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Earth Science and the Environment

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780495112877

ISBN10:
0495112879
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/4/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $263.95

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Summary

Using two themes, earth systems and environmental issues, EARTH SCIENCE AND THE ENVIRONMENT provides a rich overview of all Earth-related disciplines, including geology, meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, and astronomy. The authors provide a sense of how Earth functions as a single system composed of interacting subsystems and integrates coverage of enviromental issues in both the authoritative narrative and stunning multi-part visuals that emphasize the beauty of Earth science. To further enrich your experience, this earth science textbook is fully integrated with the ThomsonNOW online tutorial system. Web-based, assessment-driven, and completely flexible, the system provides you with a personalized learning plan based on a diagnostic pre-test to maximize your study time by focusing your attention where it is needed most.

Table of Contents

Earth Systems
1(18)
Flowers Bloom on Earth, Venus Boils, and Mars Freezes
2(2)
The Earth's Four Spheres
4(4)
Earth Systems
8(1)
Time and Rates of Change in Earth Science
9(3)
Threshold and Feedback Effects
12(1)
Humans and Earth Systems
13(6)
Focus On: Hypothesis, Theory, and Law
15(4)
UNIT 1 EARTH MATERIALS AND TIME
19(108)
Minerals
20(24)
What Is a Mineral?
23(1)
The Chemical Composition of Minerals
24(1)
Crystals: The Crystalline Nature of Minerals
25(3)
Physical Properties of Minerals
28(3)
Mineral Classes and the Rock-Forming Minerals
31(2)
Commercially Important Minerals
33(3)
Harmful and Dangerous Rocks and Minerals
36(8)
Focus On: Elements, Atoms, and Chemical Bonds
26(18)
Rocks
44(29)
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
45(2)
Igneous Rocks
47(4)
Sedimentary Rocks
51(10)
Metamorphic Rocks
61(12)
Focus On: Cooling and Crystallization of Magma: Bowen's Expertment
52(21)
Geologic Time: A Story in the Rocks
73(23)
Earth Rocks, Earth History, and Mass Extinctions
74(3)
Geologic Time
77(2)
Relative Geologic Time
79(2)
Unconformities and Correlation
81(3)
Absolute Geologic Time
84(5)
The Geologic Column and Time Scale
89(7)
Focus On: Carbon-14 Dating
88(8)
Geologic Resources
96(31)
Mineral Resources
97(1)
Ore and Ore Deposits
97(8)
Mineral Reserves
105(1)
Mines and Mining
105(1)
Energy Resources: Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas
106(5)
Energy Resources: Tar Sands and Oil Shale
111(1)
Energy Resources: Renewable Energy
112(3)
Energy Resources: Nuclear Fuels and Reactors
115(2)
Conservation as an Alternitive Energy Resource
117(2)
Energy for the Twenty-First Century
119(8)
Focus On: The 1872 Mining Law
103(24)
UNIT 2 INTERNAL PROCESSES
127(104)
The Active Earth: Plate Tectonics
128(26)
Alfred Wegener and the Origin of an Idea: The Continental Drift Hypothesis
129(2)
The Earth's Layers
131(4)
The Sea-Floor Spreading Hypothesis
135(2)
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
137(6)
The Anatomy of a Tectonic Plate
143(1)
Why Plates Move: The Earth As a Heat Engine
143(2)
Supercontinents
145(1)
Isostasy: Vertical Movement of the Lithosphere
145(1)
How Plate Movements Affect Earth Systems
145(9)
Earthquakes and the Earth's Structure
154(26)
Anatomy of an Earthquake
155(2)
Earthquake Waves
157(4)
Earthquakes and Tectonic Plate Boundaries
161(5)
Earthquake Prediction
166(1)
Earthquake Damage and Hazard Mitigation
167(5)
Studying the Earth's Interior
172(2)
The Earth's Magnetism
174(6)
Volcanoes and Plutons
180(28)
Magma
181(3)
Basalt and Granite
184(2)
Partial Melting and the Origin of Continents
186(1)
Magma Behavior
187(2)
Plutons
189(3)
Volcanoes
192(4)
Volcanic Explosions: Ash-Flow Tuffs and Calderas
196(4)
Risk Assessment: Predicting Volcanic Eruptions
200(2)
Volcanic Eruptions and Global Climate
202(6)
Mountains
208(23)
Folds and Faults: Geologic Structures
209(7)
Mountains and Mountain Ranges
216(1)
Island Arcs
217(1)
The Andes: Subduction at a Continental Margin
218(3)
The Himalayas: A Collision between Continents
221(4)
Mountains and Earth Systems
225(6)
UNIT 3 SURFACE PROCESSES
231(142)
Weathering, Soil, and Erosion
232(30)
Weathering and Erosion
233(1)
Mechanical Weathering
234(2)
Chemical Weathering
236(3)
Soil
239(8)
Erosion
247(1)
Landslides
247(4)
Types of Landslides
251(4)
Three Historic Landslides
255(2)
Predicting and Avoiding Landslides
257(5)
Focus On: Representative Reactions in Chemical Weathering
238(4)
Focus On: Soil Erosion and Agriculture
242(6)
Focus On: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
248(14)
Fresh Water: Streams, Lakes, Ground Water, and Wetlands
262(33)
The Water Cycle
263(1)
Streams
264(5)
Stream Erosion and Mountains: How Landscapes Evolve
269(2)
Stream Deposition
271(1)
Floods
272(4)
Lakes
276(2)
Ground Water
278(7)
Hot Springs, Geysers, and Geothermal Energy
285(2)
Wetlands
287(8)
Water Resources
295(31)
Water Supply and Demand
296(2)
Dams and Diversion
298(9)
The Great American Desert
307(4)
Water and International Politics
311(1)
Water Pollution
311(2)
How Sewage, Detergents, and Fertilizers Pollute Waterways
313(1)
Toxic Pollutants, Risk Assessment, and Cost--Benefit Analysis
314(1)
Ground Water Pollution
315(3)
Nuclear Waste Disposal---Yucca Mountain
318(2)
The Clean Water Act---A Modern Perspective
320(6)
Glaciers and Ice Ages
326(27)
Formation of Glaciers
327(1)
Glacial Movement
328(4)
Glacial Erosion
332(4)
Glacial Deposits
336(5)
The Pleistocene Ice Age
341(4)
Snowball Earth: The Greatest Ice Age in Earth History
345(2)
The Earth's Disappearing Glaciers
347(6)
Deserts and Wind
353(20)
Why Do Deserts Exist?
354(3)
Water and Deserts
357(4)
Two American Deserts
361(1)
Wind
362(6)
Desertification
368(5)
UNIT 4 THE OCEANS
373(56)
Ocean Basins
374(24)
The Origin of Oceans
375(2)
The Earth's Oceans
377(1)
Studying the Sea Floor
378(1)
Features of the Sea Floor
379(9)
Sediment and Rocks of the Sea Floor
388(2)
Continental Margins
390(8)
Oceans and Coastlines
398(31)
Geography of the Oceans
400(1)
Sea Water
400(2)
Tides
402(2)
Sea Waves
404(1)
Storm Surge
405(1)
Ocean Currents
405(5)
The Sea Coast
410(2)
Emergent and Submergent Coastlines
412(4)
Beaches
416(4)
Life in the Sea
420(3)
Global Warming and Sea-Level Rise
423(6)
UNIT 5 THE ATMOSPHERE
429(128)
The Atmosphere: Evolution and Composition
430(21)
Earth's Early Atmospheres
432(1)
Life, Iron, and the Evolution of the Modern Atmosphere
433(4)
The Modern Atmosphere
437(1)
Atmospheric Pressure
437(1)
Atmospheric Temperature
438(1)
Air Pollution
439(6)
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
445(6)
Energy Balance in the Atmosphere
451(19)
Incoming Solar Radiation
452(3)
The Radiation Balance
455(1)
Energy Storage and Transfer---The Driving Mechanisms for Weather and Climate
456(3)
Temperature Changes with Latitude and Season
459(4)
Temperature Changes with Geography
463(7)
Focus On: Latitude and Longitude
459(11)
Moisture, Clouds, and Weather
470(37)
Moisture in Air
471(1)
Cooling and Condensation
472(2)
Rising Air and Precipitation
474(3)
Types of Clouds
477(3)
Fog
480(1)
Pressure and Wind
481(3)
Fronts and Frontal Weather
484(6)
How Earth's Surface Features Affect Weather
490(1)
Thunderstorms
491(2)
Tornadoes and Tropical Cyclones
493(3)
Hurricane Katrina
496(3)
El Nino
499(8)
Focus On: Inversion Layers and Air Pollution
476(31)
Climate
507(21)
Major Factors That Control Earth's Climate
508(2)
Global Winds and Climate
510(3)
Ocean Currents and Climate
513(1)
Climate Zones of the Earth
513(10)
Urban Climates
523(5)
Climate Change
528(29)
Climate Change in Earth's History
530(3)
Measuring Climate Change
533(2)
Astronomical Causes of Climate Change
535(1)
Water and Climate
536(1)
The Natural Carbon Cycle and Climate
537(2)
Tectonics and Climate Change
539(2)
Greenhouse Effect: The Carbon Cycle and Global Warming
541(6)
Feedback and Threshold Mechanisms in Climate Change
547(3)
The Kyoto Treaty on Greenhouse Warming
550(7)
UNIT 6 ASTRONOMY
557(1)
Motions in the Heavens
558(23)
The Motions of the Heavenly Bodies
559(1)
Aristotle and the Earth-Centered Universe
559(5)
The Renaissance and the Heliocentric Solar System
564(3)
The Motions of the Earth and the Moon
567(6)
Modern Astronomy
573(8)
Focus On: The Constellations
560(21)
Planets and Their Moons
581(26)
The Solar System: A Brief Overview
582(1)
The Terrestrial Planets
582(8)
The Moon: Our Nearest Neighbor
590(3)
The Jovian Planets: Size, Compositions, and Atmospheres
593(4)
Moons of the Jovian Planets
597(3)
Planetary Rings
600(1)
Pluto and Beyond
601(1)
Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids
601(6)
Focus On: Extraterrestrial Life
592(15)
Stars, Space, and Galaxies
607(1)
In the Beginning: The Big Bang
608(2)
The Nonhomogeneous Universe
610(1)
The Birth of a Star
610(4)
The Sun
614(3)
Stars: The Main Sequence
617(2)
The Life and Death of a Star
619(3)
Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Black Holes
622(3)
Galaxies
625(2)
Milky Way
627(2)
Quasars
629(1)
Dark Matter
630(1)
The End of the Universe
630(2)
Why Are We So Lucky?
632
Focus On: Measuring Distances in Space
617
APPENDIX
A Identifying Common Minerals
1(9)
B Systems of Measurement
10(3)
C Periodic Table of the Elements
13(2)
International Table of Atomic Weights
14(1)
D Rock Symbols
15(1)
E Star Maps
16
Glossary 1(1)
Index 1


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