The Dynamic Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 5th Edition

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-04-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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With authoritative and detailed coverage, Skinner and Porter address all key areas of physical geology, as well as recent events that have shaped our world. The new edition is updated to address the latest in geoscientific research, theory, and knowledge. Emphasis on the unifying themes of physical geology Expands the earth systems science viewpoint of previous editions Introduces readers to remote sensing, global positioning systems, and other tools Exciting, first-hand accounts from the field relate geology to everyday life experiences Includes a GeoDiscoveries CD with an interactive globe, animations, videos, and more

Author Biography

Brian J. Skinner: Yale University Stephen C. Porter: University of Washington Jeffrey Park: Yale University

Table of Contents

Meet Planet Earthp. 2
Opening Essay: Discovering Geologyp. 3
Introductionp. 4
About Geology and Geologistsp. 5
The Scientific Methodp. 8
How Rapid Are Geologic Processes?p. 8
Earth's Neighborhood: The Solar Systemp. 12
Earth's Internal Structure: Energy, Heat, Gravity, and Buoyancyp. 16
The System Conceptp. 19
Interactions among Earth's Open Systemsp. 21
Changes Caused By Human Activitiesp. 27
What's Ahead?p. 27
Chapter Summaryp. 28
The Language of Geologyp. 29
Questions For Reviewp. 29
GeoDiscoveries: The Earth Systemp. 29
Understanding Our Environment Box 1.1 Epitaph for the Aral Seap. 7
The Science of Geology Box 1.2 Cycling of Biogeochemical Elements Important for Lifep. 24
Global Tectonics: Our Dynamic Planetp. 30
Opening Essay: Earth is a Noisy Planet, If You Keep Your Ear to the Groundp. 31
Introductionp. 32
What Earth's Surface Features Tell Usp. 34
What Earth's Internal Phenomena Tell Usp. 37
Plates and Mantle Convectionp. 41
Four Types of Plate Margins and How They Movep. 42
Divergent Marginp. 46
Convergent Margin/Subduction Zonep. 48
Convergent Margin/Collision Zonep. 51
Transform Fault Marginp. 52
Topography of the Ocean Floorp. 53
Hot Spots and Absolute Motionp. 54
What Causes Plate Tectonics?p. 59
What's Ahead?p. 61
Chapter Summaryp. 61
The Language of Geologyp. 62
Questions For Reviewp. 62
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonicsp. 63
The Science of Geology Box 2.1 Rock Deformation: Strain and Stressp. 32
The Science of Geology Box 2.2 Thermal Convectionp. 39
Atoms, Elements, Minerals, Rocks: Earth's Building Materialsp. 66
Opening Essay: Mineral Exploration: The Story of Sudburyp. 67
Introduction: What Is A Mineral?p. 68
Composition of Mineralsp. 69
Crystal Structure of Mineralsp. 74
Properties of Mineralsp. 77
Common Mineralsp. 83
Silicates: The Largest Mineral Groupp. 84
The Carbonate, Phosphate, and Sulfate Mineral Groupsp. 89
The Ore Mineral Groups--Our Source for Metalsp. 90
Minerals Give Clues to Their Environment of Formationp. 92
Rocks: Mixtures of Mineralsp. 92
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 93
What's Ahead?p. 95
Chapter Summaryp. 95
The Language of Geologyp. 96
Mineral Names to Rememberp. 96
Questions For Reviewp. 97
GeoDiscoveries: Atoms, Elements, Minerals, and Rocksp. 97
Petroscope For Mineralsp. 97
The Science of Geology Box 3.1 The Three States of Matterp. 76
Understanding Our Environment Box 3.2 Longterm Danger of Abandoned Minesp. 82
Understanding Our Environment Box 3.3 Absestos: How Risky Is It?p. 91
Igneous Rocks: Products of Earth's Internal Firep. 98
Opening Essay: Watching Magma Solidifyp. 99
Introduction: What Is an Igneous Rock?p. 100
Texture in Igneous Rocksp. 101
Mineral Assemblage in Igneous Rocksp. 102
Pyroclasts, Tephra, and Tuffsp. 104
Plutonsp. 106
Whence Magma?p. 110
Solidification of Magmap. 114
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 117
What's Ahead?p. 118
Chapter Summaryp. 118
The Language of Geologyp. 119
Important Rock Names to Rememberp. 119
Questions For Reviewp. 119
GeoDiscoveries: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocksp. 119
Petroscope to Igneous Rocksp. 119
The Science of Geology Box 4.1. How Rock Meltsp. 112
Magmas and Volcanoesp. 120
Opening Essay: Witnessing an Eruption at Close Handp. 121
Introduction: Earth's Internal Thermal Enginep. 122
Magma: Molten Rock of Different Typesp. 122
How Bouyant Magma Erupts on the Surfacep. 125
Eruption Style--Nonexplosive or Explosive?p. 125
Volcanoesp. 129
Posteruption Effectsp. 137
Volcanic Hazardsp. 138
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 140
What's Ahead?p. 142
Chapter Summaryp. 142
The Language of Geologyp. 143
Questions For Reviewp. 143
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards and Volcanoes and Igneous Rocksp. 143
Understanding Our Environment Box 5.1 Life Returns to Mount St. Helensp. 130
The Science of Geology Box 5.2 Harnessing the Heat Withinp. 138
Weathering and Soilsp. 146
Opening Essay: Chinese Soils and Monsoon Climatesp. 147
Introduction: Weathering--The Breakdown of Rockp. 148
Physical Weatheringp. 149
Chemical Weatheringp. 152
Factors That Influence Weatheringp. 157
Soil: Origin and Classificationp. 160
Soil Erosionp. 166
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 168
What's Ahead?p. 170
Chapter Summaryp. 170
The Language of Geologyp. 171
Questions For Reviewp. 171
GeoDiscoveries: Sedimentary Rockp. 171
Understanding Our Environment Box 6.1 Decaying Buildings and Monumentsp. 154
The Science of Geology Box 6.2 Using Weathering Rinds to Measure Relative Agep. 161
Understanding Our Environment Box 6.3 The Soil Erosion Crisisp. 167
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks: Archives of Earth Historyp. 172
Opening Essay: Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks Before Plate Tectonicsp. 173
Introduction: Sediments in the Rock Cyclep. 174
Sedimentation, Stratification, and Beddingp. 174
Sediment Types and Characteristicsp. 175
Sedimentary Environments and Facies Changesp. 182
Diagenesis: How Sediment Becomes Rockp. 190
Sedimentary Rocks: Clastic, Chemical, and Biogenicp. 191
Environmental Clues in Sedimentary Rocksp. 195
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 198
What's Ahead?p. 199
Chapter Summaryp. 199
The Language of Geologyp. 200
Important Rock Names to Rememberp. 200
Questions For Reviewp. 200
GeoDiscoveries: Sedimentary Rocks and Petroscope for Sedimentary Rocksp. 201
The Science of Geology Box 7.1 Graphic Display of Geologic Datap. 176
Metamorphism and Metomorphic Rocks: New Rocks from Oldp. 202
Opening Essay: Estimating a Temperature and a Pressurep. 203
Introduction: All Things Metamorphosep. 204
What Is Metamorphism?p. 204
Major Factors in Metamorphismp. 205
The Upper and Lower Limits of Metamorphismp. 209
How Rocks Respond to Temperature and Pressure Change in Metamorphismp. 210
Types of Metamorphic Rockp. 211
Types of Metamorphismp. 214
Metamorphic Faciesp. 218
Metasomatismp. 219
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 220
What's Ahead?p. 222
Chapter Summaryp. 222
The Language of Geologyp. 223
Questions For Reviewp. 223
GeoDiscoveries: Metamorphic Rocksp. 223
The Science of Geology Box 8.1 Pressure-Temperature-Time Paths: The Tectonic History of Metamorphic Rockp. 206
Understanding Our Environment Box 8.2 Concrete: The Artificial Metamorphic Rock that Changed Our Environmentp. 215
How Rock Bends, Buckles, and Breaksp. 224
Opening Essay: The Ore Body that Sankp. 225
Introductionp. 226
How Is Rock Deformed?p. 226
Deformation in Progressp. 231
Evidence of Former Deformationp. 232
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 244
What's Ahead?p. 244
Chapter Summaryp. 245
The Language of Geologyp. 245
Questions For Reviewp. 245
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics and Metamorphic Rocksp. 245
Understanding Our Environment Box 9.1 Rock Deformation and Oil Poolsp. 241
Earthquakes and Earth's Interiorp. 246
Opening Essay: A Temblor Strikes Homep. 247
Introductionp. 248
How Earthquakes Are Studiedp. 248
Earthquake Hazardp. 255
World Distribution of Earthquakesp. 259
First-Motion Studies of the Earthquake Sourcep. 260
Earthquake Forecasting and Predictionp. 261
Using Seismic Waves as Earth Probesp. 266
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 270
What's Ahead?p. 272
Chapter Summaryp. 272
The Language of Geologyp. 273
Questions For Reviewp. 273
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazardsp. 273
The Science of Geology Box 10.1 Calculating a Richter Magnitudep. 251
Understanding Our Environment Box 10.2 A Great Earthquake in the Pacific Northwest?p. 262
Geologic Time and the Rock Recordp. 276
Opening Essay: Determining How Rapidly Carbonate Sediments Accumulatep. 277
Introductionp. 278
Reading the Record of Layered Rocksp. 278
Stratigraphic Classificationp. 282
Bridging the Gaps: Correlation of Rock Unitsp. 283
The Geologic Column and the Geologic Time Scalep. 285
Measuring Geologic Time Numericallyp. 288
The Magnetic Polarity Time Scalep. 297
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 300
What's Ahead?p. 300
Chapter Summaryp. 300
The Language of Geologyp. 300
Questions For Reviewp. 300
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Record and Geologic Timep. 301
The Science of Geology Box 11.1 Potassium-Argon ([superscript 40]K/[superscript 40]AR) Datingp. 292
Understanding Our Environment Box 11.2 K/Ar Dating of Hawaiian Glaciations and African Hominidsp. 295
The Changing Face of the Landp. 302
Opening Essay: Why Is Italy Uplifting?p. 303
Introduction: Whence Earth's Varied Landscapes?p. 304
Uplift and Denudation: Competing Geologic Forcesp. 305
Hypothetical Models For Landscape Evolutionp. 311
How Can We Calculate Rates of Uplift and Denudation?p. 313
Ancient Landscapes of Low Reliefp. 317
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System--Uplift, Weathering, and the Carbon Cyclep. 318
What's Ahead?p. 322
Chapter Summaryp. 322
The Language of Geologyp. 323
Questions For Reviewp. 323
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics and Geohazardsp. 323
Understanding Our Environment Box 12.1 Human Activity as an Agent of Denudationp. 306
The Science of Geology Box 12.2 Estimating Exhumation Rates with Radioactive Decayp. 316
Mass Wastingp. 324
Opening Essay: The Night the Mountain Fellp. 325
Introduction: What Is Mass Wasting?p. 326
Downslope Movement of Rock Debrisp. 326
Mass-Wasting Processesp. 329
Mass Wasting in Cold Climatesp. 340
Mass Wasting Under Waterp. 340
What Triggers Mass-Wasting Events?p. 343
Hazards to Life and Propertyp. 345
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 347
What's Ahead?p. 349
Chapter Summaryp. 349
The Language of Geologyp. 350
Questions For Reviewp. 350
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazardsp. 351
The Science of Geology Box 13.1 Downslope Movement and the Safety Factorp. 327
The Science of Geology Box 13.2 The Beverage-Can Experimentp. 328
Streams and Drainage Systemsp. 352
Opening Essay: A Chinese Emperor's Buried Armyp. 353
Introduction: Streams in the Landscapep. 354
Stream Channelsp. 355
Dynamics of Streamflowp. 356
Channel Patternsp. 362
Erosion by Running Waterp. 366
The Stream's Loadp. 366
Stream Depositsp. 370
Drainage Systemsp. 375
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 377
What's Ahead?p. 380
Chapter Summaryp. 380
The Language of Geologyp. 380
Questions For Reviewp. 381
GeoDiscoveries: The Water Cyclep. 381
Understanding Our Environment Box 14.1 Taming the Yangtze Riverp. 362
Groundwaterp. 382
Opening Essay: Ice-Age Cave Dwellers in the Pyreneesp. 383
Introduction: The Importance of Waterp. 384
Water in the Groundp. 384
How Groundwater Movesp. 386
Springs and Wellsp. 389
Aquifersp. 390
Mining Groundwater, and its Consequencesp. 394
Water Quality and Groundwater Contaminationp. 396
Geologic Activity of Groundwaterp. 400
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 407
What's Ahead?p. 407
Chapter Summaryp. 408
The Language of Geologyp. 408
Questions For Reviewp. 409
GeoDiscoveries: The Water Cyclep. 409
The Science of Geology Box 15.1 How Fast Does Groundwater Flow?p. 389
Understanding Our Environment Box 15.2 Toxic Groundwater in the San Joaquin Valleyp. 398
Glaciers and Glaciationp. 410
Opening Essay: Modern Analogs of Ice-Age Glaciersp. 411
Introduction: Earth's Changing Cover of Snow and Ice Glaciersp. 412
Glaciationp. 423
Periglacial Landscapes and Permafrostp. 430
The Glacial Agesp. 431
What Causes Glacial Ages?p. 435
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 440
What's Ahead?p. 442
Chapter Summaryp. 442
The Language of Geologyp. 443
Questions For Reviewp. 443
GeoDiscoveries: Glaciers, Glaciation, and Ice Sheetsp. 443
Understanding Our Environment Box 16.1 Living with Permafrostp. 432
The Science of Geology Box 16.2 Understanding Milankovitchp. 438
Almosphere, Winds, and Desertsp. 446
Opening Essay: Living on the Edge of the Desertp. 447
Introduction: Wind as a Geologic Agentp. 448
Planetary Wind Systemp. 448
Movement of Sediment By Windp. 450
Wind Erosionp. 454
Eolian Depositsp. 457
Dust in Ocean Sediments and Glacier Icep. 461
Desertsp. 462
Surface Processes and Landforms in Desertsp. 464
Desertificationp. 468
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 469
What's Ahead?p. 472
Chapter Summaryp. 472
The Language of Geologyp. 472
Questions For Reviewp. 472
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazardsp. 473
The Science of Geology Box 17.1 Measuring Earth's Hump. 451
Understanding Our Environment Box 17.2 Tectonic Desertificationp. 470
The Oceans and Their Marginsp. 474
Opening Essay: Changing Sea Level and Atoll Evolutionp. 475
Introduction: The World Oceanp. 476
The Ocean's Characteristicsp. 476
Depth and Volume of the Oceansp. 476
Ocean Circulationp. 480
Ocean Tidesp. 484
Ocean Wavesp. 486
Coastal Erosion and Sediment Transportp. 489
Coastal Deposits and Landformsp. 490
How Coasts Evolvep. 497
Coastal Hazardsp. 501
Protection against Shoreline Erosionp. 502
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 505
What's Ahead?p. 505
Chapter Summaryp. 506
The Language of Geologyp. 506
Questions For Reviewp. 507
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazardsp. 507
Understanding Our Environment Box 18.1 How to Modify an Estuaryp. 500
Climate and Our Changing Planetp. 508
Opening Essay: The Sensitivity of Earth's Climate to Small Changesp. 509
Introduction: The Changing Atmospherep. 510
Global Warmingp. 517
The Past as a Key to the Futurep. 521
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 525
What's Ahead?p. 528
Chapter Summaryp. 528
The Language of Geologyp. 528
Questions For Reviewp. 528
GeoDiscoveries: Glaciers, Glaciation, and Ice Sheetsp. 529
Understanding Our Environment Box 19.1 The Ozone Holep. 515
The Science of Geology Box 19.2 The Younger Dryas Event and the End of the Last Ice Agep. 526
Earth Through Geologic Timep. 530
Opening Essay: Watching a Continent Grow in Kamchatkap. 531
Introduction: Tracking Past Plate Motionsp. 532
Supercontinents and Vanished Oceansp. 541
Regional Structures of Continentsp. 544
Continental Marginsp. 544
Mountain Buildingp. 551
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 557
What's Ahead?p. 558
Chapter Summaryp. 558
The Language of Geologyp. 559
Questions For Reviewp. 559
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Record and Geologic Timep. 559
The Science of Geology Box 20.1 Watching a Continent Splinterp. 547
Resources of Minerals and Energyp. 560
Opening Essay: The Golden Puzzle of the Witwatersrandp. 561
Introduction: Natural Resources and Human Historyp. 562
Mineral Resourcesp. 562
Origin of Mineral Depositsp. 564
Useful Mineral Substancesp. 572
Energy Resourcesp. 573
Fossil Fuelsp. 573
Other Sources of Energyp. 578
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth Systemp. 582
What's Ahead?p. 583
Chapter Summaryp. 583
The Language of Geologyp. 583
Questions For Reviewp. 583
Understanding Our Environment Box 21.1 Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits Forming Todayp. 568
Understanding Our Environment Box 21.2 The Waste Disposal Problem: Geology and Politicsp. 580
Units and Their Conversionsp. 1
Tables of the Chemical Elements and Naturally Occurring Isotopesp. 4
Table of the Properties of Common Mineralsp. 7
Glossaryp. 1
Selected Referencesp. 1
Creditsp. 1
Indexp. 1
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