Discovering Physical Geography, 1st Edition

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: WILEY
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The most exciting way for you to learn about physical geography is to explore the outdoors. With rich graphics, beautiful photographs, and fully integrated GeoDiscoveries animations and simulations, this new text takes you outside of the traditional classroom. Innovative features such as Amazing Places, What a Geographer Sees, and Visual Concept Checks demonstrate the relevance of geography to your daily life and will ignite your curiosity about the physical world that surrounds you. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Physical Geographyp. 2
The Scope of Geographyp. 4
Defining Physical Geographyp. 5
The Earth's Four Spheresp. 8
Organization of This Bookp. 11
Exploring Cause-and-Effect Relationshipsp. 11
An Interactive Toolp. 11
GeoDiscoveries: Stream Meanderingp. 12
Focus on Geographical Literacyp. 12
Physical Geography Is Interesting, Exciting, and Relevant to Your Lifep. 12
The Big Picturep. 13
The Geographers' Toolsp. 14
The Geographic Gridp. 16
Latitudep. 17
Longitudep. 20
Using the Geographic Gridp. 22
GeoDiscoveries: Using the Geographic Gridp. 23
Amazing Places: Big But Hard to Reachp. 24
Maps-The Basic Tool of Geographersp. 23
Map Projectionsp. 26
Map Scalep. 29
Isolinesp. 32
GeoDiscoveries: Using Mapsp. 33
Digital Technology in Geographyp. 36
Remote Sensingp. 36
What a Geographer Sees: Infrared Imagesp. 40
Global Positioning Systemsp. 40
Geographic Information Systemsp. 42
GeoDiscoveries: Using a Geographic Information Systemp. 43
The Big Picturep. 44
Earth-Sun Geometry and the Seasonsp. 46
Our Place in Spacep. 48
The Shape of the Earthp. 49
Amazing Places: The Sunp. 50
Earth's Orbit Around the Sunp. 51
The Earth's Rotation and Axial Tiltp. 52
The Seasonsp. 55
Solstice and Equinoxp. 56
GeoDiscoveries: Orbital View and Earth as Viewed from the Sunp. 58
How We See Earth-Sun Geometry on Earthp. 60
Day and Nightp. 60
Seasonal Changes in Sun Position (Angle) and Length of Dayp. 60
GeoDiscoveries: Celestial Domep. 62
GeoDiscoveries: Sun Angle and Length of Dayp. 62
What a Geographer Sees: Sunrise in the Southern Hemispherep. 63
The Big Picturep. 64
The Global Energy Systemp. 66
The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Solar Energyp. 68
The Electromagnetic Spectrump. 68
GeoDiscoveries: The Electromagnetic Spectrump. 70
Solar Energy and the Solar Constantp. 70
Composition of the Atmospherep. 71
Constant Gasesp. 71
Variable Gasesp. 72
What a Geographer Sees: The Formation of Rainbowsp. 74
Particulatesp. 78
The Flow of Solar Radiation on Earthp. 79
Heat Transferp. 79
Flow of Solar Radiation in the Atmospherep. 81
Interaction of Solar Radiation and the Earth's Surfacep. 83
GeoDiscoveries: The Angle of Incidencep. 85
The Global Radiation Budgetp. 86
GeoDiscoveries: The Global Energy Budgetp. 87
The Big Picturep. 92
Global Temperature Patternsp. 94
Layered Structure of the Atmospherep. 96
The Tropospherep. 97
The Stratospherep. 97
The Mesospherep. 98
The Thermospherep. 98
What a Geographer Sees: Aurorasp. 100
Surface and Air Temperaturesp. 99
Calculating the Heat Index and Wind Chillp. 100
Large-Scale Geographic Factors That Influence Air Temperaturep. 101
Amazing Places: Temperature Extremes on Earthp. 104
Local Factors That Influence Air Temperaturep. 106
GeoDiscoveries: Surface Temperaturep. 107
GeoDiscoveries: Maritime vs. Continental Effectp. 109
The Annual Range of Surface Temperature (Putting It All Together)p. 112
GeoDiscoveries: Temperature and Locationp. 114
The Big Picturep. 115
Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulationp. 118
Atmospheric Pressurep. 120
Factors That Influence Air Pressurep. 120
Measuring and Mapping Air Pressurep. 121
Atmospheric Pressure Systemsp. 123
Low-Pressure Systemsp. 123
High-Pressure Systemsp. 123
What A Geographer Sees: Migrating Pressure Systemsp. 127
The Direction Of Air Flowp. 125
Unequal Heating of Land Surfacesp. 125
Pressure Gradient Forcep. 126
GeoDiscoveries: Fluctuations in the Pressure Gradientp. 129
Coriolis Forcep. 128
GeoDiscoveries: The Coriolis Forcep. 130
Frictional Forcesp. 130
Global Pressure and Atmospheric Circulationp. 132
Tropical Circulationp. 134
Midlatitude Circulationp. 136
Polar Circulationp. 139
Seasonal Migration of Pressure Systemsp. 139
Amazing Places: Mt. Washingtonp. 140
GeoDiscoveries: Global Atmospheric Circulationp. 142
Local Wind Systemsp. 143
Land-Sea Breezesp. 143
Topographic Windsp. 144
Oceanic Circulationp. 145
Gyres and Thermohaline Circulationp. 145
El Ninop. 148
GeoDiscoveries: El Ninop. 148
The Big Picturep. 149
Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitationp. 152
Physical Properties of Waterp. 154
Hydrogen Bondingp. 154
Thermal Properties of Water and Its Physical Statesp. 155
GeoDiscoveries: Latent Heatp. 157
The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cyclep. 157
Humidityp. 159
Maximum, Specific, and Relative Humidityp. 159
Dew-Point Temperaturep. 163
Amazing Places: Death Valleyp. 164
GeoDiscoveries: Atmospheric Humidityp. 165
Evaporationp. 167
Adiabatic Processesp. 168
The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Ratep. 168
The Wet Adiabatic Lapse Ratep. 169
GeoDiscoveries: Adiabatic Processesp. 170
Cloud Formation and Classificationp. 171
Fogp. 172
Cloud Classificationp. 173
What a Geographer Sees: Unusual Cloudsp. 176
Precipitationp. 178
Types of Precipitationp. 178
Precipitation Processesp. 179
GeoDiscoveries: Convectional Precipitationp. 183
GeoDiscoveries: Orographic Processesp. 184
The Big Picturep. 186
Air Masses and Cyclonic Weather Systemsp. 188
Air Masses and Frontsp. 190
Air Massesp. 190
Frontsp. 192
Evolution and Character of Midlatitude Cyclonesp. 193
Upper Air Flow and the 500-mb Pressure Surfacep. 194
Interaction of Upper Air Flow and Surface Air Flowp. 196
Cyclogenesisp. 196
GeoDiscoveries: Formation of a Midlatitude Cyclonep. 199
GeoDiscoveries: Migration of a Midlatitude Cyclonep. 200
Thunderstormsp. 201
Evolution of Thunderstormsp. 201
Severe Thunderstormsp. 201
Tornadoesp. 205
Amazing Places: Tornado Alleyp. 208
GeoDiscoveries: Tornadoesp. 208
Tropical Cyclonesp. 209
Hurricanesp. 211
GeoDiscoveries: Migration of Hurricane Katrinap. 214
The Big Picturep. 216
Global Climatesp. 218
Climate and the Factors That Affect Itp. 220
Koppen Climate Classificationp. 221
Geography of Koppen Climatesp. 225
Character and Geographic Distribution of Tropical (A) Climatesp. 225
What a Geographer Sees: The Relationship of Climate and Vegetationp. 226
GeoDiscoveries: The Tropical Savanna Climate (Aw)p. 230
Character and Geographic Distribution of Arid and Semi-Arid (B) Climatesp. 228
Amazing Places: Atacama Desertp. 234
Character and Geographic Distribution of Mesothermal (C) Climatesp. 235
GeoDiscoveries: Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer Climates (Cfa, Cwa)p. 238
GeoDiscoveries: Marine West-Coast Climates (Cfb, Cfc)p. 240
Character and Geographic Distribution of Microthermal (D) Climatesp. 240
Character and Geographic Distribution of Polar (E) Climatesp. 244
Character and Geographic Distribution of Highland (H) Climatesp. 246
GeoDiscoveries: Remote Sensing and Climatep. 248
Global Climate Changep. 249
The Carbon Cyclep. 249
Is Anthropogenic Climate Change Really Occurring?p. 251
Predicting Future Climate Changep. 256
The Big Picturep. 260
Plant Geographyp. 262
The Process of Photosynthesisp. 264
The Relationship of Climate and Vegetation: The Character and Distribution of Global Biomesp. 266
Forest Biomesp. 268
What a Geographer Sees: Wildfiresp. 274
Amazing Places: The Coastal Redwoodsp. 276
Grassland Biomesp. 276
Desert Biomesp. 278
Tundra Biomep. 280
Local and Regional Factors That Influence the Geographic Distribution of Vegetationp. 281
Slope and Aspectp. 281
Vertical Zonationp. 282
Plant Successionp. 284
GeoDiscoveries: Plant Successionp. 285
Riparian Zonesp. 285
Human Influence on Vegetation Patternsp. 286
Deforestation and Its Consequencesp. 286
GeoDiscoveries: Deforestationp. 289
Agriculture in the Midlatitude Grassland Biomep. 288
Overgrazingp. 288
GeoDiscoveries: Remote Sensing and the Biospherep. 290
The Big Picturep. 290
The Global Distribution and Character of Soilsp. 292
What Is Soil?p. 294
Basic Soil Propertiesp. 295
Soil-Forming (Pedogenic) Processesp. 297
Soil-Forming Factorsp. 299
Amazing Places: Buried Soils at the Eustis Ash Pit in Nebraskap. 302
Measurable Soil Characteristicsp. 305
What a Geographer Sees: Soil Conservation on Steep Slopesp. 306
Soil Chemistryp. 310
Soil pHp. 310
Colloids and Cation Exchangep. 311
Soil Profiles (Reading the Soil)p. 312
Time and Soil Evolutionp. 313
Soil Science and Classificationp. 315
The Twelve Soil Ordersp. 315
GeoDiscoveries: African Climate, Vegetation, and Soilsp. 323
GeoDiscoveries: Regional Pedogenic Processesp. 330
GeoDiscoveries: North American Climate, Vegetation, and Soilsp. 331
The Big Picturep. 336
Earth's Internal Structure, Rock Cycle, and Geologic Timep. 338
Earth's Inner Structurep. 340
The Major Layersp. 340
Rocks and Minerals In The Earth's Crustp. 345
Igneous Rocksp. 346
What a Geographer Sees: Exposed Igneous Intrusionsp. 348
Sedimentary Rocksp. 350
Metamorphic Rocksp. 356
The Rock Cyclep. 356
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Cyclep. 357
Geologic Timep. 357
GeoDiscoveries: Geologic Timep. 359
Telling Geologic Timep. 360
Putting Geologic Time in Perspectivep. 360
Amazing Places: The Grand Canyonp. 362
Integrating Geologic Time and the Rock Cycle: The Spanish Peaksp. 361
Basic Geomorphology of Continents and Ocean Basinsp. 365
Alpine Chainsp. 367
Continental Shieldsp. 367
The Big Picturep. 369
Tectonic Processes and Landformsp. 372
Plate Tectonicsp. 374
The Lithospheric Platesp. 374
Plate Movementp. 375
Types of Plate Movementp. 377
Passive Plate Marginsp. 377
GeoDiscoveries: Continental Driftp. 379
Transform Plate Marginsp. 380
Plate Divergencep. 380
Amazing Places: Olduvai Gorgep. 382
Plate Convergencep. 382
GeoDiscoveries: Foldingp. 388
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonicsp. 390
Earthquakesp. 390
Earthquake Processesp. 390
Locating the Epicenterp. 391
Measuring Earthquake Magnitudep. 391
Types of Faultsp. 392
GeoDiscoveries: Types of Faultsp. 397
Volcanoesp. 398
Explosive Volcanoesp. 398
What a Geographer Sees: Crater Lakep. 402
Fluid Volcanoes and Hotspotsp. 402
GeoDiscoveries: Volcanoesp. 407
The Big Picturep. 408
Weathering and Mass Movementp. 410
Weatheringp. 412
Mechanical Weatheringp. 412
What a Geographer Sees: The Long-Term Effects of Weathering and Erosion on Mountainsp. 414
Amazing Places: Anasazi Cliff Dwellings Chemical Weatheringp. 418
GeoDiscoveries: Weatheringp. 423
Mass Wastingp. 424
Rockfallp. 425
Soil Creepp. 426
Landslidesp. 427
Flowsp. 429
Avalanchesp. 429
GeoDiscoveries: Weathering and Mass Movementsp. 431
The Big Picturep. 432
Groundwater and Karst Landscapesp. 434
Movement and Storage of Groundwaterp. 436
The High Plains Aquiferp. 438
Amazing Places: Oases in the Sahara Desertp. 444
Subsidencep. 443
Groundwater Contaminationp. 444
GeoDiscoveries: Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwaterp. 447
Karst Landforms and Landscapesp. 447
Caves and Cavernsp. 448
Karst Topographyp. 449
Amazing Places: Tower Karst in Chinap. 450
The Big Picturep. 452
Fluvial Systems and Landformsp. 454
Overland Flow and Drainage Basinsp. 456
Origin of Streamsp. 457
Drainage Basinsp. 458
Drainage Patterns, Density, and Stream Orderingp. 460
GeoDiscoveries: The Rhine Riverp. 462
Hydraulic Geometry and Channel Flowp. 462
Stream Dischargep. 463
Fluvial Processes and Landformsp. 467
Erosion and Depositionp. 467
Stream Gradationp. 469
Amazing Places: Waterfallsp. 472
GeoDiscoveries: The Graded Streamp. 474
Evolution of Stream Valleys and Floodplainsp. 474
GeoDiscoveries: Stream Meanderingp. 477
What a Geographer Sees: Mississippi River Meandersp. 478
Other Depositional Landforms Associated with Streamsp. 482
Human Interactions with Streamsp. 487
Urbanizationp. 487
Artificial Leveesp. 488
Dams and Reservoirsp. 489
The Big Picturep. 492
Glacial Geomorphology: Processes and Landformsp. 494
Development of a Glacierp. 496
The Metamorphosis of Snow to Glacial Icep. 496
The Glacial Mass Budgetp. 497
Glacial Movementp. 498
Types of Glaciersp. 501
Glaciers in Mountainous Regionsp. 501
Amazing Places: The Vatnajokull Ice Capp. 503
Continental Glaciersp. 505
Glacial Landformsp. 506
Landforms Made by Glacial Erosionp. 506
Deposition of Glacial Drift and Resulting Landformsp. 511
History of Glaciationp. 516
How Many Pleistocene Glaciations Were There?p. 517
The Wisconsin Glaciation and the Evolution of the Great Lakesp. 520
What a Geographer Sees: The Channeled Scablands in Eastern Washingtonp. 522
What Causes Glaciation?p. 524
Glacial Periods and Earth-Sun Geometryp. 524
GeoDiscoveries: The Milankovitch Theoryp. 526
Impact of Global Climate Change on Glaciersp. 526
Periglacial Processes and Landscapesp. 528
Permafrostp. 528
Ground Ice and Associated Landformsp. 531
The Big Picturep. 532
Arid Landscapes and Eolian Processesp. 534
Arid Landscapesp. 536
Desert Geomorphologyp. 537
Eolian Erosion and Transportp. 540
The Fluid Behavior of Wind and Sediment Transportp. 540
Eolian Erosional Landformsp. 541
Eolian Deposition and Landformsp. 544
How Sand Dunes Formp. 544
Types of Sand Dunesp. 545
Amazing Places: Great Sand Dunes National Monumentp. 548
GeoDiscoveries: Eolian Processes and Landformsp. 550
What a Geographer Sees: Sand Dunes on Marsp. 551
Loessp. 548
Human Interactions with Eolian Processesp. 553
Desertification in the African Sahelp. 553
Desertification in the Great Plains of the United States: The Dust Bowlp. 555
The Big Picturep. 558
Coastal Processes and Landformsp. 560
Oceans and Seas on the Earthp. 562
The Nature of Coastlines: Intersection of Earth's Spheresp. 563
Processes That Shape the Coastlinep. 564
Amazing Places: Big Waves in Hawaiip. 572
Coastal Landformsp. 574
Erosional Coastlinesp. 574
What a Geographer Sees: Marine Terraces on San Clemente Island, Californiap. 577
Depositional Coastlinesp. 578
GeoDiscoveries: Longshore Processes and Depositional Coastlinesp. 582
Human Imapcts on Coastlinesp. 586
Coastal Engineeringp. 586
Global Climate Change and the Impact on Coastlinesp. 588
Glossaryp. 593
Photo Creditsp. 607
Indexp. 611
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