Early Childhood Education: Learning Together Learning Together

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-11-11
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Introduction to Early Childhood Educationprovides a comprehensive overview of early childhood education. This exciting new text encourages students to understand the need for flexible approaches in their work with children. Early childhood education is not a "one size fits all" proposition, so this text encourages students in multiple ways to reflect upon why they are doing what they are doing. With connections to NAEYC standards, case studies, and essays from real people on the front lines of early childhood education, students will leave the course with a superior foundation in both the theoretical aspects of ECE and the real world applications of those theories.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Early Childhood
Working with Young Childrenp. 1
Early Care and Educationp. 2
What Is Care?p. 2
What Is Education?p. 3
Some Purposes of Early Care and Educationp. 4
Quality of Early Care and Educationp. 4
Applying Child Development Principlesp. 5
Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Educationp. 8
Early Childhood Educatorsp. 8
Diverse Biographies and Cultural Identitiesp. 9
Real Voice: Efrén Michael Léon, Las Cruces, New Mexicop. 12
Thoughtful Individualsp. 14
Professional Developmentp. 18
Educator Relationships with Other Adultsp. 24
Working as Part of a Classroom Teamp. 25
Working with Supervisorsp. 27
Working with Others to Support Inclusionp. 28
Collaborating with Family Membersp. 29
Summaryp. 30
Further Activitiesp. 31
Children and the Worlds They Inhabitp. 32
Our Rapidly Changing Worldp. 33
Globalization and Educationp. 34
Culturep. 35
Ecological Theoriesp. 36
What Children Know and Howp. 38
What Can We Provide for Young Children?p. 39
Consistency and Predictabilityp. 40
Practice That Supports Healthp. 42
Respect and Equal Accessp. 45
Real Voice: Joan Bibeau, Grand Rapids, Minnesotap. 46
Inclusion of Those with Disabilities and Special Needsp. 53
Work Against Poverty and Racismp. 55
Social Justicep. 56
The Developmental-Interaction Approachp. 57
Having a Voicep. 60
Joining with Othersp. 60
Speaking Out for Children and Familiesp. 61
Summaryp. 62
Further Activitiesp. 63
Children Learning about the World through Relationshipsp. 64
Early Experiencep. 65
Brain Development: The Neuroscience of Experiencep. 65
Yin’s and Brad’s Early Experiencesp. 67
Attachment, Relationships, and Experiencep. 69
An Evolutionary Theory in Cultural Contextp. 69
Relationship History = Attachment Qualityp. 70
Classifying Attachmentp. 71
Being Knownp. 72
Real Voice: Meg Gillette, Birmingham, Alabamap. 74
Emotions and Self-Regulationp. 75
The Development of Emotionsp. 75
Regulating Emotionsp. 76
Theory of Mindp. 78
Applications to Classroom Practicep. 79
Self-Regulation in Classroomsp. 80
Social and Emotional Development in Classroomsp. 84
Electronic Screens: A Relationship?p. 88
Difficult Experiences and Challenging Conversationsp. 90
Children Understanding the World through Playp. 95
The Integrative Role of Playp. 96
Imaginationp. 96
Communication of Meaningp. 97
Transformation of Thoughtp. 97
Problem Solvingp. 98
Play in the Lives of Childrenp. 98
The Roots of Playp. 98
Play in the Preschool Yearsp. 99
Play in the Primary Gradesp. 100
Qualities of Playp. 101
Intrinsic Motivationp. 101
Attention to Means over Endp. 101
Freedom from Externally Imposed Rulesp. 102
Self-Expression through Symbol and Metaphorp. 103
Categories of Playp. 104
Functional Playp. 105
Constructive Playp. 105
Dramatic Playp. 106
Games with Rulesp. 108
Affective Componentsp. 109
Communicating and Integrating Emotionsp. 109
Identity and Masteryp. 110
Playing for and about Powerp. 112
Play and Differencep. 113
Play and Genderp. 113
Play and Culturep. 114
Play and Special Needsp. 115
Play Relationships in the Classroomp. 116
Play and Peer Relationshipsp. 116
Play and Teacher-Child Relationshipsp. 116
The Role of Play in a Democratic Societyp. 120
Play, Imagination, and Social Changep. 121
Debates about Playp. 121
Real Voice: Melissa Dubick, Austin, Texasp. 122
Summaryp. 123
Further Activitiesp. 125
Foundations of Early Childhood Education
Early Childhood Perspectives: Then and Now, Near and Farp. 126
Early Childhood around the Worldp. 127
Early Education in South Africap. 128
Early Education in Indiap. 130
Early Education in the People’s Republic of Chinap. 131
Views of Childhood in Western Historyp. 133
Ancient Greece and Romep. 133
Europe in Medieval Timesp. 134
Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europep. 135
Nineteenth-Century Europe and the United Statesp. 137
Twentieth-Century Europe and the United Statesp. 141
The Progressive Movement, 1890-1930p. 143
Real Voice: Steve Vande Zande, Milwaukee, Wisconsinp. 146
Mid-Twentieth-Century America to Present Timesp. 151
The Great Society and Head Startp. 151
Special Education: From Mainstreaming to Inclusion to Continuum of Servicesp. 152
Standardization, Accountability, and Testingp. 153
Summaryp. 154
Further Activitiesp. 155
Theories of Early Childhood: Explanations, Applications, and Critiquesp. 156
What Is a Theory?p. 157
Real Voice: Amy Bolotin, Ridgefield, Connecticutp. 158
Michael’s Storyp. 159
Theories Arise in Contextp. 159
Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theoriesp. 163
Freudian Theoryp. 163
Freud’s Immediate Successorsp. 164
Contemporary Psychoanalytically Informed Theories of Early Childhoodp. 165
Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Viewpointp. 167
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theoriesp. 167
Behaviorist Theoriesp. 168
Social Learning Theoryp. 168
Cognitive Behavioral Theoryp. 169
Evaluation of Behaviorist Theoryp. 170
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Behaviorist Theoriesp. 170
Maturational Theoriesp. 171
Evaluation of Maturational Theoriesp. 171
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using
Maturational Theoriesp. 171
Constructivist Theoriesp. 172
Neo-Piagetian Theoriesp. 173
Evaluation of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Theoryp. 173
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Constructivist Theoryp. 174
Contextualist Theoriesp. 174
Contemporary Contextualist Theoriesp. 176
Contextualist Theories and Early Childhood Educationp. 177
Evaluation of Contextualist Theoryp. 177
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Contextualist Theoryp. 177
Humanist Theoriesp. 178
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needsp. 178
Humanist Theory and the Early Childhood Educatorp. 178
Evaluation of Humanist Theoryp. 178
Revisiting Michael’s Head Start Using Humanist Theoryp. 179
Developmental Systems Theoriesp. 179
Transactional Model of Developmentp. 179
Dynamic Systems Theoryp. 180
Identity Theoriesp. 181
Theories about Gender Identity and Gender Rolesp. 181
Postmodern and Feminist Poststructuralist Theoriesp. 183
Theories of Racial and Ethnic Identityp. 184
Theories about Intelligencep. 186
Intelligence in the Psychological Literaturep. 186
Multiple Intelligencesp. 186
Summaryp. 187
Further Activitiesp. 189
Early Childhood Programmingp. 190
Care and Educationp. 191
The Role of Continuityp. 192
A Continuum of Carep. 193
Care and Education in the Homep. 194
Family, Friend, and Neighbor Carep. 194
Family Child Carep. 195
Nanniesp. 195
Real Voice: Alexis Harper, Bellingham, Washingtonp. 196
Fundingp. 197
Public Fundingp. 197
Private Child Carep. 199
Full-Day Child Carep. 200
Center-Based Infant/Toddler Programsp. 200
Faith-Based Programsp. 201
Employer Involvementp. 201
Campus Child Carep. 202
Short-Term Child Carep. 202
Elementary Schoolsp. 204
Kindergartenp. 204
PK-3 Schoolsp. 205
Charter Schools and Vouchersp. 205
Homeschoolingp. 205
Out-of-School Programsp. 206
Specialized Programs for Infants and Toddlersp. 207
Early Interventionp. 207
Infant Mental Health Servicesp. 208
Programs for Familiesp. 209
Parent-Child Programsp. 209
Home Visitingp. 209
Family Literacy Programsp. 210
Child Care Resource and Referral Agenciesp. 211
Approaches: Explanation, Application, and Critiquesp. 211
Some Early Approaches and Methodsp. 212
More Recent Approachesp. 216
Making Approaches Your Ownp. 217
Summaryp. 218
Further Activitiesp. 221
Knowing All Children “From the Inside Out”: The Observation, Assessment and Teaching Cycle
Children, Development, and Culturep. 222
Understanding and Applying Child Development Principlesp. 224
Basic Principles of Developmentp. 224
Influences on Developmentp. 226
Domains of Developmentp. 233
Physical Growth and Motor Developmentp. 235
Social-Emotional Developmentp. 238
Cognitive Developmentp. 239
Language and Literacyp. 242
Children with Special Needsp. 247
When Difference Requires Diagnosisp. 248
Universal Designp. 248
Real Voice: Sabrina Rotonda Irvin, San Jose, Californiap. 249
Summaryp. 251
Further Activitiesp. 252
Observation: The Roots of Practicep. 253
Observing and Recordingp. 254
Noticing and Describing Detailsp. 255
Watching, Listening, and Analyzingp. 256
Describing, Not Decidingp. 258
Teaching Reflectivelyp. 259
Reasons to Observe and Recordp. 260
To Become a Skillful Learning Partnerp. 261
To Frame Experiences and Interactionsp. 262
To Communicate with Families and Colleaguesp. 265
To Develop Professionallyp. 268
The How of Observing and Recordingp. 269
What to Observe and Recordp. 269
Respecting Confidentialityp. 270
Being Aware of and Examining Biasesp. 271
Real Voice: Elaine Chu, New York, New Yorkp. 272
Observing Continuously over Timep. 273
The Practicalities of Observing and Recordingp. 274
Selecting Methodsp. 274
Analyzing Datap. 279
Synthesizing Findingsp. 280
Making Observation and Recording Workp. 281
Summaryp. 283
Further Activitiesp. 284
Early Childhood Assessmentp. 285
The Roots of Assessmentp. 286
Assessment and Evaluationp. 287
Formative and Summative Assessmentp. 287
The Assessment Cyclep. 287
Building Relationshipsp. 288
Gathering Informationp. 289
Interpreting Information and Deciding What to Dop. 290
Taking Actionp. 291
The Purposes of Assessmentp. 292
Evaluative Decisionsp. 292
Curricular Decisionsp. 293
Goals and Objectivesp. 294
Assessment in a School Contextp. 295
Keeping the Focus on Childrenp. 295
Observation Is the Foundation of Assessmentp. 296
Assessment Toolsp. 299
Assessing Children from Birth to Threep. 299
Evaluating Three- to Eight-Year-Old Children’s Performance and Progressp. 300
Creating Portfolios of Children’s Workp. 302
Externally Imposed Assessmentsp. 306
Historical Contextp. 307
Early Learning Standardsp. 307
Accountability and Powerp. 309
Tests and Young Childrenp. 309
Communicating Assessment Resultsp. 312
Reports to Familiesp. 312
Reports to Colleaguesp. 312
Real Voice: Joanne Frantz, Columbus, Ohiop. 315
Feedback to Childrenp. 316
Summaryp. 317
Further Activitiesp. 319
Working with Children and Their Families: Applying What We Know
Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Oldsp. 320
Life with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Oldsp. 321
A Dynamic Periodp. 321
Development Is Bumpyp. 322
Influences on Developmentp. 323
Attachment and Separation All Day Longp. 326
Program Support for Attachmentp. 326
Real Voice: Jonnia R. Jackson, Chicago, Illinoisp. 328
Separation in the First Few Weeks-and Beyondp. 329
How the Environment Supports Attachmentp. 332
The Day with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Oldsp. 333
Playing and Learningp. 333
Play, Friendship, and Interactionp. 338
Planned Experiencesp. 341
Planning Space for Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Oldsp. 344
Keeping Children Safep. 344
Features of Spacep. 345
Summaryp. 348
Further Activitiesp. 349
Preschoolers and Kindergartnersp. 350
Life with Preschoolers and Kindergartnersp. 351
Physical Developmentp. 351
Social-Emotional Developmentp. 352
Cognitionp. 354
What Preschoolers and Kindergartners Learn and Howp. 355
Social Studies as Core Curriculump. 356
Language and Literacyp. 357
Real Voice: Rafael Peña, Las Vegas, Nevadap. 358
Activities and Materialsp. 360
Technologyp. 366
Classrooms for Preschoolers and Kindergartnersp. 368
Planning Authentic Experiencesp. 368
Scheduling and Predictabilityp. 373
The Spacep. 376
Summaryp. 380
Further Activitiesp. 383
First, Second, and Third Gradersp. 384
Life with First, Second, and Third Gradersp. 385
Physical and Cognitive Changesp. 386
Social-Emotional Changesp. 388
What Children Learn in the Early Gradesp. 389
Social Studiesp. 390
Real Voice: Sal Vascellero, New York, New Yorkp. 391
Language and Literacyp. 393
Math and Sciencep. 398
Planning Curriculump. 402
Ways to Planp. 403
Planning the Schedulep. 405
Using Spacep. 408
Print Rich, Not Print Noisyp. 411
Summaryp. 412
Further Activitiesp. 413
Linking to Home and Community
Partnering with Twenty-First-Century Familiesp. 414
Some Background and Definitionsp. 415
Historical Roots of Family Involvementp. 415
Defining the Terms: Family Involvement, Partnerships, and Parent Educationp. 415
Parent Education and Family Support Programsp. 416
Benefits and Challenges of Teacher-Family Partnershipsp. 419
Benefits for Childrenp. 419
Real Voice: Melisa McNery, Blytheville, Arkansasp. 420
Benefits and Challenges for Familiesp. 421
Benefits and Challenges for Teachersp. 421
Family Diversitiesp. 422
Ethnicity, “Race,” and Socioeconomic Classp. 423
Linguistic Diversity and Culturep. 424
Fathersp. 425
Family Configurationsp. 426
Knowing about Familiesp. 430
Will This Information Help My Work with Children?p. 430
Finding Optimal Distancep. 430
Recognizing and Building on Family Strengthsp. 431
Establishing Relationships with Familiesp. 431
Building Trustp. 431
Approaches to Working with Familiesp. 432
Interactions with Familiesp. 434
Beginning the School Yearp. 434
Back-to-School Nightsp. 435
Parent-Teacher Conferencesp. 436
Community Gatheringsp. 437
Encouraging Families to Volunteerp. 437
Information Sharing between Teachers and Familiesp. 438
Teacher-Initiated Information Exchangep. 438
Parent-Initiated Information Exchangep. 439
Sharing Information with the Whole Group of Parentsp. 440
Addressing Serious Issuesp. 440
Collaborating with Other Professionalsp. 440
Referrals to Community Agencies and Other Helping Professionalsp. 441
Summaryp. 441
Further Activitiesp. 443
Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practicep. 444
Policyp. 445
History of Early Childhood Education Policyp. 446
Attitudes about the Role of the Family in the Early Yearsp. 447
Early Care versus Education/Targeted versus Universalp. 448
Social, Economic, and Health Status of Childrenp. 449
Why Policy Makers Are Interested in Early Childhood Educationp. 449
The Power of Brain Researchp. 451
Changing Familiesp. 451
The Achievement Gap and School Readinessp. 452
Why Early Childhood Professionals Should Be Involved in Policyp. 455
Quality of Early Childhood Programsp. 456
Credentials of Early Childhood Professionalsp. 458
Compensation of Early Childhood Professionalsp. 459
Access to Professional Developmentp. 460
What Happens in the Early Childhood Classroomp. 461
Working for Change on the State Levelp. 462
Early Learning Systems Initiativesp. 462
School Readiness Initiativesp. 464
State Prekindergarten Initiativesp. 466
Professional Development and Compensation Initiativesp. 466
Professional and National Organizations and Agenciesp. 467
Real Voice: Eva Hansen, Fayetteville, North Carolinap. 468
Summaryp. 469
Further Activitiesp. 471
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conductp. 472
Convention on the Rights of the Childp. 479
Referencesp. 488
Glossaryp. 501
Creditsp. 508
Indexp. 511
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