appalachian Spring Section 7: Variations on the Shaker melody "Simple Gifts"
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 46 Jazz

The Rise of Jazz: Ragtime and Blues
The Blues
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Robert Johnson and the Blues as Literature
Bessie Smith, "Lost Your Head Blues" (1926)
Early Jazz: New Orleans and Beyond
The Birth of Swing Music
Duke Ellington
Ellington, "Mood Indigo" (1930)
Listening Map 71: Duke Ellington, "Mood Indigo" [1930]
The Birth of Bebop
Charlie Parker, "Constellation" (1948)
Listening Map 72: Charlie Parker, "Constellation" [1948]
Cool and Free Jazz
Miles Davis
Listening Map 73: Miles Davis, Bitches Brew ("Miles Runs the Voodoo Down," opening section) [1969]
check your KNOWELDGE

Chapter 47 Film Music, Musicals, and Contemporary Popular Styles

The Rise of Film Music
John Williams
Listening Map 74: John Williams, "Imperial March" from The Empire Strikes Back [1980]
Leonard Bernstein
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Many Roles of Leonard Bernstein
Listening Map 75: Leonard Bernstein, West Side Story, Balcony Scene, "Tonight" [1957]
Contemporary Popular Styles
MAKING CONNECTIONS: The '60s: Music of Protest
check your KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 48 The Eclipse of Modernism: New Frontiers

The New Order: Total Serialism
New Resources in Sound
Edgard Varèse
MAKING CONNECTIONS: An Early Electronic Studio
Listening Map 76: Edgard Varèse, Poème électronique (Electronic Poem), opening 2'36'' [1958]
Further Developments in Electronic Music
Chance in Music
John Cage
Listening Map 77: John Cage, 4'33'' [1951]
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Across the Arts: John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and Merce Cunningham
Women and Contemporary Music
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
Listening Map 78: Ellen Taaffe Swilich, Concerto grosso [1985]
First Movement
MAKING CONNECTIONS: Minimalism in the Visual Arts
John Adams
Listening Map 79: Adams, Short Ride in a Fast Machine [1986]
The Future Beckons
Into the Twenty-First Century
Sofia Gubaidulina
The Future
Listening Map 80: Sofia Gubaidulina, Violin Concerto No. 2
("In tempus praesens"), opening section [2007]
check your KNOWLEDGE
MUSICAL JOURNEYS: African-American Lined Hymn
"Am I a Soldier of the Cross?"
Listening Map I.6 "Am I a Soldier of the Cross?"


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