Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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An adaptation of Levinthal's Drugs, Behavior and Modern Society this successful, widely-regarded, highly readable and pedagogy-oriented textbook on drug use and abuse is now oriented toward a psychological/sociological perspective, with particular attention to issues related to criminal justice.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Drugs and Society: Past and Presentp. 1
An Introduction to Drug Use and Abusep. 1
Two Ways of Looking at Drugs and Behaviorp. 3
How Drugs Enter the Bodyp. 6
How Drugs Exit the Bodyp. 9
Factors Determining the Physiological Impact of Drugsp. 11
Psychological Factors in Drug-Taking Behaviorp. 16
Physical and Psychological Dependencep. 17
Psychiatric Definitionsp. 19
The Problem of Drug Toxicityp. 20
The DAWN Reportsp. 24
Looking to the Future and Learning from the Pastp. 28
Summaryp. 32
Key Termsp. 34
Endnotesp. 34
The History of Drug Use and Drug Legislationp. 37
Drugs in Early Timesp. 38
Drugs in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 39
Drug Regulation in the Early Twentieth Centuryp. 41
Drugs and Behavior from 1945 to 1960p. 45
The Return of Drug Tolerance, 1960-1980p. 45
Renewed Efforts at Control, 1980-Presentp. 48
Present-Day Attitudes toward Drugsp. 50
Patterns of Drug Use in the United Statesp. 51
America's Drug Debatep. 56
Summaryp. 57
Key Termsp. 58
Endnotesp. 58
Theoretical Perspectives on Drug Use and Abusep. 60
Biological Perspectives on Drug Abusep. 61
Psychological Perspectives on Drug Abusep. 63
Sociological Perspectives on Drug Abusep. 67
Integrating Perspectives on Drug Abusep. 71
Risk Factors and Protective Factorsp. 71
Summaryp. 75
Key Termsp. 76
Endnotesp. 76
Legally Restricted Drugs in Our Societyp. 78
The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetaminesp. 78
The History of Cocainep. 79
Acute Effects of Cocainep. 82
Chronic Effects of Cocainep. 83
Medical Uses of Cocainep. 84
How Cocaine Works in the Brainp. 84
Present-Day Cocaine Abusep. 84
Treatment Programs for Cocaine Abusep. 88
Amphetaminesp. 90
Acute and Chronic Effects of Amphetaminesp. 92
Medical Uses for Amphetamines and Similar Stimulant Drugsp. 96
Summaryp. 98
Key Termsp. 99
Endnotesp. 99
The Major Narcotics: Opium, Morphine, and Heroinp. 102
Opium in Historyp. 104
Morphine and the Advent of Heroinp. 106
Opiates and Heroin in American Societyp. 107
Effects on the Mind and the Bodyp. 111
How Opiates Work in the Brainp. 112
Patterns of Heroin Abusep. 113
Heroin Abuse and Societyp. 116
Treatment for Heroin Abusep. 117
Medical Uses of Narcotic Drugsp. 120
Summaryp. 123
Key Termsp. 124
Endnotesp. 124
LSD and Other Hallucinogensp. 127
A Matter of Definitionp. 128
Classifying Hallucinogensp. 129
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)p. 130
Facts and Fictions about LSDp. 135
Psilocybin and Other Hallucinogens Related to Serotoninp. 137
Hallucinogens Related to Norepinephrinep. 139
Hallucinogens Related to Acetylcholinep. 142
Phencyclidine (PCP)p. 144
Ketaminep. 146
Summaryp. 147
Key Termsp. 148
Endnotesp. 148
Marijuanap. 151
A Matter of Terminologyp. 152
The History of Marijuana and Hashishp. 153
Acute Effects of Marijuanap. 156
Effects of Marijuana on the Brainp. 158
Chronic Effects of Marijuanap. 159
The Gateway Hypothesisp. 162
Patterns of Marijuana Smokingp. 164
Current Trends as Causes for Concernp. 165
Medical Uses of Marijuanap. 166
The Issue of Decriminalizationp. 169
Summaryp. 170
Key Termsp. 171
Endnotesp. 171
Depressants and Inhalantsp. 174
Barbituratesp. 175
Nonbarbiturate Sedative-Hypnoticsp. 178
The Development of Antianxiety Drugsp. 179
Benzodiazepinesp. 180
Nonbenzodiazepine Depressantsp. 183
A Special Alert: The Risks of GHBp. 185
Inhalants through Historyp. 186
Glue, Solvent, and Aerosol Inhalationp. 188
Patterns of Inhalant Abusep. 191
Responses of Society to Inhalant Abusep. 193
Amyl Nitrate and Butyl Nitrate Inhalationp. 195
Summaryp. 196
Key Termsp. 198
Endnotesp. 198
Anabolic Steroids and Drug Abuse in Sportsp. 202
Drug-Taking Behavior in Sportsp. 203
The Hazards of Anabolic Steroidsp. 209
Patterns of Anabolic Steroid Abusep. 211
Nonsteroid Hormones and Ergogenic Supplementsp. 214
Current Drug-Testing Procedures and Policiesp. 215
What Can Be Done about Anabolic Steroid Abuse?p. 219
Summaryp. 220
Key Termsp. 221
Endnotesp. 221
Legal Drugs in Our Societyp. 224
Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drugp. 224
What Makes an Alcoholic Beverage?p. 225
Alcohol Use through Historyp. 227
Patterns of Alcohol Consumption Todayp. 228
The Pharmacology of Alcoholp. 232
Effects of Alcohol on the Brainp. 235
Acute Physiological Effectsp. 236
Acute Behavioral Effectsp. 239
Summaryp. 243
Key Termsp. 243
Endnotesp. 244
Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholismp. 246
Alcoholism: Stereotypes, Definitions, and Criteriap. 247
Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence: The Professional's Viewp. 250
The History of Efforts to Regulate Chronic Alcohol Abusep. 251
Chronic Effects of Alcoholp. 254
Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abusep. 258
The Genetics of Alcoholismp. 261
The Concept of Alcoholism as a Diseasep. 262
Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholismp. 262
Alcoholism in the Workplacep. 267
Summaryp. 267
Key Termsp. 268
Endnotesp. 268
Nicotine and Tobaccop. 272
Tobacco Use through Historyp. 273
Health Concerns and Smoking Behaviorp. 276
Tobacco Today: An Industry on the Defensivep. 277
What's in Tobacco?p. 279
The Dependence Potential of Nicotinep. 281
Health Consequences of Tobacco Usep. 282
Patterns of Smoking Behavior and Use of Smokeless Tobaccop. 286
Quitting Smoking: The Good News and the Badp. 292
Summaryp. 295
Key Termsp. 296
Endnotesp. 296
Drug Abuse and Drug Policyp. 300
Drugs and Crimep. 300
Understanding Drug Use and Crimep. 301
The Structure of the Illicit Drug Tradep. 306
The Trafficking of Cocainep. 307
The Trafficking of Heroinp. 312
The Trafficking of Marijuanap. 316
The Trafficking of Methamphetaminep. 318
The Trafficking of Hallucinogensp. 320
Money Launderingp. 322
Summaryp. 323
Key Termsp. 325
Endnotesp. 325
Drugs and the Criminal Justice Systemp. 328
Source Controlp. 329
Interdictionp. 331
Street-Level Drug-Law Enforcementp. 335
Drugs and the Correctional Systemp. 340
Summaryp. 344
Key Termsp. 346
Endnotesp. 346
Drug Policy: Prevention, Education, and Treatmentp. 348
Levels of Intervention in Drug Abuse Preventionp. 349
ATOD Prevention: Strategic Priorities, Goals, and Resiliencep. 350
Lessons from the Past: Prevention Approaches That Have Failedp. 352
Hope and Promise: Components of Effective School-Based Prevention Programsp. 354
Community-Based Prevention Programsp. 358
Family Systems in Primary and Secondary Preventionp. 360
Yes, You: ATOD Prevention and the College Studentp. 363
Prevention and Treatment in the Workplacep. 365
The Personal Journey to Treatment and Recoveryp. 368
A Final Note: The Continuing Need for Drug-Abuse Treatmentp. 370
Summaryp. 371
Key Termsp. 372
Endnotesp. 372
Photo Creditsp. 376
Indexp. 377
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