Dopants and Defects in Semiconductors

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-02-23
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Defects and dopants in semiconductors are important to solid-state technology and condensed matter physics. The ability to manipulate the conductivity of semiconductor materials through controlled doping has made them indispensable. This book provides a synthesis of the theory, experimental methods, and identification of impurities and intrinsic defects in semiconductors. It first presents introductory concepts and then focuses on electrical, optical, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties. The final section of the book covers characterization approaches, from measurement of electrical properties and optical spectroscopy to particle beam methods.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
The Authorsp. xiii
Abbreviationsp. xv
List of Elements by Symbolp. xix
Semiconductor Basicsp. 1
Historical Overviewp. 1
Crystal Structurep. 4
Phononsp. 8
Band Structurep. 10
Electrons and Holesp. 15
Optical Propertiesp. 20
Electronic Transportp. 22
Examples of Semiconductorsp. 24
Devicesp. 26
Referencesp. 30
Defect Classificationsp. 33
Structure and Symmetryp. 33
Energy Levelsp. 37
Examples of Native Defectsp. 41
Examples of Nonhydrogenic Impuritiesp. 43
Dislocationsp. 48
Metal-Semiconductor Junctionsp. 52
The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Junctionp. 57
Referencesp. 59
Crystal Growth and Dopingp. 63
Bulk Crystal Growthp. 63
Dopant Incorporation during Bulk Crystal Growthp. 67
Thin Film Growthp. 71
Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)p. 72
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)p. 74
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)p. 76
Alloyingp. 78
Doping by Diffusionp. 81
Ion Implantationp. 83
Annealing and Dopant Activationp. 88
Neutron Transmutationp. 92
Referencesp. 94
Electronic Propertiesp. 97
Hydrogenic Modelp. 97
Wave Function Symmetryp. 102
Donor and Acceptor Wave Functionsp. 106
Deep Levelsp. 109
Carrier Concentrations as a Function of Temperaturep. 114
Freeze-Out Curvesp. 118
Scattering Processesp. 121
Hopping and Impurity Band Conductionp. 125
Spintronicsp. 128
Referencesp. 129
Vibrational Propertiesp. 131
Phononsp. 131
Defect Vibrational Modesp. 135
Infrared Absorptionp. 141
Interactions and Lifetimesp. 143
Raman Scatteringp. 146
Wave Functions and Symmetryp. 147
Oxygen in Silicon and Germaniump. 150
Impurity Vibrational Modes in GaAsp. 155
Hydrogen Vibrational Modesp. 158
Referencesp. 160
Optical Propertiesp. 163
Free-Carrier Absorption and Reflectionp. 163
Lattice Vibrationsp. 167
Dipole Transitionsp. 171
Band-Gap Absorptionp. 173
Carrier Dynamicsp. 178
Exciton and Donor-Acceptor Emissionp. 182
Isoelectronic Impuritiesp. 187
Lattice Relaxationp. 189
Transition Metalsp. 193
Referencesp. 195
Thermal Propertiesp. 199
Defect Formationp. 199
Charge State and Chemical Potentialp. 201
Diffusionp. 206
Microscopic Mechanisms of Diffusionp. 211
Self-Diffusionp. 214
Dopant Diffusionp. 218
Quantum-Well Intermixingp. 223
Referencesp. 226
Electrical Measurementsp. 229
Resistivity and Conductivityp. 229
Methods of Measuring Resistivityp. 232
Hall Effectp. 237
P-n and Schottky Junctionsp. 241
Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) Profilingp. 243
Carrier Generation and Recombinationp. 246
Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)p. 248
Minority Carriers and Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopyp. 252
Minority Carrier Lifetimep. 254
Thermoelectric Effectp. 256
Referencesp. 257
Optical Spectroscopyp. 259
Absorptionp. 259
Emissionp. 262
Raman Spectroscopyp. 265
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopyp. 269
Photoconductivityp. 272
Time-Resolved Techniquesp. 274
Applied Stressp. 276
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)p. 281
Optically Detected Magnetic Resonancep. 285
Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR)p. 287
Referencesp. 290
Particle-Beam Methodsp. 293
Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)p. 293
Ion Rangep. 298
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)p. 302
X-Ray Emissionp. 303
X-Ray Absorptionp. 305
Photoelectric Effectp. 307
Electron Beamsp. 309
Positron Annihilationp. 312
Muonsp. 314
Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PACS)p. 317
Nuclear Reactionsp. 319
Referencesp. 320
Microscopy and Structural Characterizationp. 323
Optical Microscopyp. 323
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)p. 328
Cathodoluminescence (CL)p. 332
Electron Beam Induced Current Microscopyp. 335
Diffractionp. 337
Transmission Electron Microscopyp. 339
Scanning Probe Microscopyp. 342
Referencesp. 346
Physical Constantsp. 349
Indexp. 351
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